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THE 

ELDER PLINY^S CHAPTERS 

ON THE 

HISTORY OF ART 



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COD. BAMB. M. V. lo. FOL. 59. 



[Original size of page = 26 x 21'gcin.] 



THE 

ELDER PLINY'S CHAPTERS 



ON THE 



HISTORY OF ART 



TRANSLATED BY 



K. JEX-BLAKE 

CLASSICAL LECTURER AT GIRTON COLLEHE, CAMBRIDGE 



WITH COMMENTARY AND HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

BY 

E. SELLERS 

FORMER STUDENT OF GIRTON COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 
AND OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS 

AND 

ADDITIONAL NOTES CONTRIBUTED BY DR. HEINRICH LUDWIG URLICHS 



HonOon 
MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
1896 

\^All rights reserved'] 
S 



^ 



PREFACE 

The text printed in the following pages is based upon 
that of Detlefsen, but free use has been made of both earlier 
and later critical auxiliaries. We differ from Detlefsen 
mainly in adhering more closely to the Codex Bambergensis, 
whose superiority in respect of those parts of the Historia 
now reproduced must be regarded as incontestable. Our 
short critical apparatus is limited to notices of our devia- 
tions from Detlefsen, or of readings offering special interest 
or difficulty. For brevity's sake the name of Detlefsen 
stands in our apparatus not only for his own readings but 
also for those of the scholars whose views he adopts. In 
none but a few important cases do we print Detlefsen's 
sources. I have to thank Mr. Fischer of Bamberg for kindly 
verifying a number of readings in the Bambergensis, and 
Dr. Leitschuh, Chief Librarian at Bamberg, for permis- 
sion to reproduce in facsimile a page of the famous codex. 
The present text has been prepared under the guidance 
of Dr. Ludwig Traube, who, moreover, has generously 
placed at our disposal a number of his own readings or 
conjectures. 

Out of the many problems which even this short selection 
from the Historia Naturalis offers, the Introduction pro- 
fesses to deal only with the question of Pliny's Greek 
sources for the history of art ; it touches upon his Roman 
authorities only in so far as these were the channel through 
which the Greek authors reached him. The question is 



viii PREFACE 

one which, so far from being, as was supposed, either 
exhausted or incapable of solution, is still in its infancy. 
Where an earlier school was content to trace back Pliny's 
debt to his Roman predecessors, a newer method of 
inquiry enables the student to work backwards not only 
from the Roman to the Greek authors, but from one Greek 
author to another. So it is that, returning to the Introduc- 
tion after an interval, it became clear to me (see footnotes 
on p. xliii f.) that in matters of anecdote and biography 
Antigonos of Karystos was seldom, if ever, to be regarded 
as an ultimate source, and was to a far greater extent than 
I had at first supposed the debtor of Duris. Nay, I be- 
lieve that we may in time recover (to some extent) the 
authorities which Duris himself had at his command. I am 
profoundly indebted to Dr. F. Munzer for reading and 
criticizing the proofs of the Introduction up to p. Ixxiii, 
and for allowing me to publish as footnotes and Addenda 
the suggestive remarks made to me in the course of a 
detailed correspondence. 

I have endeavoured to make the notes printed below 
the text a real commentary to the author's meaning, not 
a bundle of bibliography. Modern commentators might 
still lay to heart the criticism passed by Scaliger on the 
Pliny of his friend Dalecampius : le bon homme est docte, 
mats il farcit trap ses annotations deje ne sais quelle fatraille 
d'autezirs . . . But wherever further revision showed that 
I had done but scant justice to important though dissentient 
views I have tried to remedy the omission in the Addenda. 
There too a few notes are printed the necessity for which 
occurred to me later, and reference given to quite recent 
literature. 

One group of contributions has been made to this book 
calling for special notice. When my work was already ad- 
vancing towards completion, I learnt that Dr. H. L. Urlichs 
was himself engaged upon an edition of the same parts of 



PREFACE ix 

Pliny. With ready generosity, however, Dr. Urlichs offered 
me at once for my own book a number of his notes, 
which we agreed should be printed in square brackets and 
marked with his initials H. L. U. Subsequently, however, 
Dr. Urlichs informed me, to my regret and surprise, that 
the present edition would block the way for his own ; 
accordingly, since he had given us notes, whose value 
is undeniable, we acceded to his request that his name 
should be placed as a third on our title-page. In fairness 
to Dr. Urlichs, I should add that his contributions and his 
responsibility begin and end with the notes that bear his 
initials. 

Besides those scholars who have given me constant and 
special help, I have to thank Mr. A. S. Murray, M. S. 
Reinack, and Professor Wilhelm Klein for many friendly 
hints, Mr. Bernhard Berenson for helping me to a better 
understanding of passages concerned with the technique of 
art, and Director G. von Lanbmann for the singular privi- 
leges accorded to me as a reader in the Royal Library 
at Munich. Above all am I beholden to my friend Miss 
K. Jex-Blake, not only for undertaking the translation, but 
for her liberality in allowing certain readings to be printed, 
of whose soundness she was not fully convinced. She has 
also found time, amid the arduous tasks imposed by 
College lecturing, to compile both Indices, and to assist 
in the revision of the book throughout. 

EUGENIE SELLERS. 
ScHWABiNG, Munich. 
Jnly, 1896. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Facsimile of Cod. Bamb. M. V. lo. f. 59 . . • facing title 

Preface vii 

Introduction xiii 

1. Xenokrates of Sikyon xvi 

2. Antigonos of Karystos xxxvi 

3. DurisofSamos xlvi 

4. Literary epigrams Ixviii 

5. Heliodoros of Athens baciv 

6. Pasiteles of Naples Ixxvii 

7. Varro, Cornelius Nepos, and Fabius Vestalis . . Ixxxii 

8. Mucianus Ixxxv 

9. Pliny's own Additions — Roman Museography — 

Retrospect xci 

Bibliography xcv 

Manuscripts c 

Silver-chasing 2 

Bronze Statuary 6 

Painting 84 

Table, showing — A. The Thebano-Attic School 1 

{ . . to face p. 118 
B. The Sikyonian School . ) 



Table, showing — A. The Family of Polykles . 
B. The Family of Athanodoros 



I . . to face p. 208 



Modelling 174 

Sculpture in Marble 184 

Appendix 217 

Addenda 229 

Index I, of Names of Artists 243 

Index II, Museographic 247 



PLINY THE ELDER 



and this too was why he rode in a litter in Rome. I can remember his blaming 
me for walking ; I need not, he said, have lost those hours, for he thought all 
time lost that was not given to study. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Historia Natiiralis of Pliny was intended not only to 
embrace the whole of the Natural Sciences, but to consider them 
in their application to the Arts and Crafts of Civilized Life. 
Hence it is that in a work, whose title would least suggest it, 
a short yet complete History of Art finds a logical place within 
the scheme. To Pliny the arts of chasing in silver and of casting 
in bronze are simply the indispensable complement of the 
chapters on metals, while, in the same way, the arts of sculpture, 
of painting, and of gem-engraving come under the head of kinds 
of earth and precious stones. Pliny's larger and compacted 
purpose might thus, on the face of it, seem to condemn this 
present detachment of the History of Art for separate treatment. 
But that general commentary on Pliny in the light of modern 
research, to which the texts of Sillig and L. von Jan were but to 
serve as preliminaries ^, seems likely, owing to the multifarious 
contents of the Historia, to remain in the region of unachieved 
possibilities, if not further away still — in Utopia : il faut plus 
d'un homtne pour ecrire sur le grand Fline '^. Meanwhile, from 
the nature of the subject, the Plinian account of Ancient Art 
and Artists forms an episode sufificiently complete in itself to be 
made, without further apology, the subject of a special inquiry. 

In the Dedicatory Letter addressed with the Historia to the 
co-Emperor Titus, Pliny has himself announced that the ' twenty 
thousand matters worthy of attention ' contained in the thirty-six 
volumes of his work were 'gathered from some two thousand 
books ' ^ ; we must therefore regard his work as nothing more 
than a compilation from other records, in which personal obser- 
vation plays no part outside the range of contemporary events. 

' The gigantic scheme had been Kunst, p. 264. 
conceived by Lorenz Okens (1779- ^ Scaligerana (ed. l657), p. 189. 

1859) ; see Stark, Archdologie der ' Praef. § 17. 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

An irreparable accident, however — the total loss of the art- 
literature which preceded Phny — has given to the books with 
which we are here concerned an unique value. It so happens 
that from his pages only can we now obtain something hke 
a connected impression of the art-literature of the Greeks, as 
it lay open, if no longer actually to him, at any rate to some 
of his immediate predecessors. For although Pliny in his Preface 
makes a great show of acknowledgement to his authorities, and 
announces his intention, which he duly carried out, of compiling 
Indices of their names ', a very slight acquaintance with his work 
is sufficient to show that for no part of it did he ever read 
a Greek author systematically through ^ while for the history of 
the artists we are safe in asserting that not one of these authors 
was directly consulted. If the names of Apelles, of Melanthios, 
of the Sikyonian Xenokrates, of biographers such as Antigonos 



' These lists are suffixed in the 
MSS. to the table of contents of each 
book, with which they together make 
up the first book of the Historia, and 
are also given singly before each book; 
they contain the names of 146 Roman 
and 327 foreign authors. For the con- 
venience of the reader I print here the 
Indices to Bks. xxxiv-xxxvi, italicizing 
the names of the writers upon art : 

Libro xxxiv continentur (here fol- 
low the contents) . . . Ex atuto- 
ribus : L. Pisone, Antiate, Verrio, M. 
Varrone, Cornelio Nepote, Messala 
Rufo, Marso poeta, Boccho, lulio 
Easso qui de medicina Graece scripsit, 
Sextio Nigro qui item, Fabio Vestale. 
Extemis : Democrito, Metrodoro 
Scepsio, Menaechmo qui de toreutice 
scripsit, Xenocrate qui item, Antigono 
qui item, Duride qui item, Heliodoro 
qui de Atheniensium anathematis 
scripsit, Pasitth qui de mirabilibus 
operibus scripsit, Timaeo qui de me- 
dicina metallica scripsit, Nympho- 
doro, loUa, Apollodoro, Andrea, 
Heraclide, Diagora, Botrye, Arche- 
d&io, Dionysio, Aristogene, Democle, 
Mneside, Xenocrate Zenonis, Theo- 
mnesto. 

Lib. XXXV continentur . . . Ex auc- 



toribus: Messala oratore, Messala 
sene, Fenestella, Attico, M. Varrone, 
Verrio, Nepote Cornelio, Deculone, 
Muciano, Melisso, Vitruvio, Cassio 
Severe, Longulano, Fabio Vestale qui 
depictura scripsit. Extemis: Pasitele, 
Apelle, Melanthio, Asclepiodoro, Eu- 
phranore, Parrhasio, Heliodoro qui 
de anathematis Atheniensium scripsit, 
Metrodoro qui de architectonice scrip- 
sit, Democrito, Theophrasto, Apione 
grammatico, Timaeo qui de metallica 
medicina scripsit, Nymphodoro, loUa, 
Apollodoro, Andrea, Heraclide, Dia- 
gora, Botrye, Archedemo, Dionysio, 
Aristogene, Democle, Mneside, Xeno- 
crate Zenonis, Theomnesto. 

Lib. xxxvi continentur . . . Ex auc- 
toribus: M. Varroru, C.Galba,Cincio, 
Muciano, Nepote Cornelio, L. Pisone, 
Q. Tuberone, Fabio Vestale, Annio 
Fetiale, Fabiano, Seneca, Catone 
censorio, Vitruvio. Extemis: Taea- 
phmsto, Pcuitele, lubarege, Nicandro, 
Sotaco, Sudine, Alexandre polyhis- 
tore, Apione Plistonico, Duride, 
Herodoto, Euhemero, Aristagora, 
Dionysio, Artemidoro, Butorida 
Antisthene, Demetrio, Demotele 
Lycea. 

' See Teuffel, p. 761. 



MODERN AUTHORITIES xv 

of Karystos, or Duris of Samos, figure in the Indices, rousing 
the curiosity and ambition of the modern scholar, they are there 
simply because Pliny had found them quoted by the Roman 
authors from whom he habitually drew — in this case by Varro, 
who, in turn, had presumably taken his own information on the 
subject from a single writer in whose pages the others were 
already cited. /Thus, although the Plinian Indices might mislead 
us into believing that his work was a mosaic, a piecing together 
of the several statements of all the authors, Greek or Roman, 
whose names he quotes, we shall find, on the contrary, that it 
resembles a stratification of which the superimposed layers can 
still be distinguished at many points, even though at a number 
of others they have so run together as to baffle analysis. 

The result of such an analysis, if complete, would be nothing 
less than to isolate and restore to each writer his own contri- 
bution; nothing proves so well the difficulty of the task as 
the great amount of labour already expended in this direction. 
And this brings me to record the debt which every student of 
the Plinian art-books owes to the scholars by whose undaunted 
industry Pliny and his authors have gradually been brought into 
right relation : to Otto Jahn, who by detecting the homogeneous 
character of a number of scattered art-criticisms, and pointing 
out their immediate Varronian authorship and ultimate Greek 
origin, laid a solid basis for all future research in this field ' ; to 
A. Brieger, who made the first attempt to determine the names 
of the Greek writers whose views Varro had latinized'; to 
Heinrich Brunn, who first tried to restore Pliny's system of quota- 
tion from his authors ' ; to the scholars — among them Theodor 
Schreiber'^, Adolf Furiwangkr" , Gustav Oehmichen^, Xarl Roberf , 



' O. Jahn: Ueber die Kunsturtheile Hist. Lib. relatis Specimen. Dissert. 

des Plinius in Berichte der Sachs. Leipzig, 1872. 

Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften, 1 850, ° A. Furtwangler : Plinius u. seine 

pp. 105-142. Qttellen iiberdie Bildenden Kiinste in 

^ A. Brieger: De Fontibus Libra- Supplebd.ix der Jalirbb.f. Klass. Phil. 

rum, xxxiii-xxxvi, Nat. Hist. Plin. Leipzig, 1877. 

quatenus ad artem plasticam pertinent. ' G. Oehmichen : Plinianische 

Dissert. Greifswald, 1856. Studien zur geographischen und 

^ H. Brimn : De Auctorum Indi- kunsthistorischen Literatur. Erlan- 

cibus Plinianis. Disp. Inaug. Bonn, gen, 1880. 

1856. ' C. Robert: Archdologische Mar- 

* Th. Schreiber: Quaestionum de chen aus alter u. neuer Zeit, Berlin, 

Artificum Aetatibus in Plin. Nat. 1886 (ch. i-iv and vi-viii). 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

L. von Vrlichs^, and his son H. L. Urlichs"^, — who, following 
in the steps of these pioneers, developed or corrected their views ; 
and last, but not least, to F. Munzer, who only the other day ', 
when the question had begun to show signs of exhaustion, gave 
it a new stimulus through his vigorous attempt to ascertain the 
Greek element in Pliny by a minute comparison of those parts 
suspected to be Greek with the extant fragments of certain 
authors mentioned in the Indues. In what follows, I propose 
to bring together, in a survey of the gradual growth of the Plinian 
history of the artists, such results as have been attained, carrying 
forward by the way the task of identifying and disengaging the 
Greek writers upon art mentioned by Pliny. 



§ I. Xenokrates of Sikyon [fl. about 280 B.C.). 

In the criticisms or verdicts upon celebrated artists, now dis- 
jointedly scattered throughout the Plinian narrative, but recognized 
by Otto Jahn {op. cit.) as vitally interdependent, we touch at 
once upon the original groundwork. These criticisms have it in 
common that they all culminate in a broad statement of the 
special services rendered to art by the artist in question; they are 
presented for the most part as the effect produced by the artist's 
works upon the critic ; and they are all consistently free from 
anecdote or epigram, in contrast to the phraseological character 
of so much of the ancient art-criticism. Their principle is most 
readily grasped in the judgements passed upon the iive most 
famous statuaries — Pheidias, Myron, Polykleitos, Pythagoras, 
and Lysippos — in xxxiv, 54-65. It is inslructive minutely to 
analyze these criticisms when freed so far as may be from the 
additions made to them by later writers*. In the following 
scheme I have indicated, within square brackets, the nature of 
these additions. 

1 L. Urlichs : Die Quellmregister Plinius in Artijicum Historia usus 

2« Plinius ht%tcn Biichern. Progr. sit, Metz, 1885 ; and H. Voigt De 

"Wurzburg, 1878. ^ Pontibus earum quae ad artes perti- 

^ H. L. Urlichs : tjber Griechische nent partium Nat. Hist. Plin. quaes-- 

Kunstschriftsteller. Dissert. WUrz- Hones. Halle, 1887. 

bnrg, 1887. = F. Miinzer: Zur Kunsigeschichte 

Besides the works cited as of lead- des Plinius in Hermes, vol. xxx i8qs 

ing importance, mention may also be ' In doing this I have been guided 

made of the two following disserta- almost entirely by the analysis of 

tions : J. Dalstein, Quihus Fontibus Miinzer, op. cit. p. 502 ff. 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON 



I. Pheidias. 

Phidias praeter lovem Olympium . . . fecit ex ebore . . . Minervam Athenis, quae 
est in Parthenone stans, exaere vexo (^follows allusion to 'Amazon' in % 53) . . . 
Minervam tam eximiae pulchritudinis ut formae cognomen acceperit. fecit 
et cliduclium \JoUows mention of an Athena in Rome, of two draped figures 
and a nude colossos, all frotn Rom. Museogr. p. xci] primusque artem 
toreuticen aperuisse atque demonstrasse merito iudicatur. 

II. Polykleitos. 

Polyclitns Sicyonius Hageladae discipulus diadnmenum fecit {follows epi- 
grammatic qualification, p. Ixviii, and price paid for the Diadumenos, p. Ixxxiv], 
idem et doryphorum \_follows epigrammatic qualification ; second mention under 
the name 'canon'' of the doryphoros, p. xli] fecit et destringentem se et nudum 
telo incessentem [follows mention of knucklebone players, at Rome, in Hall 
of Titus, p. xcii ; of a Hermes at Lysimacheia, on authority of Mucianus, 
p. xc ; of a Herakles at Rome] hagetera arma sumentem [follows from an 
anecdotic source, the mention of Artemon suma?ned ' periphoretos' — Add. 
p. 235] hie consummasse hanc scientiam iudicatur et toreuticen 
sic erudisse ut Phidias aperuisse. proprium eius est uno crure 
ut insisterent signa excogitasse, quadrata tamen esse ea ait 
Varro et paene ad exemplum. 

III. Myron. 

Myronem Eleutheris natum Hageladae et ipsum discipulum bucnla maxime 
nobilitavit [follows allusion to epigrams upon the heifer'], fecit et canem et 
discobolon et Perseum et pristas et Satyrum admirantem tibias et Minervam, 
Delphicos pentathlos, pancratiastas [follows mention (a) of a Herakles in 
Rome, (b) of the grave of a grasshopper and locust, see Comm. p. 46, 1. 4, (c) of 
an Apollo restored to Ephesos by Augustus, p. Ixxxix] . primushicmultipli- 
casse veritatem videtur, numerosior in arte quam Polyclitus et 
in symmetria diligentior, et ipse tamen corporum tenus curiosus 
animi sensus non expressisse, capillum quoque et pubem non 
emendatius fecisse quam rudis antiquitas instituisset. 

IV. Pythagoras. 

Vicit eum Pythagoras Reginus ex Italia pancratiaste Delphis posito ; eodem 
vicit et Leontiscum ; fecit et stadiodromon Astylon qui Olympiae ostenditur et 
Libyn puerum tenentem tabellam eodem loco et mala ferentem nudum [follows 
mention, from an epigram, of the Philokietes at Syracuse, p. Ixix] , item Apollinem 
serpentemque eius sagittis configi [follows mention, from an anecdotic source, 
of the ' Citharoedus' at Thebes, Miinzer »/. cit. p. 525], hie primus nervos 
et venas expressit capillumque diligentius. (irputTov SoKovfra UvOa- 
ydpav pvS/iov Kal avu/ieTpias iaroxoaBai — Diogenes Laertios, viii, 46. J 

V. Lysippos. 

[The account of Lysippos opens with an anecdote given on the authority of 
Duris, p. xlvi.] 
(Lysippus) fecit . . . destringentem se [follows its dedication at Rome; 

b 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

anecdote of Tiberius' s fassion for the statue], nobilitatur Lysippus et temulenta 
tibicina et canibus ac venatione {mention, on authority ofMucianus (p. Ixxxvii;, 
of the chariot of the Sun at Rhodes'], fecit et Alexandrum Magnum maltis 
operibus a pueritia eius orsus {follows Nero's maltreatment of the statue], idem 
fecit Hephaestionem Alexandri Magni amicum \its ascription by other authori- 
ties to Polykleitos ; Pliny's own comment, p. xciii], item Alexandri venationem 
quae Delphis sacrata est, Athenis Satyrum, turmam Alexandri in qua amicorum 
eius imagines summa omnium similitudine expressit {mention of removal of 
the group to Home], fecit et quadrigas multorum generum. statuariae arti 
plurimum traditur contulisse capillum exprimendo, capita mi- 
nora faciendo quam antiqni, corpora graciliora siccioraque, 
per quae proceritas signorum maior videretur. non habet Lati- 
num nomen symmetria quam diligentissime custodit nova iu- 
tactaque ratione quadratas veterum staturas permutando 
[follows apothegm quoted from Duris, p. Ixiif]. propriae huius videntur 
esse argutiae operum custoditae in minimis quoque rebus. 

To which may be added : 

VI. Pupils of Lysippos, and Telephanes of Phokaia. 

Filios et discipulos reliquit laudatos artifices Laippum, Boedan, sed ante 
omnes Euthrycraten, quamquam is constantiam potius imitatus patris quam 
elegantiam austero maluit genere quam iucundo placere. itaque optume ex- 
pressit Herculem Delpiiis et Alexandrum Thespis venatorem et Thespiadas, 
proelium equestre, simulacrum ipsum Trophonii ad oraculum, quadrigas com- 
plures, equum cum fuscinis, canes Tenantium. huius porro discipulus fuit 
Tisicrates et ipse Sicyonius, sed Lysippi sectae propior, ut vix discemantnr 
complura signa, ecu senex Thebanus et Demetrius rex, Peucestes Alexandri 
Magni servator, dignus tanta gloria, artifices qui compositis voluminibus 
condidere haec miris laudibus celebrant Telephanen Phocaeum ignotum alias, 
quoniam in Thessalia habitaverit, et ibi opera eius latuerint, alioqui suifragiis 
ipsonim aequatur Polyclito, Myroni, Pythagorae. laudant eius 
Larisam et Spintharum pentathlum et Apollinem {follows, from a different 
source, a variant explanation of the obscurity of Telephanes\ 

It is now a commonplace of archaeology that these closely 
connected criticisms were designed to establish a comparison 
of the five principal artists {insignes), based upon their gradual 
conquest of the problems of symmetry and proportion, and of 
certain minor technical details such as the rendering of the hair, 
of the sinews, or the veins : Pheidias discovers the possibilities 
of statuary; Polykleitos perfects it and makes his statues 
rest their weight on one leg, yet he fails because his figures 
are too square and monotonous ; Myron surpasses him by 
^attaining not only to symmetry but to variety, yet he fails in the 
rendering of the hair ; Pythagoras is more successful with hair and 

moreover learns how to express the sinews and the muscles • at 

this point we are brought up short by finding that, in Pliny 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xix 

nothing is said of the relation of Pythagoras to symmetry. This 
is however an omission for which the Roman author, Phny or 
Varro, is responsible ; for the record of that artist's contribution to 
symmetry is preserved in the passage quoted above from Diogenes 
Laertios' (cf. Comm. p. 48). There we learn that Pythagoras 
was considered the first artist to aim not only at symmetry but 
also at rhythm — in other words at the correct rendering of pro- 
portion, not only in figures at rest, but also in figures in motion. 
Lysippos, finally, achieves the perfect proportion, by modifying in 
a manner peculiar to himself the ancient canons, and solves by 
the way the minor technical difficulties in the rendering of the 
hair. The guiding thought is analogous to that which prompted 
Dionysios to classify the orators into inventors of their art — 

evperai, and its perfectors — TeXeiaTcd ^. 

The mention of Varro in § 56 certainly proves, as Jahn saw, 
that he was Pliny's immediate authority for the whole series of 
the criticisms j but it is equally certain that they did not 
originate with him. So rigid a scheme of artistic development 
would be a most unlikely product of the varied and miscellaneous 
literary activity of that compiler. It is moreover strongly coloured 
by the partisanship of a school and obviously devised to the 
honour of the Sikyonian Lysippos, the greatest artists falling into 
place as his precursors. Besides, the words non habet latinum 
nomen symmetria ... in § 65 show sufficiently that Varro had 
only been translating from the Greek. He appears here as the 
intermediary between Pliny and the Greeks precisely as, in the 
earlier books of the Historia, Trogus or Nigidius Figulus are 
named as authorities for facts or observations drawn by these 
writers from Aristotle '- 

The Greek author whose views on the gradual development of 
art passed, through Varro, into the pages of Pliny was not only 
a warm admirer of the Sikyonians, but, to judge from the exclusive 

^ Furtwangler, Plinius u. seine tuv A.ia)(iv7iv, teal 'tTrepeiSTjv ^/zcfs Kpi- 

Qtielkn, p. 70. vojiiv. 

2 Dionysios Halik. De JDinarcho ^ Nigidius is quoted for Aristotle 

iud.: Uepl Aftvapxov tov frjTopos in ix, 185, Trogus in xi, 275, 276; 

ovdlv ciprjKibs kv roh mpX twv apxcituv see F. Aly, Zur QuelUnkritik des 

ypaipfiaiv, Sia to /«7t£ evpfT^v ISiov dlteren Plinius, p. 10 f.; Montigny, 

•^^•^ovivaL xapaicT^pos tov avSpa, &airep Quaestiones in Plin, Nat. Hist de 

Tdv Avcriav, Kal tov 'laoKpaTrjv, xal Animalibus Libros. Bonu,l844; Teuf- 

Tbv^lffaiov HT]Te TWV evprjfievojv ^Tepois fel, p. 761. 
Te\(uaTriv, &air(p toi/ Arjiioaffivtjv, Kal 

b a 



XX INTRODUCTION 

stress which he lays upon certain sides of technical progress, an 
artist judging from the standpoints which he had himself been 
trained to esteem most highly. We have not far to go to fix upon 
his name. He must be, as Robert first definitely pointed out ', 
that Xenokrates, himself a pupil of two distinguished Sikyonians, 
Teisikrates and Euthykrates, who is cited in the Index to Bk. 
xxxiv and in § 83 as having written on bronze statuary, and in xxxv, 
68 upon painting'- In the latter passage he is named con- 
jointly with Antigonos, another art-writer, who, as we shall 
presently see, is in great measure responsible for the additions of 
epigrammatic or anecdotic character made to the earlier history 
by Xenokrates. 
^ But the scheme of development propounded in the famous 
five criticisms involves a curious anachronism : Myron is made 
posterior to Polykleitos, Pythagoras posterior to both. That this 
anachronism cannot be due to mere negligence appears from the 
carefully thought-out nature of the context. I think it is clear 
from the remark preserved in Diogenes, concerning the rhythm 
contributed to statuary by Pythagoras, that, alongside considera- 
tions of symmetry and proportion, the idea of an evolution from 
figures at rest to figures in motion influenced the chronological 
order adopted by the author of the criticisms. After the stately 
seated or standing gods, goddesses, and temple-attendants of 
Pheidias come first the quiet athletes of Polykleitos, just shifting 
the weight of the body to one leg as in the act of walking, then 

' Archdologische Marchen aus alter 135 a, b, are from Oropos, a region 

und mtter Zeit, pp. 28 ff. A. Brieger, for which both Teisikrates, the master 

De Fontibus, p. 46, had first pointed of Xenokrates, and Thoinias, son 

cat that the verdicts on the bronze of Teisikrates, were at one time 

statuaries could be traced beyond active (/. G. B. 120-122 a). But it 

Varro back to Antigonos and Xeno- Is strange that an Athenian, who in 

krates ; cf also Th. Schreiber, Quaes- inscribing his name was careful in 

tionum de Ariif. Aetat., p. 27!!., and at least two cases (/. G. B. 135 a, 

Furtwangler, 0/. «V. p. 68 ; but it was and the new inscription -also from 

Robert who first disentangled the Oropos— '£07;^. apx- 1892, 51, cf. 

special contribution of Xenokrates. Diels, Anzeiger, 1893, p. 138 f.) to 

^ His identification with the Athe- record the country of his birth, should 

nian Xenokrates, son of Ergophilos, have come so completely to identify 

of the inscriptions from Oropos and himself with the Sikyonians as did 

.Elateia (Loewy, Inschrifien der Crie- the Plinian writer, or have so often 

chischen Bildhauer, 135 a, b, c) ap- entirely passed over, or dismissed 

pears to me, on the other hand, with only a passing allusion, the 

doubtful (see Coram.). The strongest famous artists of his own country, 
argument in its favour is that Loewy, 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxi 

the works — athletes also for the greater part — of Myron and 
Pythagoras. Now, if we place the Myronian ' Diskobolos ' with 
its audacious movement next to the Polykleitan ' Diadumenos ' or 
' Doryphoros,' and adopt the recent conjecture ', which attributes 
to Pythagoras the fine boxer in the Louvre''', and the athlete in 
violent motion of the Boboli gardens ' — two statues which surpass 
even the Diskobolos in movement and animation — we shall at 
least understand how, at a time when art-criticism in our modern 
sense was scarcely existent, such statues would give rise to the 
perverse chronology of §§ 55-59. 

The account of the pupils of Lysippos is obviously inseparable 
from the account of Lysippos himself. To Telephanes we shall 
return presently. Before we proceed to track out Xenokrates 
further, we should, however, note the significant fact that wherever, 
in the passages just discussed, the locality of a work of art is 
either given or can be recovered from other sources, it lies 
within a restricted geographical beat, comprised by Olympia 
(§§ 54, S9)> Delphoi (§§ 57, 59, 64, 66), Lebadeia, Thespiai, and 
Thebes (§§ 66, 67), and finally Athens (§§ 54, 64)*- From this 
we may gather that Xenokrates (who probably had little oppor- 
tunity for distant travel) confined himself to the mention of 
monuments of which he had personal knowledge. 

A glance at the chronological tables of §§ 49-52 shows them 
to be by the author of the criticisms ; in the one as in the other 
Pheidias opens the series — Lysippos with the brilliant attendance 
of sons and pupils closes it. If the Xenokratic authorship of 
the chronology needed confirmation, we should find it in the 
fact that Polykleitos, Myron, Pythagoras, are placed in the same 
curious order as in the verdicts. The activity of Xenokrates 
cannot have extended much beyond 01. 121, the date he assigns 
to the pupils of Lysippos, and it is noteworthy that, although 
his treatise was extensively enlarged by later writers, yet the 
period with which it closed was adopted as representing the 
close of art in Greece. Cessavit deinde (after 01. 121) ars, writes 
Pliny, ac rursus Ofytnpiade CL VI revixit, the revixit not so much 

^'Fmt«'a.-a^er,Masterpieces0f Greek * Cf. Miinzer, <?/. cit. p. 505. Of 

Sculpture, p. 171 f; cf. E. Reisch, the works whose locality is not indi- 

Weihgeschenke, p. 44. cated, the Athena tam eximiae pulchri- 

' Phot. Girandon, 1207. iudinis of Pheidias (see Comm. to 

' Phot. Amdt-Bruckmann {Einzel- xxxiv, 54, 1. 2), the cow of Myron, and 

verkauf), 96. his Perseus were at Athens. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

marking a real revival as affording a convenient formula to 
introduce the Greek artists who decorated at Rome the famous 
monuments erected by Q. Metellus Macedonicus '. 

It is evident that the chronological and narrative parts of the 
Xenokratic treatise had originally formed one consistent whole, 
which some later writer afterwards subdivided into a chronology 
and alphabetical lists (cf. p. Ixxx). The five most famous artists, 
however, and the pupils of Lysippos were left, owing to their 
great reputation, in the original Greek order, though sundered 
from the chronology. Moreover, Telephanes of Phokaia (§ 68) 
and Praxiteles (§§ 69-71) were assigned places— in no sort 
of chronological order— between the pupils of Lysippos and 
the first alphabetical list. The reasons for the exception made 
in their favour are sufficiently instructive. The Xenokratic 
character of the account of Telephanes comes out in the com- 
parison instituted to Polykleitos, Myron, and Pythagoras, whose 
names are given in the same order as in the verdicts ; since, 
however, Xenokrates had not deemed Telephanes worthy of 
comparison with the two greatest names — with either Pheidias, 
the founder, or Lysippos the perfecter of the art — he had also not 
accredited him with any distinct contribution to the progress of 
statuary. Now the comparison of Telephanes to Polykleitos, 
Myron, and Pythagoras on the one hand, and the absence of any 
precise estimate of his merits on the other, were explained by some 
later Greek writer in a rationalizing anecdotic manner, alien to 
Xenokratic practice : Telephanes was excellent, the reasoning 
seems to be, or he could not be compared to great names, but he 
must have been obscure or we should hear more about him ; and 
as Xenokrates had given a list of works, some, or all, of which were 
in Thessaly ■', their remoteness was made the reason for the artist's 
want of fame : quoniam in Thessalia habitaverit et ibi opera eius 
latuerint. These additions are so nicely welded into the Xenokratic 
account that they must have been made at a quite early date, as we 
shall see by Antigonos (p. xxxvi). Puzzled by the mention of this 
excellent yet unknown artist, the Roman authors next introduced 
him under cover of their Greek authorities : artifices qui haec 
condidere (i.e. Xenokrates and Antigonos) miris laudibus celebrant 

' • The cessavit and revixit first ex- " A region to which Xenokrates 

plained by Brunn, K. G. i. p. 504 f. might easily have extended his re- 

Cf H. L. Urlichs, Griechische Kunst- searches northwards from Phokis and 

schriftsteller, p. 31 f. Boeotia. 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxiii 

Telephanem Phocaeum, and placed him outside the insignes, but 
yet in a more distinguished place than the alphabetical lists. 
Practically the same happened in the case of Praxiteles (§§ 69-71). 
This artist appears to have been only summarily discussed by 
Xenokrates ^, who, like the rest of his school and Lysippos 
himself, was exclusively a worker in bronze, and therefore only 
wrote concerning works in bronze, entirely ignoring the marble 
sculpture wherein lay the chief strength of Praxiteles and the new 
Attic school. Yet Praxiteles was much too great a favourite of 
the Romans for a Roman writer to be content with assigning to 
him a place among the artists of the alphabetical lists, so he linked 
him on to Telephanes with a quoque, adducing as an apology 
for not placing Praxiteles among the insignes that he was marmore 
felicior ideo et darior. The argument practically comes to : 
Praxiteles also, like Telephanes, has an excuse for the place 
assigned to him — in his case not want of fame, but the fact that 
he is better known as a worker in marble than as a worker in 
bronze '\ 

An analysis of the first alphabetical list (§§ 74-83) will reveal 
further traces of Xenokrates. In the subjoined tables I have 
marked with an X those artists the account of whom seems 
Xenokratic, and placed within square brackets the names of 
artists or works manifestly introduced from other sources. 

X. Alcamenes: encrinomenos^. 

X. Arisiides : quadrigae higaeque. 

\_Amphicrates : Leaena, periegetic, see Comm. and p. Ixxxvi.] 

X. Biyaxis: Aesculapius, Seleucus. 

X. Boedas: adorans. 

[Baton: Apollo, luno, Roman museography, cf. p. xci f.] 

\Cresilas : volneratus, Pericles, both from epigrams, see Comm. and p. Ixix.] 

[Cephisodotus : ara, on authority of Heliodoros, p. Ixxv.] 

X. Canachus : {Apollo, anecdotic, see Comm. and p. Ixxxviii] celeiizontes pueri. 

X. Chaereas : Alexander, Philippus. 

X. Ctesilaus: doryphorus, Amazon. 

{Demetrius : Lysimache (inscrip., p. Ixxxvi), Minerva nius. (periegetic), 
Simon (literary source, p. Ixv, note l).] 

' Miinzer, op. cit. p. 507, considers Oporan (where M. wrongly retains 

the Xenokratic material to be some- canephoram). 

what as follows: Praxiteles. ..fecit ^ I am indebted to Dr. H. L. 

ex aere. . . . Proserpinae raptum Uriichs for giving me what I believe 

item catagusam, et Liherum patremet to be the correct explanation of the 
Ebrietatem nobilemque una Satyrum, 



qium Graeci periboeton cognominanl ' The list is based on that of Oeh- 

item stephanusam, pseliumenen, michen, Plin. Studien, p. 163 f. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

X. Daedalus : desiringentes se. 
X. Dittomenes : Protesilaus, Pythodemus. 

X. Euphranor: [Alexander Paris {ep\gT. TpA:id^), Minerva, La/ena (Roma.n 
museogr.)], quadrigae bigaeque, cliduchus. ^ Virtus et 
Graecia; mulier adm. et ador.; Alex, et Philippus. 

[Eufychides : Eurotas (epigr. p. Ixix f.).] 
X. Hegias : Minerva, Pyrrhus, celetiaontes. 

[ffagesias : Hercules in Pario colonia (Mucianus, p. xc).] 
X. Isidotus : buthytes. 

[Zycius ; puer sufflans (epigr. p. Ixx)], Argonautae. 

ILeochares: Ganymedes (epigr. p. Ixx), Autolycus (literary source, p. 
xlv, note i), Jupiter, Apollo (Rom. museogr.), Lyciscus 
(epigr. p. Ixxiii, note z).] 
X. Lycius : puer suffitor. 

\Menaechmus : vitulus (epigr. p. Ixxiii, note 2).] 
X. Naucydes : Mercurtus, discobolus, immolans arietem. 
X. Naucerus : luctator anhelans. 

{Niceralus : Aesculapius et Hygia (Roman museogr.).] 
X. Pyromachus : quadriga cum Alcibiade. 
X. Polycles : Hermaphroditus. 
X. Pyrrhus : Hygia et Minerva. 
X. Phanis : epithyusa. 

[Styppax: splanchnoptes (periegetic and epigr. p. Ixx).] 

[Silanion: Apollodorus, Achilles, epistates (epigr. p. Ixx).] 

\Strongylion : Amazon (Roman anecdote, cf. p. xcii).] 

[ Theodorus : se ipsefudit (anecdotic).] 

\_Xetiocrates : copia signorum (Antigonos).] 

Reference to the text of Pliny will show that the works of the 
nineteen artists marked X are enumerated with a simple direct- 
ness which contrasts as forcibly as possible with the literary 
allusions, anecdotic tags, and epigrammatic descriptions attaching 
to the notices of the names placed in brackets. This same 
directness characterized the lists of works of the insignes, and 
is a clear mark of Xenokratic authorship. Ten of these names, 
moreover, still retain their place in the Xenokratic chronology 
(Alcamenes, Aristides, Canachus, Daedalus, Dinomenes, Euphranor, 
Hegias, Naucydes, Pyromachus, Polycles). 

An attentive study shows how a second, a third, and perhaps 
even a fourth hand worked over or added to the Xenokratic 
material, sometimes to its suppression. Cephisodotus, Eutychides, 
Leochares, all appear in the Xenokratic chronology, but, if any of 
thfir works were mentioned, these have been omitted to make 
way for others which brought the added interest of anecdote or 
epigram; in the case of Euphranor (§ 77) the mention of the 
' Paris,' derived from an epigram, was prefixed to the arid Xeno- 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxv 

kratic lists. This method of introducing new material from other 
sources has led to the double mention of Lycius (§ 79) and of 
Hegias (§ 78), the latter of whom appears the second time, under 
the alternative form of his name, Hagesias. As to the mention 
of Xenokrates himself (§ 83), it is probable that if it had come 
from him its wording would be at once more modest and less 
vague. I therefore adopt Miinzer's suggestion (pp. cit. p. 509) 
that it is due to the reverence ('Pietat') of the later writer, who 
worked the Xenokratic treatise into his own, namely Antigonos. 
A number of other additions, made from evident Roman sources, 
or concerning works to be seen at Rome, in Varro's or Pliny's 
day, need no comment here. In the same way certain additions 
came to be made also to the chronology. The most obvious is 
the notice of Seilanion (see p. xlix, note 2, and Add. to Comm. on 
xxxiv, 51), who is tacked on to the artists of 01. 113. 

The Plinian account of the bronze-workers from § 49 to § 83 
represents roughly, then, the original compass of that portion of 
the treatise of Xenokrates which treated of the period from the 
great revival after the Persian wars down to the sons and pupils of 
Lysippos, in Olympiads CXIII and CXXI. But it would be an 
error to suppose that this history of statuary took no notice of 
the earlier phases of the art. Through some accident which we 
are now no longer in a position to determine, the whole earlier 
part seems however to have been suppressed, with the exception 
of one unmistakable fragment, which oddly enough has found its 
way to the beginning of Pliny's account of the sculptors in 
marble (xxxvi, 9-10). The passage, as it now stands, is a little 
mosaic of most diverse materials, but the original Xenokratic 
conception is still evident from the stress laid upon the early 
fame of the Sikyonian workshops, from the fact that Dipoinos 
and Skyllis, the scene of whose labours lay chiefly in Sikyon and 
adjacent or dependent regions, are chosen among all archaic 
craftsmen to represent the beginnings of their art '. Their works 
had been of wood (note on xxxvi, 10) and could thus fall within 
the range of a writer upon bronze statuary, describing the gradual 
evolution from wood or wood gilt to metal. To the Xenokratic 



1 The Xenokratic kernel of the ing the view that Xenokrates left the 

passage has been rightly detected by whole of the archaic period unnoticed 

Miinzer [op. cit. p. 523), whom it is {ib. p. 505). 
therefore surprising to find support- 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

contention that the art of sculpture in bronze was elaborated by 
Daidalid artists on the mainland of Greece, a later writer — 
presumably Antigonos (p. xliii f)— adjusted the account of the rise 
of sculpture in marble in the islands of the Aegean, under the 
auspices of Chian sculptors. Thus it was that the Xenokratic 
account of Dipoinos and Skyllis came in time to be placed at the 
opening of a history of sculpture in marble, where it has long 
proved a crux to archaeologists '. We have learnt, then, that 
Xenokrates, in treating of the bronze-workers, began with 
the earliest beginnings. The current notion that he took no 
account of archaic bronze statuary is as false as it is arbitrary ''. 
It is not improbable that, if the Xenokratic account of the 
statuaries, as we have it in Pliny's thirty-fourth book, opens with 
Pheidias, this is somehow due to a very ancient misunderstanding 
of the statement that ' Pheidias first revealed the capabilities of 
sculpture and indicated its methods." We shall immediately see 
how a similar expression, in the case of the painter ApoUodoros, 
misled both ancient and modern critics into the erroneous sup- 
position that the Greek writers— Xenokrates in primis — had 
ignored the early painters. 

The Xenokratic history of the painters, preserved in Pliny's 
thirty-fifth book, can be recovered far more completely than that 
of the bronze-workers. Since in xxxv the alphabetical principle 
does not make its appearance till § 138, where it is employed to 
group together artists of comparatively minor importance, the 
original scheme is, in parts at least, still suflSciently clear. 

Xenokrates is quoted by name, along with Antigonos, as the 
authority for the verdict upon Parrhasios (§ 68). The judgement 
in its essence is so indubitably his, as a comparison with the 
judgement passed upon Lysippos and his son Euthykrates (xxxiv, 
66) proves, that if the later writer's name appears it can only 

■ Miinzer, loc. cit. known to him. I take it rather that 

' Cf. among others Robert, Arch. Xenokrates, having but very few dates 

Mdrchen, pp. 36, 41, where the at his command (see Comm. on xxxiv, 

post-dating of Kritios and Nesiotes 49), grouped about Pheidias, as their 

(§ 49) is explained by supposing that representative, a number of other 

the fame of their 'Tyrant-Slayers' artists who had been engaged upon the 

would attract the attention of the restoration of Athenian monuments 

compiler of the chronology, who, after the Persian sack. The anachron- 

since he ignored the archaic period, ism at any rate affords no proof 

made them into contemporaries of that Xenokrates had neglected the 

Pheidias, the earliest bronze-worker archaic period. 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxvii 

be in his character of compiler, or ' editor,' of the Xenokratic 
history. 

(Lysippus) statnariae arti plurimum Parrhasius Ephesi natus et ipse 

traditur contulisse capillum expri- multa contulit. primus symmetrian 

mendo, capita minora faciendo qnam picturae dedit, primus argutias voltus, 

antiqui, corpora graciliora siccioraque, elegantiam capilli, venustatem oris, 

per quae proceritas signorum maior coufessione artificum in lineis extremis 

videretur. non habet Latinum nomen palmam adeptus. haec est picturae 

symmetria quam diligentissime custo- summa suptilitas. corpora enim 

dit nova intactaque ratione quadratas pingere et media rerum est quidem 

veternm staturas permutando, vulgo- magni operis sed in quo multi gloriam 

que dicebat ab illis factos quales essent tulerint, extrema corporum facere et 

homines, a se quales viderentur esse. desinentis picturae modum includere 

propriae huius videntur esse argutiae rarum in successu aitis invenitur. 

opemm custoditae in minimis quoque ambire enim se ipsa debet extremitas 

rebus, filios et discipulos reliquit et sic desinere ut promittat alias pone 

laudatos artifices Laippum, Boedan, se ostendatque etiam quae occultat. 

sed ante omnes Euthrycraten, quam- banc ei gloriam concessere Antigonus 

quam is constantiam potius imitatus et Xenocrates qui de pictura scripsere, 

patris quam elegantiam austero maluit praedicantes quoque, non solum con- 

genere quam iucnndo placere. fitentes'. 

But the criticism of Parrhasios is closely linked with a row of 
similar criticisms, not only interconnected, but dictated by the 
same spirit as the judgements passed upon the statuaries ^ Robert 
has pointed out that identical standards were set up in each case, 
while the final appreciations were similarly formulated ; as 
Pheidias (xxxiv, 54) discloses the possibilities of statuary, so 
ApoUodoros (xxxv, 60) discloses those of painting. The initiative 
of either master was carried further in the one art by Polykleitos 
(xxxiv, 56), by Zeuxis (xxxv, 64) in the other. Both these artists, 
however, fail in the rendering of proportion, a point in which 
Myron (xxxiv, 57) and Parrhasios (xxxv, 68) surpass them. The 
former is symmetria diligentior than Polykleitos ; of the other it is 
said that primus symmetrian picturae dedit. Pythagoras (xxxiv, 
59) and Euphranor (xxxv, 128) each progress towards the 
attainment of symmetry j of the one the critics said irpHnov . . . 
(TviifiiTpias SoKovvTa i(TT0)(atT6ai, of the Other primus videtur . . . usur- 

' I have chosen these two passages ' Robert, Arch. March, p. 67 ff., 

for comparison, becanse of the marked conveniently prints the passages side 

verbal similarities, but of course the by side. After the detailed analysis 

real counterpart, among the painters, of the verdicts upon the bronze- 

of Lysippos, among the statuaries, workers, it seems sufficient to refer 

was Apelles. to the text. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

passe symmeirian. The highest mastery, finally, is embodied in 
Lysippos (xxxiv, 65) and in Apelles (xxxv, 79). 

We may now proceed to recover traces of Xenokrates in the 
earlier sections of xxxv. It has been noted above that the con- 
tribution to symmetry, made respectively by Pythagoras and 
Euphranor, was couched in almost identical terms. But the 
statement that Pythagoras was the first to mark the sinews and 
the muscles, primus nervos et venas expressit, recalls the improve- 
ments attributed in an early part of the History of the Painters 
to Kimon of Kleonai : articulis i}iembra distinxit, venas protulit 
(§ 56) ^ That both are from the same hand is indubitable. 

Again, the criticism of Kimon is inseparable from a whole 
series of similar passages, in which the earlier stages of painting 
were discussed. These began at § 16, and, after sundry excursus 
on paintings in Rome and on colours (§ 18 ff.), were resumed 
again at § 56. When exhibited together, the original coherence 
of the passages is self-evident ^ 

§ 16. Inventam liniarem a Philocle Aegyptio vel Cleanthe Corinthio primi 
exercuere Aridices Corinthius et Telephaiies Sicyonius, sine uUo etiamnum hi 
colore, iam tamen spargentes linias iiitns. ideo et quos pingerent adscribere 
institutum. primus invenit eas colore testae, ut ferunt, tiitae, Ecphantus 
Corinthius. 

§ 56. . . . eosqne qui monochromatis pinxerint, quorum aetas non traditur, 
. . . fuisse, Hygiaenontem, Dinian, Charmadan et qui primus in pictura marem 
a femina discreverit Eumarum Atheniensem figuras omnis imitari ausum, quique 
inventa eius excoluerit Cimonem Cleonaeum. hie catagrapha invenit, hoc est 
obliquas imagines, et varie formare voltus, respicientes suspicientesve vel despi- 
cientes. articulis membra distinxit, venas protulit, praeterque in vestibus rugas 
et sinus invenit. 

§ S7- Panaenus quidem frater Phidiae etiam proelium Atheniensium adversus 
Persas apud Marathona factum pinxit. adeo iam colorum usus increbruerat, 
adeoque ars perfecta erat ut in eo proelio iconicos duces pinxisse tradatur, 
Atheniensium Miltiaden, Callimachum, Cynaegirum, barbarorum Datim, Arta- 
phernen. 

§ 58. . . . Polygnotus Thasius qui primus mulieres tralucida veste pinxit, 
capita earum mitris versicoloribus operuit plurimumque picturae primus con- 
tulit, siquidem instituit os adaperire, dentes ostendere, voltum ab antiquo rigore 
variare. [follows 7nention of a picture in Rome'\ hie Delphis aedem pinxit, hie 
et Athenis porticum quae Poecile vocatur . . . cum partem eius Micon . 
pingeret. 

^ These primitives are represented as not yet sufficiently ad- 

■ The parallelism of the two pas- » I here follow Munzer entirely 

sages is noted— but in a different ("/"V. p. 514), who gives the passages 

context— by Hartwig, Meisterschahn, freed, so far as possible, from later 

p. 165. additions. 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxix 

vanced to grapple with problems of harmony and symmetry ; it 
is sufificient for them to attempt to conquer step by step, first 
a knowledge of their materials, then by slow degrees the correct 
presentment of objects. Philokles, Kleanthes, and the earliest 
painters, are scarcely painters at all ; they practise mere outline. 
Then Ekphantos fills up this outline with red colour. Hygiainon 
and his fellows (§ 56) continue to use only one colour till it 
occurs to Eumaros to distinguish in painting between the sexes ; 
this he doubtless does by introducing white for the flesh of 
the women ^ and thus marks the first stage in the progress from 
monochrome to polychrome painting. So far, however^ figures 
have only been drawn in full face or in profile (though Pliny 
nowhere states this, it can be supplied from what follows) ; but now 
Kimon of Kleonai invents foreshortening, Kardypaipa "- He further 
correctly marks the articulations and the muscles, and ' discovers 
the wrinkles and the windings of drapery.' Artists, having now 
learnt to distinguish between the sexes, to articulate their figures, 
and to present them in various attitudes, are able to turn their 
attention to distinguishing between individuals. Panainos, accord- 
ingly, in his Battle of Marathon, introduces portraiture. But 
mere draughtsmanship — outline simply filled in with colour — was 
susceptible of still further improvements. Thus Polygnotos of 
Thasos first permits the draperies to reveal the bodies beneath 
them, and shows at the same time how to give movement not 
only to the body, as Kimon had done, but also to the face. Then, 
the capacities of this limited technique being exhausted, there 
appeared on the scenes the great painter Apollodoros (§ 90 above, 
p. xxvii), who by discovering ' the fusion and management of 
shade '' ' — we should rather say of light— first gave to objects their 
real semblance {primus species instituit) : thus he contributed to 
painting its most important factor, and thereby, as an epigrammatist 
pointedly said, he ' opened the gates of art ' to the great masters 
of Greek painting — to Zeuxis and Parrhasios and their illustrious 
contemporaries. The coherence of the whole history of the 
development and perfection of painting — the consistent logic 
which underlies it, of an evolution from the simpler to the more 
complex — is so patent that it is incomprehensible how so many 

' Eumaros's innovation is generally accurately grasped, 
so explained, but I am not aware ^ See note on xxxv, 56. 

that the significance of the introduc- * i^tvpoiv ipOopav ical &-ir6xp<^'riy 

tion of this white colour has ever been (r«ios, Plutarch, De Glor. Athen. 2. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

scholars — at least in the period between Jahn's Essay and 
Miinzer's— entirely failed to apprehend it. 

It remains, however, to ask how in face of this consecutive 
Treatise by a Greek writer there could ever arise the complaint in 
XXXV, 54 : non constat sibi in hac parte (sc. historia pidorum) 
Graecorum diligentia multas post olympiadas cekbrando pidores 
quam statuarios ac toreutas, primumque olympiade LXXXX. The 
question involves a difficult problem. One can only imagine that 
the complaint, in its present form, is the result of a misunder- 
standing ; it is not impossible that some later writer, intermediate 
between the earlier Greek art-writers and the Roman, had found 
fault with the Greeks for failing to appreciate the naive charm and 
simple methods of the painters who lived previous to the innova- 
tions of ApoUodoros. Such a criticism, combined with the words 
used by Xenokrates of ApoUodoros, hie primus spedes instituit, 
might lead in time to the supposition that the Greek art-writers 
had completely failed even to mention pre-ApoUodorian painters. 
The Roman compilers, drawing from books (Pasiteles ? p. Ixxix) 
where the names of Xenokrates and Antigonos as authorities for 
the history of the early painters had long dropped out, piled up 
as proofs of the supposed inaccuracy of these writers ^ a number 
of facts" for which their Treatises were in reality the chief sources. 
Theophrastos, also, had been misrepresented in precisely the 
same manner. According to Pliny (vii, 205) he had attributed 
the invention of painting to Polygnotos, whereas Theophrastos 
can have intended nothing more than that Polygnotos was the 
first painter who could be properly so called ; writing doubtless 
under the influence of Aristotle's admiration for the ethical quali- 
ties of this artist {Poet. 1450a). Theophrastos had assigned to him 
the place which the PKnian authors, intent rather upon technical 
progress, gave to ApoUodoros. In truth Pliny's statement as 
regards Theophrastos, and his or Varro's complaint of the Greek 
inaccuracy, are, I believe, but the distorted reflection of the old 
controversy whether draughtsmanship or colouring was the more 
powerful means of expression. The opinion of Aristotle may be 

» It is universally acknowledged Panainos as painters- (cf. p. li) ; the 
that the Greeks alluded to in the whole list of painters and their works 
words Graecorum diligentia are the from the early monochromatics down 
main authorities, i.e. Xenokrates and to Polygnotos. The account of Boul- 
Antigonos (perhaps also Duris) ; cf. archos (§55) may have been derived by 
Robert, Arch. Mdrcken, p. 25. Varro (cf.p.Ixxxivand Comm. on xxxv 

^ E.g. the activity of Pheidias and 55) from some independent source. ' 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxi 

guessed from his predilection for the pre-Apollodorian 
Polygnotos ^. The testimony of Dionysios to the value which 
a school of criticism, practically unrepresented in Pliny, attached 
to the pre-Apollodorian paintings is of importance : 

' In ancient paintings the scheme of colouring was simple and presented no 
variety in the tones ; but the line was rendered with exquisite perfection, thus 
lending to these early works a singular grace. This purity of draughtsmanship 
was gradually lost ; its place was taken by a learned technique, by the differen- 
tiation of light and shade, by the full resources of the rich colouring to which 
the works of the later artists owe their strength ^' 

We learn from this passage that the methods of the later 
painters were practically looked upon as hostile to those of the 
earlier, and Xenokrates, a hot partisan of the post-Apollodorians, 
may well have expressed himself in language which would 
eventually lead to the erroneous supposition that he had ignored 
all earlier paintings, from Polygnotos and Panainos up to the 
early monochromatics. 

As we have it in Pliny, the argument against the Greeks is 
presented with skill and vigour (Comm. on xxxv, 54) ; the theme 
was evidently congenial to the Roman authors, who doubtless 
felt for the archaic the enthusiasm — common to all decadent 
periods — which was to rouse the subtle satire of Quinctilian '- 

After § 70 it becomes more difficult to follow Xenokrates (cf. 
Miinzer, op. cit. p. 516), and scarcely any sentence can be picked 
out as bearing the indubitable signs of his method. Later writers, 
as shown by the Plinian indices, had, when it came to the artists 

^ Bertrand, £tudes sur la Peinture, rols i^iyimcnv ix"^""^ noMXiav, anpi^ets 

p. 1 7, singularly misapprehends Aris- Sc rais ypa/j./jLais, Kal iroKh rd yapiiv 

totle when he assumes that A. kv ravrais ixP^^°-^' °-^ ^^ pifT^iKeivas, 

definitely stated his preference for eiypan/wi fiiv ^ttov, l^eipyaapihai Si 

drawing over painting, and translates fidXXoVj aKia re Kai tpajrl iT0LKtW6fievatj 

Poet. 1450b, 'en etalant les plus koX iv t£ TrX^flti tSiv pnyimraiv t^v 

belles couleurs on ne fera pas le meme layyv ex""'''". 

plaisir que par le simple trait d'une * Primi, quorum, quidem opera non 

figure.' What A. says is that colours vetustatis modo gratia visenda sunt, 

laid on confusedly or indiscriminately clari pictores fuisse dicuntur Poly- 

will not produce as much pleasure as gnotus atque Aglaophon, quorutn 

simple outline : A yap ris iva\e'u//tie simplex color tam sui studiosos adhuc 

Tofs KaWiarois <papiiiicois x'^^Vi o"" habet, ut ilia props rudia ac velut 

hv Spioias €i(ppa,v€tiv Kal \ivicoypaipriaas futurae mox artis primordia maxi- 

tlic6va. mis, qui post eosexstiterunt, auctoribus 

'^ Dionys. Halik. de Isaeo iudic. 4 praeferant, propria quodam intelli- 

AaX U) TiKs apxo-iai ypa<pal, x/KuMaff' gendi, ut mea opinio fert, ambitu. 

]j.\v (Xpyac jiivoi anKas, Kal ovSepiiav kv Quiuct. xii, 10. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

of the fourth century, a large mass of literature to draw from. 
Moreover popular anecdotes concerning the painters now take in 
great measure the place of more serious criticism. 

The next clear trace of Xenokrates is in the special emphasis 
laid (§ 76) upon the fame of the Sikyonian painters. Sikyon, 
the cradle of art-painting (§ 16), is now shown to be the home 
also of its splendid maturity ; as she had produced Lysippos, the 
greatest master of statuary, so she produces Apelles, the greatest 
master of the rival art of painting, whose contributions to his art 
are appraised (§ 79) according to the canons applied to Lysippos 
in xxxiv, 65. Though Apelles was probably already an artist of 
established renown when he left his native Ephesos to study in 
the schools of Sikyon, the claims of his obscurer early masters 
must fade entirely before the glorious reputation of Eupompos 
and Pamphilos. 

The Theban-Attic school, which branched off from the 
Sikyonian, with Aristeides I — brother-pupil of Eupompos — also 
claimed the attention of Xenokrates. We must recognize with 
Robert ^ that the account of Aristeides II in § 98 originates with 
him; we note the Xenokratic intent to connect the name of 
a great artist with some definite progress or contribution. In 
this case the progress accomplished is of ethical rather than of 
technical import; Aristeides discovers how to render not only 
character but transient emotions^, and in this there is a vague 
reminiscence of the criticism passed upon Myron, that he had 
failed to express ' the sensations of the mind.' 

Between the two Aristeides must naturally have intervened the 
account of Nikomachos, son of Aristeides I, and his pupils, 
which in Pliny appears in §§ 108-110, away from its original 
context. 

After a long digression in §§ 11 2-1 21, due, as we shall see, in 
part toVarro (p. Ixxxiv), in part to Pliny himself (cf. p.xcii), we again 
come upon clear traces of Xenokrates in the History of the Painters 
in Encaustic '- In § 122 we find it stated first that, according to 
certain authorities, Aristeides was the inventor of encaustic; 

1 Archdologische Mdrchen, p. 69 ; ably due to Vnrro. It affords one of 

cf; Munzer, p. 5T6. the many proofs of the passage of the 

i.e.ferturbationes: Fnrtwangler, Greek Treatises upon Art throu<rh 

Phnius u. s. Quellen, p. 65 f., points Varro's hands. " 

out that this Ciceronian translation of ' Miinzer, op. cit. p. Ki7ff 

the Greek ird^Tj (see Comm.) is presum- 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxiii 

immediately after it is asserted that there existed pictures in this 
technique older than the time of Aristeides, namely those by 
Polygnotos, by the Parians Nikanor and Mnasilaos, and by Ela- 
sippos. In a word, the claims of the island-schools to priority 
of invention are opposed to the claims of the artists of the main- 
land, precisely as in xxxvi, 9-12 the Xenokratic contention that 
statuary was invented by the Daidalids Dipoinos and Skyllis was 
confronted by Antigonos with the assertion that long before their 
time sculpture in marble had flourished in the islands of the 
Aegean (p. xxvi) \ Thus it seems safe to conclude that the 
tradition attaching the invention of Encaustic to the name of 
Aristeides goes back to Xenokrates, and that Antigonos, faithful 
to his programme of exhibiting the various sources at his com- 
mand, appended to it the account now represented in Pliny by 
the words aliquanto vetustiores encaustae pidurae extitere . . . nisi 
encaustica inventa. 

The school partisanship of Xenokrates at once betrays itself in 
§ 123 in the preeminence assigned to the Sikyonian Pausias, pupil 
of the Sikyonian Pamphilos (§ 75), and accordingly brother-pupil 
of Apelles. Pausias is not only praised as "Caz first to achieve fame 
in the wax technique, but is also credited in true Xenokratic fashion 
with two distinct contributions : he is Xhe^ first to paint the panels 
of ceilings, the first also to decorate the vaults of roofs. It may 
be noted at this point that the Plinian division into painters in the 
ordinary tempera and painters in encaustic was probably no part 
of the original Greek treatise. Pausias must have been discussed 
in connexion with Pamphilos and the artists of § 75, while the 
discussion of Euphranor must have followed upon that of his 
master Aristeides I. That the pupils of Pausias, Aristolaos 
(§ 137) and Nikophanes, had also originally been discussed by 
Xenokrates is almost certain '^ ; but the criticism passed upon 
Euphranor in § 130 is to my mind the last passage in the Plinian 
narrative of the painters where Xenokratic authorship can be 
pointed to with certainty. Students, however, will read with 
interest Miinzer's attempts {^op. cit. p. 518) to disengage further 
Xenokratic threads. 

' The parallelism has been kindly Nikophanes in xxxv, iii, recalls the 

pointed out to me by MUnzer in elegantia attributed to Lysippos, 

a private letter ; see note 3 on p. xxxiv, 66, the elegantia in render- 

xliv. ing of hair attributed to Parrhasios, 

^ The epithet elegans applied to xxxv, 67. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

Before dismissing the history of the painters we still have to note 
a few scattered passages which afford proof that Xenokrates had 
not only summed up but analyzed the problems which the great 
artists in turn had set themselves to solve. The appreciation of 
Parrhasios (xxxv, 67), with the appended analysis of his special 
artistic achievement, contained in the words haec est pidurae 
summa suptilitas . . . occultat, is a striking instance. That highest 
and hardest aim of the painter to produce about his figures the 
illusion of ambient space, of enveloping light and air, could not 
be more vigorously or happily expressed than in the phrase : 
corpora enim ptngere et media rerum est quidem magni operis sed in 
quo multi gloriam tulerint, extrema corporum facere et desinentis 
picturae modum includere rarum in successu artis invenitur. 
Ambire enim se ipsa debet extremitas, et sic desinere ut promittat 
alia post se ostendatque etiam quae occultat (see Comm.). Again we 
can, I think, trace the hand of Xenokrates in xxxv, 29, in the 
analysis of the various effects attempted by painting ; with subtle 
understanding of artistic procedure it is told how painting after 
shaking off its early monotony discovered first light and shade, 
then the effects attainable by the juxtaposition of colours ; finally, 
how it discovered glow and the passage from the more lit-up to 
the less lit-up parts of a picture, in a word what the moderns call 
' values ' (see Comm.) Such observations had doubtless formed 
part of the history of the development of painting from the early 
monochromatics to the successors of ApoUodoros, and became 
detached from their original context, perhaps at the time when 
the Xenokratic Treatise was schematized as noted on p. xxii. 
Furthermore it is possible that the Treatise had originally included, 
besides statements of the personal contribution made to the pro- 
gress of art by the principal artists, and aesthetic analysis of special 
problems, a discussion of the materials employed. Perhaps there- 
fore we should follow Mlinzer (pp. cit. p. 512; p. 499 ff.) in 
crediting Xenokrates with the chapters on colours (xxxv, 29 ff.)^ and 
consequently also with the notice of the various kinds of bronze 
(xxxiv, 9 ff.) employed by the statuaries. 

The short account of modelling^ in clay in xxxv, 151-153, con- 

' After considerable hesitation, we and actual works of art. 
decided on omitting these chapters " MUnzer, op. cit. p. 509 f. ; cf. 

from the present edition, which is Furtwangler, Plinius u. o. Quellen, 

concerned only with those portions p. 59 f. 
of the Historia that treat of artists 



XENOKRATES OF SIKYON xxxv 

tains the last marked traces of Xenokrates that we come across 
in Pliny. Boutades, a potter {figulus), and of course a Sikyonian, 
invents the fashioning of portraits in clay {fingere ex argilla 
similitudines). To this statement is now attached from another 
source an anecdote which represented this Sikyonian workman 
as active in Corinth (p. xxxvii). In § 152 a variant version of 
the discovery of modelling is given. Then with the words 
Butadis inventum we get back to our Sikyonian potter, who, 
having learnt to fashion a face in clay, is now the first {primus) 
to adapt faces to tile ends, whence arose in time the whole 
decoration of the eaves of temples. Further, he invents {invenit) 
how to take moulds off the clay models for statues [de signis 
effigies exprimere), and is thus the discoverer of the preliminary 
indispensable process of casting statues in bronze. Hundreds 
of years later another Sikyonian, Lysistratos, the brother of Xeno- 
krates's special hero Lysippos, first discovers {primus . . . instituif) 
how to take a mould off the living face. Hence the last and 
crowning progress of art, the advent of realistic portraiture. 
Miinzer is certainly right in his conjecture that the account of 
modelling was originally prefixed to the history of bronze-statuary, 
since bronze-casting presupposed the clay model (see Comm. on 
xxxiv, 35, and xxxv, 153), and therefore modelling passed as the 
older art : etenim prior quam statuaria fuii {y.^-id\, 2,^)- The place 
which Pliny assigns to modelling in his History is an obvious 
necessity of his scheme; clay being the material of modelling, 
he is forced to bring the discussion of this art under ' kinds of 
earth.' 

This closes the list of passages that can be traced back with 
any certainty to Xenokrates. It is a proof of the vigour of his 
conceptions that they could so impose themselves upon subsequent 
writers as never entirely to lose their original character, which 
still asserts itself throughout the whole of the Plinian account 
of the bronze statuaries and the painters. Nowhere do we grasp 
so readily what Pliny's history of art owed to Xenokrates as in the 
account of sculpture, given in Bk. xxxvi, where, failing the strong 
thread which bound together — at least in considerable parts — 
the narrative of the preceding books, we get little more than 
a loose patch-work of facts brought together without guiding 
thought or dominating interest. Meagre as are the fragments 
that we have disengaged, they point back to a critic of other 
calibre than the mere maker of anecdote and epigram — to 

c a 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

a critic who, conscientiously endeavouring to judge of works of 
art on their own merits, fails, not from garrulous digression or 
the desire to make a witty point, but rather from preconceived 
theory and love of schematizing. Xenokrates allows nothing 
for the fantastic freaks of artistic growth; in his rigidly con- 
structed system monochrome is made to precede colour, artists 
may not attack the problems of drapery till they have solved 
the rendering of muscle, and the gracious advent of perfect 
harmony and proportion is presented as the inevitable sum 
to which each of five artists had contributed his measured 
share. Besides, in common with most artists who have also 
been art-critics, he insists upon fixing the measure of artistic 
achievement in the successful solution of the problems which 
chiefly interested the school of which he showed himself the 
jealous partisan. Yet, crude as the scheme must appear to 
our modern world with its deeper sense of the complexity of 
things, it should win respect and sympathy as a first genuine 
attempt to tell the still unfinished tale of the rise and growth 
of art. And there is even to be traced, at a distance great 
enough from the modern method of comparison, that same 
purpose which distinguishes the modern critic— to let the actual 
monuments tell the tale. 



§ 2. Antigonos of Karystos {born about 295 b. c). 

When a writer aims, like Xenokrates, at formulating his criticism 
of an artist as the unbiassed impression received from a series of 
that artist's works, he will be anxious not to impair the strength 
of this impression by digressive criticism of single works ; above 
all, he will jealously guard the integrity of his judgement against 
anything that might look like borrowed appreciation. A writer 
who appraises an artist in the words applied by Xenokrates to 
Polykleitos will be the last to introduce material so foreign to 
the final judgement as that which describes how the boy binding 
a fillet about his head was ' a boy yet a man,' or his companion 
athlete ' a man yet a boy ' — words written, moreover, with a 
view to rhetorical antithesis rather than to criticism of artistic 
qualities. 

Yet little epigrammatic or anecdotic tags are plentiful even in 
those parts of the Phnian account which have been shown to be 
essentially Xenokratic. Such, for instance, are the legends inter- 



ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xxxvli 

woven in xxxv, 9 with the account of the early Sikyonian artists 
Dipoinos and Skyllis (see Comm.); the rationalizing statements in 
xxxv, 16 and 151, intended to reconcile the conflicting claims to 
greater antiquity of the art centres of Sikyon and Corinth ; the 
additions made in xxxv, 59 to the Xenokratic account of Poly- 
gnotos and Mikon, to the effect that the former took no payment 
for his paintings in the Stoa Poikile, while the latter did; the 
anecdotic flavour given to the account of Telephanes of Phokaia 
(xxxiv, 68), the epigrammatic touch added in xxxv, 61 to express 
the connexion between Apollodoros and Zeuxis. These additions 
are generally so closely compacted with the original fabric that 
it is only recent criticism, the growing recognition of the whole 
tendency of the Xenokratic methods, which has detected them as 
extraneous. They differ totally, in this respect, from the loose 
and not unfrequently awkward additions to the Greek Treatises 
made at a later date by Varro or Pliny himself in order to 
introduce the mention of works in Rome or allusions to contem- 
porary events. 

It becomes evident that the Xenokratic treatise was minutely 
worked over by a writer, who used it not simply to quote from, 
but as a solid framework into which to fit new material of his 
own. This writer, who appears almost as close collaborator of 
Xenokrates, must be one of the writers included in xxxiv, 68 in 
the words Artifices qui compositis voluminibus condidere haec, where 
the haec refers (see p. xxii) to the previous account of the insignes, 
which, as we have seen, is Xenokratic in the main. Now in xxxv, 
67, in the discussion of Parrhasios, writers upon art are referred 
to in similar manner : confessione artificum in liniis extremis 
palmam adeptus {Farrhasius). Immediately below, the names of 
these artifices are given ; the one is, as we expected, Xenocrates, 
the other is Antigonus. 

Antigonos is no longer a mere name. The brilliant essay in 
which Wilamowitz proved his identity with the Antigonos of 
Karystos ', author of a book of Marvels or 'laropiav irapaS6^a>v 

' V. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, An- his review of Wilamowitz's book, 

tigonos von Karystos, in Philologische Deutsche Lit.-Zeitung, 1882, p. 604 

Untersuchungen, iv, Berlin, 1881 ; {cf. sisoY o\^, DeFontibus Plinianis 

see Susemihl, Geschichte der Griechi- p. 24), and disputed by H. L. Urlichs, 

schen Literatur in der Alexandriner Griechische Kunstschriftsteller, p. 34. 

Zeit, i. p. sigff. I consider it super- Since then it has been accepted with- 

fluous to discuss the question of iden- out reserve by Susemihl, and quite 

tity. It was questioned by Diels in lately by Miinzer, of. cit. p. 52T ff. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

mivayayft, and of certain Biographies of the Philosophers, from which 
Diogenes Laertios drew extensively ', has made almost familiar 
the artist who was likewise pupil of the philosopher Menedemos 
of Eretria, who contributed to the revival of Attic sculpture 
under Attalos and Eumenes of Pergamon, and was at the same 
time a versatile litterateur, equally at home in the poems of 
Euripides or Philoxenos and in the technical treatises of the 
painters. Scarcely a strong individuality, perhaps, but a highly 
finished type of his age in its wide culture and many-sided 
curiosities. In addition to the passages already referred to (xxxiv, 
68 ; XXXV, 66-68), Antigonos is quoted by Pliny in the Indices of 
Books xxxiii and xxxiv as a writer de toreutice, and in xxxiv, 84 
as one of the sculptors in the service of the Court of Pergamon. 
Diogenes mentions the sculptors Anaxagoras (ii, 45) and 
Demokritos (ix, 49) on his authority, and recounts (vii, 7, 187) of 
a namesake of the philosopher Chrysippos, the physician 
Chrysippos of Knidos, that he had invented concerning Zeus and 
Hera certain intolerable obscenities not described by the writers 
upon painting : ' they are found neither in Polemon, nor in 
Xenokrates, nor yet in Antigonos ".' 

It further appears from the two following passages that, in his 
Lives of the Philosophers, Antigonos had allusions to the history 
and literature of art : 

Diogenes ix, 11, 62 : Antigonos of Karystos says in his account of Pyrrhon 
that he began life in obscurity and poverty, and was at first a painter, and that 
a picture by him — of very moderate execution — representing torch-bearers, 
is in the Gymnasium of Elis '. 

Diogenes iv, 3, 4 ; On the whole he (Polemon) was the sort of man described 
by Melanthios in his Book upon Painting, who says that a certain self-reliance 
and austerity should make itself felt in portraiture, precisely as in character '. 

' The fragments of Diogenes re- on tip, ipx^v aSofos t ^v koX irivr/s 

ferable to Antigonos will be found koI ^aripi.<por aii\faem r airov iv 

conveniently put together by Wilamo- 'BXiSi iv t& yvpvaaiai XapL^naSiaTois 

witz, op. cit. nfTfiws fxovTa^. 

" Diog. vii, 7, 187: oiS\ napA roh ' Kai g^ais ^jv toiovtos oUv (p^ffi 

irepl mva/aav yp&ipaai Karaicexwpia- Me\<ii/flios i (aypiipos iv tois wepi 

lilvriv (sc. historiamy piin yip irapA ^aiypa^MTir <f>r,(Tl yap Setv aieddciav 

lioXipavi p.i]Ti mpa BfvoKp&rei (Wi- nva xai aK\rip6r7,ra tot's ipyots im- 

h.m. op. at. p. 8; K6pke,De AKdgoMo rplx^iv, dpolais Si xai (so Wilam. 

Caig/stio, p. 25 note; the MSS. have p. 64; the MSS. have Si k&v) toTs 

mp "t^l/mpara), aWi. p.riSi mp' 'Avti- ^S(atv. I am not able to apprehend 

yovif) thai. the precise meaning which the words 

' 'AvTiyovos 8e <pij<Tiv 6 Kapianos opoiws . . . TJOiaiv are intended to 

Iv tS tiipt nippavos riSe ^(pl avrov, convey. The sense of the rest of the 



ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xxxix 

Lastly, the learned traveller and antiquary, Polemon of Ilion 
(contemporary of Ptolemaios V. Epiphanes, 202-131 B.C.), who 
wrote against Antigonos a controversial work in at least six 
books \ gives, in order to combat it, a verbatim quotation from 
Antigonos. The Polemonic fragment, which is of incomparable 
interest as affording an insight into the methods of these 
ancient controversialists, has found its way into the collection of 
Proverbs of the sophist Zenobios (age of Hadrian) ; it runs as 
follows : — 

Zen. V. 82 : At Rhamnous is an image of Nemesis ten cubits high, made 
wholly of marble, the work of Pheidias, holding an apple branch in her hand. 
From this branch, according to Antigonos of Karystos, hangs a little tablet 
bearing the inscription ' Agorakritos the Parian made me. ' But this is no 
proof (ou Bavjiaarhv Sc), for many also have inscribed another's name upon their 
own works, a complacency which Pheidias probably showed to Agorakritos, 
whom he loved . . ." 

These accredited fragments prove the varied experience of 
Antigonos in the province of art-history : we find him appealing 
to the testimony of inscriptions as carefully as his rival Polemon, 
whose industry in this respect won for him the nickname of 
o o-ri/XoKOTTaf ' ; he is ready to apply a phrase in a Treatise upon 
Portraiture to his characterization of a philosopher ; he had him- 
self written a statistical book upon pictures, containing minute 
descriptions of their subjects ' ; nor had he neglected to note the 
apocryphal tale which connected a certain mediocre picture at 
Elis with the name of the philosopher Pyrrhon. 

The miscellaneous character of his information, and the 

passage is finely indicated by Wilamo- Kciiiaews 'iSpvrm afaKua Se/ca-ntixv, 

witz, p. 147 ; cf. also H. L. Urlichs, 6\6\i.6ov, epyov iaSiov, cx«' Si kv rfj 

Griech. Kunstschrift. p. 18 ff. X"P^ ^tjXms k\6Sov. If o5 (p^aiv 'AvtC- 

^ The work bore the title vfhi -yovos 6 Kaptio-Tios vrvxiiv ti luicpbv 

^k&aiov KOI 'Avnyovov; of Adaios of ilripTij<reaiT^veTnypatl)fiviX'>''"'f^1/opa- 

Mitylene, who appears to have written xpno^ liapios k-nohjatv." oi BavimaTov 

upon sculptors, Tripl dyaXimTonoiSiv S4- ical aKKoi yAp iroWoi inl tSiv 

(Athenaios, xiii, 606 a), very little is oUiUav Ipyav irfpov knyeypd(paaiv 

known, cf. Susemihl, i^S. «V. i, p. 518; oyo/to- i'mbs oZv ml tov ^eiBiav tS 

forPolemon, seeSusemihlji, p. 665ff. ; 'AyopaicpiTai avy«ex<^priicevai, ^v yd.p 

for the fragments of his treatise against airov ipii/ifvos, koX dWas iirTS-qTo irepl 

Antigonos, Preller, PoUmonis ferie- T-A-ncuSiKi. It was first conjectured by 

getae/ragmenta,Leipzig,iSiS,-p. 97ff.; Wilamowitz, 0/. cit. p. 13 f., that the 

MuUer, P. H. G. iii, p. 132, fr. 56-69 ; whole passage goes back to Polemon ; 

for the nature of the controversy, see the view has been accepted without 

especially H. L. Urlichs, op. cit. reserve by H. L. Urlichs loc. cit. 
p_ 33 ff. ' Herodikos, af. Athen. vi, 234 d. 

2 'Faiivovaia Neneais : iv "PanvovvTt ' Cf. Wilamowitz, op. cit. p. 8. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

varying trustworthiness of the quarters whence he obtained it, 
prove at once that Antigonos, unhke Xenokrates, belonged to the 
class of people who are curious of facts rather than critical of 
their significance. 

Xenokrates had been guided in his selection of material by 
a strongly marked principle, whence the comparative ease in 
recovering and closing up the dissevered members of his treatise. 
The treatise of Antigonos on the other hand, with its looser 
method of synthesis, is more difficult to retrace. We cannot 
point to this or that fragment of the Plinian history as bearing his 
individual stamp. But we can distinguish certain elements in 
Pliny which go back to those general sources— art-historical, 
epigrammatic, anecdotic, &c. — whence we know Antigonos to 
have drawn, and, on examining these, we shall find the majority 
of cases to afford such strong proof of his handling that, failing 
contrary evidence, it will not be unfair to assume the remainder 
also to have come into Pliny through his medium. 

From the fact that Antigonos incorporated the Treatise of Xeno- 
krates into his own work, and from his allusion in his life of 
Polemon (above, p. xxxviii) to a Treatise upon Portraiture by the 
pamter Melanthios, we may infer that it was he who introduced 
references to a number of artists as having also written upon their 
art. These are the bronze-worker Menaichmos (xxxiv, Index 
and § 80)', the painter Apelles (xxxv, Ind. and § 79, § in), 
Melanthios, AsklepiodorosandParrhasios {ib. Ind.),andEuphranor 
{ib. Ind. and § 128). Apelles as a writer upon art is fortunately 
more than a mere name. One trace of the work or works in 
which he expounded — presumably for the use of his pupils (cf. 
xxxv, § in) — the theories of his art has survived, as Robert 
justly points out', in § 107 in the words Asdepiodorus, quern in 
symmetria mirabatur Apelles, which at the close of § 80 had been 
rendered by Asdepiodoro de mensuris {cedebat Ap.). If the con- 
jecture be correct for Asklepiodoros it follows that Apelles's 
appreciation of Melanthios in the grouping of figures was also 
expressed in the same work. There, likewise, it must have been 
that he discussed the art of Protogenes (§ 80) and criticized his 
laborious finish. In fact, from the words quorum opera cum admi- 
raretih- omnibus conlaudatis, it is fair to assume that besides 
original theories the Apellian treatise contained criticisms — for the 

^ He is otherwise unknown either p. 520, note i ; cf. Susemihl, i, p. 113, 
as artist or writer; see Miinzer, op. cit. note 2. '^ Arch. Mdrchen, p. 70. 



ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS 



xli 



most part favourable — of contemporary artists '. The statement 
as to his own venustas, like the quod nianum de tabula scirei tollere, 
is the later concrete expression, practically thrown into proverbial 
formula, of the aims and theories expounded by Apelles as 
being those of himself and his school. 

Antigonos, too, may be responsible for a few more Plinian 
passages which are faintly coloured by reminiscences of other 
technical treatises by artists, though these are not definitely 
alluded to. I have already indicated in the notes that in the 
words solusque hominum artem ipsam fecisse artis qpere {Polyclitus) 
iudicatur in xxxiv, 55, there appears to lurk an allusion to the 
book, the KaKcov ^, in which, as we learn more fully from Galenos, 
Polykleitos had laid down his theories on the proportions of the 
human body ' ; we have accordingly translated the passage ' he is 
the only man who is held to have embodied his theory of art in 
a work of art,' the work being the famous Spear-Bearer, which is 
here introduced, quite irrespectively of its first mention in § 55, 
as a separate work under its alternative name of the Canon '. 



' Schubert, FleckeiserCs Jahrbb., 
Supplementband ix, p. 716, detects 
a reference to the work of Apelles in 
Pint. Dem. 22 icai iprjaiv 6 'AweWris 
ovTus eKTr\ay^vai Oeaffd/ievos rb epyov 
cuffTC Kot <paiv-^v kKXiTTiLv avT6v. dipk 
S^ fiireiVj fieya^ 5 novos /fat Oavfiaffrdv 
TO epyov, oil ^iijv ex^tv x*ipiTas, St' as 
ovpavov if/aiuetu ra vtt avrov ypatpS/ifva^ 

^ The passage was first so explained 
by Otto Jahn, Jihein. Mus. ix, 1854, 
P' 3'5 f- ('Das Kunstwerk war ein 
Inbegriff der Regeln der Sj'mmetrie, 
ein Compendinm derselben'), who 
argued that here ars = the theories 
of art, 11 compendium of the rules of 
art, by extension of the meaning 
common in the rhetors and gram- 
marians ; Cic. Brut. 1 2, 46 Aristoteles 
ait . . . artem et praecepta Siculos Cor- 
acem et Tisiam conscripsisse. 12, 48, 
similiter Isocratem . . . orationes aliis 
destitisse scribere, totumque se ad artis 
componendas transtulisse. Cf. Quinct. 
X. I, 15 (where see Spalding's note); 
Servius on Aen. vii, 787, legitur in 
arte. The Greek t^x"^ ^^s commonly 
used in the same manner, Life of 



Ten Orators, Isokrates, ii, p. 838 ( = 
Bernardakis, v, p. 164), flat S' ot xal 
Te-^yas avrhv (sc. Isocr.') \eyovaiavyye- 
ypcupivai. At a later period Jahn 
abandoned his earlier opinion and 
saw a latent epigram in the words 
solus hominum . . . iudicatur i^Kunst- 
urtheile, p. 120); he is followed by 
MUnzer, op. cit. 530, note i. 

' The few extant fragments of this 
incomparably interesting work, in 
which Polykleitos reveals himself as 
an ancient Leonardo or Albrecht 
DUrer, have been carefully collected 
and commented on by H. L. Urlichs, 
Griechiscke Kunstschriftsteller, p. i ff. 
See also Diels, in Arch. Anz., 1889, 
p. 10. 

* It is quite possible that Antigonos, 
who had added to the Xenokratic 
mention of Doryphoros and Dia- 
dumenos the epigrammatic description 
which placed the two statues in 
pointed relation to one another 
(above, p. xxxvi), now introduced from 
his acquaintance with the literature 
of art a second account of the statue 
in its relation, not to the other works 



xlii- INTRODUCTION 

If the proposed interpretation of the words artem ipsamfecisse 
artis opere iudicatur be correct, it follows that we have traces in 
XXXV, 74 of another such compendium of art by the painter 
Timanthes : pinxit et heroa absolufissimi operis artem ipsam com- 
plexus viros pingendi ; i. e., like the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, the 
' hero ' of Timanthes was to serve as a ' Canon,' as the embodi- 
ment of theories which had been expounded in an ars or re'x"";. 

Finally in § 76 it is said of Pamphilos that he was especially 
learned in arithmetic and geometry, without which sciences, he 
used to declare, art could make no progress. H. L. Urlichs ^ 
has pointed out that these words are distinguished from the 
ordinary floating apothegm by a precise character such as we 
should expect from an opinion recorded in a written Treatise ; 
and indeed an opinion emanating doubtless from the whole artistic 
personality of Pamphilos could nowhere have been preserved 
intact so well as in a technical treatise, written, like the work of 
Apelles, for the guidance of his pupils. 

The Zenobian gloss showed that Antigonos had maintained 
the Agorakritan authorship of the Nemesis at Rhamnous on the 
ground of the inscription, — an argument against which Polemon, 
supporting the current attribution to pheidias, retorts that Phei- 
dias had doubtless permitted his own work to be inscribed with 
the name of the pupil he loved. Now, since Pliny ascribed the 
Nemesis quite simply to Agorakritos, without any reference to 
its attribution to Pheidias by other authorities, or to the Pole- 
monic compromise, there can be little doubt that his ultimate 
source was Antigonos. Pliny gives the statement, however, in 
close connexion with the story of a competition between Agora- 

of the master, bnt to his theories. effected by the Greek authors. It is 

This second mention, made with no possible, of course, though scarcely 

precise reference to the first, was after- probable, that a Greek writer had 

wards understood by the Roman an- already been guilty of assuming the 

thors to concern a distinct work. In canon and doryphorus to be separate 

the commentary I have given Furt- works. 

wangler's explanation that the Canon ^ Op. cit. p. 1 4 ff., where it is shown 

appears in Pliny as a separate work that the Pamphilos who wrote a work 

to the doryphorus, owing to the intro- TUfii ypa<piicijs xal iarfp&<pav (vS6(av 

duction of a fresh authority at the is a distinct person to the painter, 

words /((ii et quern. I would differ and is presumably identical with the 

only in so far that, while F. supposes Alexandrian grammarian, first century 

Pliny to have been the first to combine B. c. ; see Urlichs, Rhein. Mas. xvi, 

the two notices, my own opinion is 1861, pp. 247-258, and Susemihl, i, 

that the combination was already p. 903 f. 



ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xliii 

kritos and Alkamenes, and this again follows in natural sequence 
upon the mention of these artists in their common relation, 
as pupils, to Pheidias. The various episodes are so indis- 
solubly linked^ that the passage as a whole must be referred 
to Antigonos. Indeed, that he is Pliny's ultimate authority for 
the information concerning Agorakritos is confirmed by the 
closing attribution (§ i8, s.f.) to Agorakritos of the 'Mother of 
the Gods ' at Athens : another vindication for that artist — doubt- 
less, this time also, on the evidence of the inscription — of a work 
popularly ascribed to 'P]:\Q\6.ias{Schriffgu. 83 1-833), of which popular 
ascription Polemon, whose version is represented in Pausanias, 
would not be slow to avail himself. It is noteworthy that by 
retailing, though quite generally and in no relation to any one 
work, the scandal about Pheidias and Agorakritos {eiusdem — sc. 
Phidiae — discipulus fuit Ag. Parius et aetate grains, Hague e suis 
operibus pkraque nomini eius donasse fertur) Antigonos may have 
supplied to Polemon, as Miinzer acutely suggests (pp. cit. p. 522), 
the weapon wherewith to combat the Agorakritan authorship of 
the Nemesis ^- 

We have seen how the Xenokratic accounts of the beginning 
of painting in encaustic (xxxv, 121; see above, p. xxxii) and of the 
beginning of statuary (xxxvij 9 ; above, p. xxv f.) were combined 
by a later writer, surmised to be Antigonos, with variant tradi- 
tions that proclaimed the priority of invention of the island-schools 
over the schools of the mainland. The theory that these combi- 
nations or contrasts of traditions were effected at an early date 
by Antigonos is now confirmed by the fact that in both cases 
appeal is made to the testimony of inscriptions in xxxv, 121; 
the iveKQcv in an artist's signature is quoted in proof of the 
antiquity of encaustic, while in xxxvi, 11- 13, the genealogy of 
the Chian sculptors ' Melas,' Mikkiades, and Archermos, and the 

' See on this point Fnrtwangler, me, since I wrote the above, that 

Plinius u. s. Quellen, p. 72, who how- Antigonos drew from Duris the main 

ever does not trace the passage further part, if not the whole, of his account of 

back than Vano. That Varro was Alkamenes and Agorakritos : the stress 

the intermediary source is obvious laid upon relations of pupilship, 

bam.ih&^o'cA'i quod M. Varro otnni' the supposed competition (p. Ixiv), 

bus signis praetulit ; to the account of the hint thrown out of a scandalous 

the Nemesis which he found in his story (see below, p. Ix) — above all, 

handbook he appended, according to the imaginative element in the tale 

the wont of travellers, remarks of his of how the discomfited Agorakritos 

own. turned his Aphrodite into a Nemesis — 

' The impression has grown upon are so many Duridian traits. Addenda. 



xliv 



INTkODUCTION 



mention of works by Boupalos and Athenis, sons of Archermos ', 
at Delos, and of works by Archermos at both Delos and Lesbos, 
are all based upon inscriptional evidence^ (Miinzer, o/.aV.p. 524 f.). 
Further, as Miinzer indicates {loc. at.), Antigonos went so far in 
the latter instance as to quarrel with his sources; he corrected 
the legend according to which Hipponax had driven Boupalos 
and Athenis to hang themselves in despair ' by adducing proofs 



' The genealogy of Boupalos and 
Athenis is mentioned only once again 
in literature — in the Scholia to Ar. 
Birds, 574 ; "Apx^pfiov (MSB." Apxcv- 
vov) yap <pa<TL, t6v ^oviraXov koX 
'AOrjviSos irarepa, ol 5k 'AyKao^uivra 
t6v ®6.(riov ^ayypcKpov, ttttiv^v epy&- 
aaaBai ttjv NiKrjVj d^s of nepi Kapvoriov 
rbv Hepyai^rjvov (paffi. There is much 
to commend Miinzer's suggestion {/oc. 
cii.) that Karystios of Pergamon (end 
of second century, MUller, Fragm. 
Hist. Graec. iv, p. 356) appears here 
by confusion for our Karystian Anti- 
gonos, sometime resident in Perga- 
mon. (The words oXZ\ . .. (ojypa<pov 
are in any case introduced from a 
source other than that cited for B. 
and A.) We should thus obtain im- 
portant confirmation of Antigonos's 
authorship of the Plinian passage. 

^ The Zenobian gloss alone shows 
that Susemihl (i, p. 672) does Anti- 
gonos an injustice when he credits 
Polemon with the ' epoch-making ' 
idea of basing researches in the pro- 
vince of art-history and periegesis 
upon a study of inscriptions. In this 
connexion we may recall as illus- 
trative of the method employed by 
Antigonos, without on that account 
proposing to refer them definitely to 
him, the notices, derived from the in- 
scriptionson their bases, of the group of 
Alkibiades and ' Demarate ' of Niker- 
atos (xxxiv, 89), and of the trainer of 
athletes by Apollodoros («'^. 89) ; for 
the poftrait statue of Lysimache by 
Demetrius (zff. 76), see below, p. Ixxvi. 

^ Repeated study of the passage 
xxxvi, 11-13, convinces me that Anti- 



gonos borrowed from Duris of Samos 
the genealogy of the Chian sculptors 
and the whole story of Hipponax ; 
especially Duridian is the adjustment 
to a new set of personages of the story 
of Archilochos and Lycambes (see 
Comm.). I am glad to receive on this 
point confirmation from Miinzer, who 
(in a private letter) explains Antigonos 
as having corrected Duris somewhat 
as follows : ' It is true that the Chians 
were already practising the art of 
sculpture (i.e. at the time when, 
according to the Xenokratic theory, 
the Daidalids were inventing sta- 
tuary), but it is not true that the 
verses of Hipponax (as probably 
maintained by Duris) drove Boupalos 
and Athenis to death, for works by 
these artists exist which were created 
after the portrait of the poet, as, for 
example, the Delian statue bearing 
the inscription noK vitibus tantum, 
&e.' Moreover, in another note, the 
gist of which he also allows me 
to publish, Miinzer obsei-ves that 
Antigonos seems likewise to have 
borrowed from Duris that notice of 
the existence of paintings in encaustic 
older than Aristeides which he con- 
fronted with the Xenocratic account : 
'The appeal to the signature of the 
otherwise totally unknown Elasippos 
would be characteristic of Duris (cf. 
below, p. liii). Equally unknown 
are Nikanor and Mnasilaos, and it is 
not clear whether the ethnic Fariorum 
applies also to Polygnotos, and 
whether this Polygnotos should ac- 
cordingly be distinguished from the 
celebrated Thasian artist.' In the 



ANTIGONOS OF KARYSTOS xlv 

to the contrary, again borrowed from inscriptions : quod fahuin 
est, complura enim in finiiimis insulis simulacra posiea fecere sicut 
tn Delo quibus subiecerunt carmen non vitibus tantum censeri Chion 
sed et operibus Archer 7ni filiorum. 

It is reasonable to suppose that Antigonos, who diligently 
studied the inscriptions carved on the actual monuments, did 
not neglect so fruitful a source as the literary epigram. He is 
almost certainly to be credited, as we have seen (p. xxxvi), with the 
epigrammatic qualification attached to the Xenokratic mention 
of the Diadumenos and the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, while 
the ascertained fragments of his writings display a wide-ranging 
familiarity, not only with the greater poets, but also with the 
poetasters and epigrammatists of his day ^ Since, however, the 
actual extent of his responsibility for the epigrammatic element 
in Pliny cannot be precisely determined, it will be best to reserve 
for separate consideration (p. Ixviii) material which plays a con- 
siderable part in the Plinian descriptions of works of art. 

The Lives of the Philosophers reveal Antigonos as a lover 
of personal anecdote and characteristic bans mots ^- Hence 
we are naturally disposed to credit him with the anecdotic 
material which forms so large a bulk of the Plinian narrative, 
and, as a fact, there are frequent proofs of its passage through his 
hands. The preservation, however, in the case of one highly 
distinctive anecdote, of the name of Duris of Samos (xxxiv, 6i) 
enables us to penetrate further — to the very source whence 
Antigonos drew the larger part of his anecdotes '- 

text I have adopted the reading stress on the learning of Antigonos, 

Mnasilai as beyond dispute, but in searching for traces of his art- 

MUnzer provides me with a satis- treatise in Pliny ; he accordingly in- 

factory proof that the Arcesilai of clines to trace back to him certain 

the inferior codices is impossible; passages which evince literary interest : 

were this reading correct, we should c. g. the allusions to the ' Banquet ' 

expect to find that Antigonos in his of Xenophon (xxxiv, 79) and to his 

biography of the Akademic Arke- Treatise on Horsemanship (ib. 76). 
silaos had mentioned this namesake '' See on this point Wilamowitz, 

of the philosopher (Antig. Kar. ap. Antigonos, p. 33. 
Diog. Laert. iv, 45 ; cf. Wilamowitz, ' That Antigonos drew from Duris 

p. 70 ff.) ; but he only notes the for his Treatise upon art, and was 

sculptor Arkesilaos of Paros on the thus the ' first intermediary ' through 

evidence of an epigram of Semonides. which Duridian material found its 

' Miinzer, of. cit. p. 529. Miinzer, way into Pliny, was first suggested 

I may note here, lays considerable by Susemihl, i, note 325, p. 58S. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 



3. Duris of Samos {born about 340 b. c.) / the anecdotic 
element in Pliny. 

Duris, historian and tyrant of Samos, is one of the most striking 
figures among those older Greek writers whom German scholar- 
ship — the researches of Roesiger' and Schubert^, the brilliant 
sketch by Wachsmuth '', call for grateful mention — has succeeded 
in calling back to a new life. The facts we know about his career 
are few, but the scanty fragments ' of his writings suffice to prove 
the strength of his literary personality. Together with his brother 
Lynkeus he had been a pupil of Theophrastos °, and, like the later 
Peripatetics, he became a curious inquirer into personal anecdote, 
which he freely used for purposes of history. His imagination 
was stimulated by his studies of the tragedians ° till he developed 
into an accomplished master of dramatic anecdote, where heroes 
and heroines, dressed in appropriate costume, play on a stage 
whose properties seem inexhaustible. It is to Duris that Plu- 
tarch owes some of his most picturesque descriptions — such as the 
gorgeous pageantry of the return of Alkibiades, and the picture of 
the admiral's galley entering the harbour with purple sails ' as if 
some maske had come into a man's house after some great banquet 
made ''.' Yet Plutarch more than once casts severe doubts on the 
historical trustworthiness of Duris *, and the censure has been 
confirmed by Grote ". 

From Diogenes, who mentions a painter Thales on the authority 
of Duris (Diog. i, i, 39 = Duris fragm. 78), we learn that he 
wrote Lives of the Painters (Trepl fmypd^mi/), and, as we shall 

' A. F. Roesiger: (i) De Duride ^ Curt Wachsmuth, Einleitung in 

Samio Diodori Siculi et Plutarchi das Studium der alten GeschUhte, 

aiictore Diss., Gottingen, 1874; (2) Leipzig, 1895, pp. 543-546; see also 

Die Bedeutung der Tyche bei den Susemihl, 1, p. 585 ff. 

spdteren Criechischen Historikern, * To the collected fragments in 

Konstanz, 1880. For Duris, see espe- Miiller, K H. G. ii, pp. 466-468, must 

cially p. 20 f. be added the new fragments noted by 

" Rudolf Schubert : (i) Die Quellen Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 12. 

Plutarchs in d. Lebensheschreibungen * Athen. iv 128 a. 

' des Eumenes, Demetrios und Pyrrhos, ' Fr. 69, Fr. 70, and the remarks 

inSupplementbandixoftheya;4>-i5«V/5^r of Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 15. 

fur Philologie, pp. 648-833 ; (2) Ge- ' Akib. xxxii, tr. North, ed. Wynd- 

schichte des Agathokes ,^\&A3.\i,i%%,i ,f. ham, ii, p. 133. 

I3fr. ; and (3) Geschichte des Pyrrhus, « Pint. loc. cit. ; Perikl. 28, &c. 

Konigsberg, 1894, pp. 11-24, give » In reference to the story of 

a full and vivid account of Duris. Alkibiades' return, Hist, vi, p. 368. 



DUmS OF SAMOS xlvii 

presently see (cf. p. xlix), that he also wrote Lives of the Sculptors. 
Pliny mentions him in the Index to Book XXXIV as having written 
de toreutice. In the same book (§ 6i) he appears as the authority 
for the statement that Lysippos of Sikyon had no master, but that 
he was originally a coppersmith and ventured upon a higher 
profession at a word of the painter Eupompos, who in presence of 
the young craftsman had enounced the dictum that ' nature and 
not any artist should be imitated.' The story will repay careful 
analysis. The meeting between the young Lysippos and 
Eupompos, though not chronologically impossible, belongs to 
a class of anecdote devised in order to bring the celebrity of one 
generation into pointed contact with the rising genius of the next. 
The story of Lysippos and Eupompos reminds one of nothing so 
much as of those legends invented by the Italian art-historians, on 
a hint afforded by two famous lines in Dante ', in order to bring 
the young Giotto into connexion with Cimabue — legends which 
represent Giotto neglecting his clothmaker's trade to watch 
Cimabue at his work, or Cimabue opportunely passing along the 
road ' da Fiorenza a Vespignano ^ ' precisely at the moment that 
the boy Giotto, while tending his flock, had drawn a sheep 
with such surprising fidelity that the delighted Cimabue begged 
Giotto's father to let him have the boy as pupil. But antiquity 
was rich in similar examples ; the young Thukydides was said to 
have burst into tears of emotion on hearing Herodotos recite his 
History at Olympia, so that the elder historian was moved to 
congratulate the father of so gifted a son'. The undoubted 
pupilship of Xenophon to Sokrates was invested, by the later 
biographers of the philosophers, with the additional interest of that 
first meeting ' in a narrow lane ' where Sokrates, barring the way 
with his stick, had refused to let the young man pass till he should 
have answered the question ' where men were made good and 
virtuous *.' So, too, an exquisite legend had been spun to connect 

' Purgat. Tii, ^^-^6 : Geschichtsforschiing, Bd.'x, pp. 244ff.). 

' Credette Cimabue nella pittura ' Vasari ed. Milanesi, p. 3 70. 

Tener lo campo, ed ora ha Giotto ^ Souidas, s. v. Thuc. 

il grido * Diog. Laert. ii, 6, 2 ; the analogy 

Si che la fama di colui oscura.' to the Lysippos-Eupompos story is 

The entirely apocryphal character of pointed out by H. L. Urlichs, Griech- 

the Cimabue-Giotto legend has been ische Kuntschriftsteller, p. 27. For 

thoroughly exhibited by Franz Wick- further instances of such relation- 

hoff, Ueber die Zeit des Guido von ships cf. Diels, Rhein. Mus. xxxi, 

Sima (Mitth. des Inst. f. Oesterr. p. I3ff. 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

the greatest of the Sokratic disciples with the master already 
from the hour of birth : not only was Plato born the day after 
one of Sokrates' birthdays, but on the eve Sokrates had dreamed 
of a swan flying from the altar of Eros in the Academy, to take 
refuge in his bosom, and lo ! as the philosopher was recounting 
the vision Ariston brought in the new-born babe, in whom 
Sokrates at once divined the swan of his dream '. In the case 
of Eupompos and Lysippos there was no pupilship to emphasize, 
nor could pupilship be invented, since they practised different 
arts; yet there remained the temptation to link the most brilliant 
of the Sikyonian statuaries, the chosen portraitist of Alexander, 
to the celebrity of the passing generation, that greatest of 
Sikyonian painters, whose fame had occasioned, in order to 
comprise him, a redivision of the schools (xxxv, 75). 

The statement that Lysippos had no master arose in great 
measure, I take it, out of the good advice put into the mouth of 
Eupompos ' to imitate nature and not any artist ' — advice which 
amounted to an aphorism expressing the naturalistic tendencies 
of the Lysippian school. But from saying that Lysippos followed 
nature and no special master it was but a step to concluding that 
he never had a master at all. Then, once the master's name 
suppressed or forgotten, legend and the art-historians might fill 
up the gap as they pleased, and the theory of self-taught genius 
was the readiest to hand. But here was an opportunity for further 
elaboration : the self-taught boy, the poor coppersmith, is destined 
to become the leading artist of Sikyon, at that time the 
acknowledged head of the Greek schools. Not only so, but he 
achieves great wealth, as we learn from another Duridian fragment 
preserved in Pliny (xxxiv, 37), but now separated from its original 
context". So that the information as to the early career of 
Lysippos, which has been accepted with the utmost gravity by 
archaeologists and historians of art, is found to resolve itself into 
three apocryphal stories : (i) the autodidaktia assumed to account 
for the artist's master being unknown; (2) the meeting with 
Eupompos, intended to bring into presence Sikyon's greatest 
painter and her greatest sculptor ; (3) the rise from obscurity to 
fame and riches. Armed with these observations, we shall have 

1 Apuleius, de Platone I. understand on what grounds it is 

2 The authorship of Duris for this doubted by Snsemihl, i, p. 587, note 
passage had been pointed out by 325. (See also Munzer, op. cit. 
Brieger, De Fontibus, p. 61 ; I cannot p. 542.) 



DURIS OF SAMOS xlix 

no difficulty in detecting the Duridian authorship of a number of 
other anecdotes preserved in Pliny. We can at once follow 
Miinzer ' in attributing to him the story which tells how Proto- 
genes, whose master, like that of Lysippos, was unknown {quis 
eum docuerit non putant constare, § loi), began his career in abject 
poverty [summa paupertas) as a ship-painter, yet lived to decorate 
the most celebrated spot in the world, even the Gateway of the 
Athenian Akropolis; the story of Erigonos (xxxv, 145), the slave 
who rubbed in the colours for the painter Nealkes, who yet lived 
to be a great master himself, and to leave in Pasias a pupil of 
distinction; further, the kindred story of how the sculptor 
Seilanion (xxxiv, 51)^ became famous nulla doctore, and yet, like 
Erigonos, formed a pupil of his own, Zeuxiades. The kinship of 
the whole group is self-evident, and even if the name of Duris in 
xxxiv, 6 1 were not there to reveal the author we should be led to 
fix upon him, because of the precise parallelism of these stories 
to that recounted by Plutarch, on the authority of Duris, of how, 
through the unexpected favour of Philip, Eumenes of Kardia 
rose from being the son of a poor carrier, who earned a scanty 
living in the Chersonese, to wealth and position'. Such anecdotes 
seem in measure prompted by the desire to illustrate the 
changes of Fortune, of that Tu;^)) whose caprices were so favourite 
a theme of the Peripatetics *- 

Duris was the author of yet one more anecdote of an artist's 
rise from obscurity to fame, which has been preserved in two 
scattered fragments in Pliny and in Diogenes. In Plin. xxxvi, 2 2 
we read : non postferuntur et Charites in propylo Atheniensium 

^ Op. cit. p. 534. Kioiv Kal traXaiff^Ta TToiBuy, kv o7s 

' The Duridian authorship is de- eirjiiepfiffavTa rhv Ei/ievr] Kal (pavivra 

tected by H. L. Urlichs, op. cit. p. 28. avvtrov Koi avdpeiov dpeffai tw ^iXiTTirtu 

The notice of Seilanion appears in Kal dva}^7f(p67jvai. The analogy is 

the chronological table, awkwardly pointed out by Miinzer, 0/. «V. p. 534, 

tacked on to the artists of the 1 13th who also refers to Duris all the stories 

Olympiad, where it is evidently out of discussed above of artists rising to 

place; Add. to Comm. on xxxiv, 51, 1. fame from humble beginnings. The 

' Plut. £am. I Eiiihri &i t&v Duridian authorship had become evi- 

KapSmvof laropft Aovpts Trarplis /ttv dent to me since analysing the anec- 

apia^ivovTos ev Xeppovrjaai SicL ucviav dotic material in Pliny in the light of 

yfviaSat, Tpacj)rjvai Si (KevSepias (v the hints thrown oat by H. L. Urliclis, 

ypdfifiafft Kal irtpl traKaiffTpav en 5e op. cit. p. 21 ff. Addenda. 
■naibbs ovTos avrov ^'iMirirov irapemSTj- * See especially Roesiger, Bedeut- 

fiovvTa Kal axoKrjv ayovra tA, tSiv ung der Tyche, passim. Susemihl, i, 

KapSiavwy BiaaaaSai irayKpaTM fieipa- p. 592. 



1 INTRODUCTION 

quas Socrates fecit, alius ille quam pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. 
In his Life of Sokrates, Diogenes (ii, 5, 4) has the story on the 
authority of Duris that a Sokrates had begun life in slavery, and 
as a stone mason '- Now, although Diogenes appUes this story to 
the philosopher, there is nothing in the fragment as it stands to 
show that Duris had this Sokrates in his mind. Indeed, since 
nothing is known of the slavery of the philosopher''', there is every 
reason to suppose that Duris was speaking of the sculptor, and 
was recounting of him the same tale of modest beginnings as in 
the cases of Lysippos, of Protogenes, and of Erigonos. Like 
Erigonos he had been a slave, and in this capacity had practised an 
inferior branch of the art in which he was afterwards to excel. 
Like Protogenes, moreover, this man rose from the humblest 
circumstances to see his works — the famous Charites — in propylo 
Atheniensium ! Further, the peculiar use in both passages of 
propylon for the gateway of the Akropolis, instead of the invariable 
propylaion or propyiaia, affords satisfactory corroborative evidence 
of their common origin'. We get an interesting trace of the 
story's passage through the hands of Antigonos in the words 
alius ille quam pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. The identity of 

' Diog. Laeit. ii, 5, 4 AoC/iis koX nothing abont it), it was inevitable 

hovKtvaai airuv (XmicpaTq) koX epya- that it should arise in face of the 

aatrOat \l6ovs. The statement which said Charites by a namesake, com- 

immediately follows, concerning the bined with the fact that the father of 

Charites on the Akropolis, which Sokrates, Sophroniskos, was a scnlp- 

some said (Ji/ioi ipaaiv) to be by tor. That the contaminatio of philo- 

Sokrates, does not concern us ; H, L. sopher and sculptor occurred at an 

Urlichs ( Griechische Kunsischriftst. early period is proved by some Attic 

p. 43) is certainly right in referring coins of Hellenic date bearing the 

it to another source than Duris. name of an official Sokrates who, in 

'^ Duris was quite capable of in- evident allusion to his famous name- 
venting the story had it suited him ; sake, had the group of the Charites 
but in the first place there is nothing from the Akropolis stamped on the 
to show that he wrote concerning the Reverse. (See Furtwangler, ap. 
philosophic Sokrates or any philoso- Roscher, i, p. 881.) The celebrity 
phers ; in the second, it is odd that so of the relief, owing to the supposed 
striking a circumstance as that of the authorship of Sokrates, accounts for its 
philosopher's slavery, once invented, numerous copies. See note on xxxvi, 
should not have found its way to any 32, and Furtwangler, Statuenkopien 
authors besides Diogenes.— As to the im Alterthum, p. 532 f. (where the 
l«gend that the philosopher had been writer modifies his earlier view as to 
the sculptor of the Charites (Paus. i, the date of the extant Charites reliefs). 
2 3, 8; ix, 35, 3; Schol. Aristoph. = Wachsmuth, .Sto/i ^M^k, i, p. 36, 
vK^iKai, 773 ; Souidas, s. v. Sokrates : note 2 ; cf. also B. Keil in Hermes, 
Pliny, it should be noted, knows xxx, 1895, p. 227. 



DURIS OF SAMOS li 

Sokrates the sculptor with the painter of the same name was 
maintained against a previous writer who had disputed it. The 
nature of the controversy recalls at once Antigonos and his hostile 
critic Polemon\ (See Addenda.) 

We have seen that one factor in these stories is the desire to 
account for the absence of any record concerning the masters of 
certain celebrated artists. We may therefore suspect that a 
second little group of Plinian anecdotes of sculptors who were 
ifiMo pictores and who exchanged painting for sculpture may be 
traced back to the same workings ". The case of Pheidias (xxxv, 
52) is specially deserving of analysis. The ambiguous character 
of the information concerning the painted shield, upon which his 
reputation as a painter rests, has been detected by H. L. Urlichs 
(see Commentary). We may now carry the argument further and 
recognize in the statement that Pheidias was initio pictor an attempt 
to solve a problem which greatly exercised the ancient art-historian, 
namely the problem who was the real master of Pheidias. 

Three answers to this question may be distinguished in ancient 
criticism. According to one tradition, Pheidias had, like Myron 
and Polykleitos, been the pupil of Hagelaidas of Argos ', a view 
which has long been shown — by Klein *, Robert, and others — to be 
improbable, if not as impossible as it apparently is in the case of 
Polykleitos '. The tradition has all the apocryphal air of those 
stories, common to all times and countries, which group great 
names together without regard to temporal probabilities'. In 
certain circles, however, the real fact, as recent morphological 
study reveals it ', that Pheidias was the pupil of Hegias, had 

'So H. L. Urlichs, Gr. Kunst- sound criticism requires us rather to 

schriftsteller, p. 43. lay it aside, if not absolutely to reject 

^ Cf. Miinzer, of. cit. p. 533. it. The chronological difficulties have 

' Schol. to Aristoph., Frogs, 504, been hinted at above. Moreover, by 

whence the information was copied exhibiting Hagelaidas as the master 

by Tzetzes and Souidas. of the three most representative artists 

* Klein, Arch. -Ef. Mitth. aus of the fifth century, the tradition be- 

Oesterreich, vii, p. 64 ; cf. Robert, trays that tendency which is, to quote 

Arch. Mdrchen, p. 93 f. ; Furtwangler, a modern writer, ' so easily explained 

pieces, p. 53. pyschologically, but so fatal to criti- 



° Robert, /. c. cism, of making one great name stand 

" Lately Ernest Gardner, ^a«rt^&a/J for a whole epoch or style.' (Bemhard 

of Greek Sculpt, i, p. 193, has at- Berenson, Lorenzo Lotto, an Essay in 

tempted, by straining the dates to the Constructive Criticism, p. 26.) Add. 
utmost, to defend the tradition for all ' Furtwangler, loc. cit. The Hegias 

three sculptors. Failing, however, tradition is preserved by Dio Chryso- 

suflicient evidence for its truth, a stom. Or. Iv, ircpi 'O/^. «aj "Zaxp. i. 

da 



Hi INTRODUCTION 

either remained unforgotten or, as is more probable, had been 
recovered from the monuments. Neither tradition, however, can 
have been widely current, for had it been generally reported that 
Pheidias was the pupil of either artist some mention of the fact, 
or at least some argument disputing it, would surely have filtered 
into Pliny, who mentions Hegias twice (xxxiv, 49, 78) and 
Hagelaidas three times {ib. 49, 55, 57), noting, moreover, that the 
latter artist was the master of Myron and of Polykleitos. The 
Plinian authors were on a totally different track, and their 
solution of the problem reveals the existence of a third class of 
critics, who, ignorant of the Hagelaidas and Hegias theories, 
filled up the gap in tradition by declaring that the early training 
of Pheidias was that of a painter. To this theory some writer 
of the stamp of Duris would give more point by the opportune 
discovery of a shield reputed to be painted by Pheidias, though, 
strange to say, unable to fix the whereabouts of so weighty 
a piece of evidence more precisely than by saying it kad been 
at Athens. 

But if Duris of Samos is to be held responsible for the story 
that Pheidias had begun life as a painter it follows that we must 
likewise trace back to him the similar story concerning Pythagoras 
of Samos, and hence the whole ridiculous splitting into two of 
an artist who happened to sign sometimes 2a/jios from the home of 
his birth, sometimes 'Vrj-ftvos from that of his adoption (see Comm.). 
UvBayopas 'S.diJ.ios would have a triple interest for Duris : as a native 
of Samos ; as a namesake of the philosopher Pythagoras, also 
a Samian celebrity, whom Duris had mentioned in his second 
Book of the History of Samos (fr. 56) ; and as a famous portraitist 
of athletes, for Duris, who had himself as a boy won a victory 
at Olympia (Paus. vi, 13, 5 '), appears in later life to have written 
a book on athletic games, wEpi aywvwv ^, the material for which he 
would doubtless derive in great measure from the inscriptions on 
the bases of the athlete statues. It was perhaps thus that, coming 
upon the alternative ethnic of Pythagoras, he jumped at the con- 
clusion that there were two artists of the name. Then, having 
discovered a Tlvdayopas ^dfnos, it became necessary to find out his 
master. Klearchos — himself a Rhegine— must be left for Pytha- 
goras of Rhegion (Paus. vi, 4, 3), and so Duris, instead of involving 

' See the reading proposed by passage seems entirely erroneous. 
Susemihl, i, p. 586, note 323. Schu- ' SusemiM, i, p. 5875. 

bart's emendation of the corrupt 



DURIS OF SAMOS liii 

himself in false school genealogies, simply filled up the gap by 
declaring the Samian Pythagoras to have, like Pheidias, begun 
life as a painter. Finally, since a sentimental harping upon 
family relationships has been acutely detected by Miinzer {op. cit. 
P- 533) ^s a characteristic of Duridian anecdotes, we may trace 
back to Duris the mention of Sostratos, the pupil and nephew — 
filius sororis — of Pythagoras of Rhegion. I have noted in the 
Commentary that there is nothing to lead us to identify this 
Sostratos with any of the other sculptors of the name, and Duris 
was nothing loth to provide his heroes with pupils, with children 
or other near relations, of whom history has otherwise no record. 
So the Arimnestos (Duris, fr. 56), son of the philosopher Pythagoras, 
and himself master of the philosopher Demokritos, appears a pure 
creation of Duris, as, for the rest, do the pupils of Seilanion and of 
Erigonos. 

The whole group of stories we have been considering were 
precisely of the kind to attract Antigonos of Karystos, who in his 
Life of Pyrrhon (above, p. xxxviii) had especially noted the poverty 
and obscurity of the philosopher's early days, adding that he had 
begun as a painter ^ In the case of Pythagoras there is a further 
interesting little proof that the story was handled by Antigonos. 
The words in § 61, hie {Pyth. Samius) supra dido {Pyth. Rhegino) 
facie guogue indiscreta similis fuisse traditur, contain a sharp 
criticism, which has amusingly escaped Pliny and before him 
Varro, upon the statement that the Rhegine and Samian Pytha- 
goras were different persons. The fact of the criticism turning 
upon a question of identity of artists, no less than the manner in 
which the criticism is passed, at once betray Polemon of Ilion, 
the indefatigable assailant of Antigonos, whose error, as regards 
Pythagoras, Polemon now corrects. 'Your second Pythagoras, 
my friend Antigonos,' wrote the amused Polemon, 'looks to 
me suspiciously like your first '.' ' Polemon's whole book was 
merely the comprehensive criticism, the improvement and en- 
largement of that of Antigonos' (Miinzer, op. cit. p. 526), and it 
was characteristic of its controversial parts, as H. L. Urlichs was 

* The analogy between the anec- steller, p. 39 ff., but I owe it to Prof, 

dotes is pointed out by Miinzer, op. W. Klein to have explained to me, 

cit. p. 533. as I believe correctly, the whole 

^ Polemon's authorship of the criti- satirical force of the words hie supra 

cism was rightly detected by H. L. dicto, &c. . . . 
Urlichs, Griechische Kunstschrift- 



liv INTRODUCTION 

the first correctly to apprehend, that, while Antigonos had 
inclined to multiply names and attributions, Polemon on the 
contrary wished to reduce them \ He was wrong in the case of 
the Agorakritan Nemesis ; in that of Pythagoras of Samos and 
Rhegion he was — as it happens — quite right. 

Having thus detected in Pliny a number of anecdotes betraying 
the Peripatetic, and more especially Duridian, delight in dwelling 
upon unexpected turns of fortune or upon paradoxical changes of 
profession, we now turn to another class of story, intended 
primarily to give point to striking traits of character. In xxxiv, 
71 it is recounted of the painter Parrhasios that he made an 
insolent use of his success, taking to himself the surname of the 
' Lover of Luxury ' (li^poSiatros), boasting moreover of his descent 
from Apollo, and that he had painted Herakles even as the hero 
had appeared to him in a dream. Finally the artist's intolerable 
pride finds its highest expression in the insult flung at his rival 
Timanthes. The story recurs in an amplified form, though 
with the Apolline descent omitted, in Athenaios, who has the 
first part of it on the authority of the Peripatetic Klearchos of 
Soloi. 

Athen. xii, p. 543 c ' : ' Among the ancients ostentation and extravagance 
were so great that the painter Parrhasios was clothed in purple and wore 
a. golden wreath upon his head, as Klearchos says in his Lives. Parrhasios, 

' Zenobios, v, 82 (above, p. xxxix) ; the ' Mother of the Gods.' 

with Athenagoras, UpeaPfia, 17 = The alternative account in Athe- 

( = onr App. XI), of. Pans. ii. 27, 2 ; uaios (xv, 687 b) should be compared 

see also Pans, i, 24, 8 and the remarks (lack of space compels omission of 

of Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 412, the Greek): — 

on the artist of the Apollo Parnopios. • Though Parrhasios the painter 

With the statement preserved in was vain beyond the measure of his 

Pliny XXXV, 54, to the effect that the art, and had, as the saying goes, drunk 

gold-ivory Athena at Elis was the deep of the cup of liberty that his 

work of Kolotes, it is interesting to pencil gave, yet he had pretensions to 

compare Pans, vi, 26, 3, where the virtue, writing on all his paintings at 

words itvat fiiv Si) *ei5i'ou ipaalv airriv Lindos, 

(i. e. the Eleian Athena) seem to " One who lived in luxury ... (djSpo- 

imply, as Miinzer kindly points out Siairos)." 

to me in an unpublished note, that But a wit, who was, I imagine, angry 

the authorship of the statue was with him for defiling the delicacy and 

a controverted point — in other words, beauty of virtue by diverting to vulgar 

the phrase of Pausanias is the echo luxury the fortune given to him by 

of a' Polemonic criticism such as chance, wrote at the side, 

that surviving in the Zenobian gloss, " One worthy of the stick . . . (Ja0So- 

and that which doubtless attached to Simros)." 

the question of the authorship of In spite of all, however, he must be 



DURIS OF SAMOS Iv 

while arrogant beyond what his art warranted, yet laid claim to virtne, and 
would write on his paintings 

One who lived in luxury {d0poSimTos) and honoured virtue painted this. 

' And some person who was stung by the words wrote at the side : — 

One worthy of the stick (/5ai8SoSiaiTos), &c. 

' He further wrote these lines on many of his works : — 

A man who lived in luxury and honoured virtue painted this, Parrhasios 
bom in famous Ephesos. Nor have I forgotten my father Evenor, who begat 
me as his lawful son, first in my art among all Greeks '- 

' And he spoke a vaunt with no offence in the lines : — 

Though they that hear believe not, I say this. For I aver that now have 
the clear limits of this art been discovered by my hand, and a bound is set that 
none may overpass. Yet is nothing faultless among mortals '. 

' Once at Samos, when competing with his Aias against an inferior picture, 
he was defeated j and when his friends condoled with him he said that, for 
himself, he cared little, but he was grieved for Aias, who was worsted a second 
time. 

' As signs of his luxurious living he wore a purple cloak and Iiad a white 
fillet upon his head, and leaned upon a staff with golden coils about it, and 
fastened the strings of his shoes with golden latchets. 

' Nor was the practice of his art toilsome to him, but light, so that he would 
sing at his work, as Theophrastos in his treatise on Happiness tells us. And 
he uttered marvels when he was painting the Herakles at Lindos, saying that 
the god appeared to him in a dream and posed himself (rd. airov) as was fitting 
for the picture. Hence he wrote upon the painting : — 

As many a time in nightly visits he appeared unto Parrhasios, such is he 
here to look upon ^' 

Jahn has pointed out, in his discussion of the passage *, that 
Klearchos had only the story of the artist's effeminacy. That 
Athenaios derived the rest of his information concerning Parrhasios 
from another source is manifest from the clumsy repetition of the 

pardoned, because he said that he tc'xitjs evpijaSai repimra rijaSe 

loved virtue. This is the story of aa<prj 

Klearchos. X*'/"^' "^' 4/«fep»)s' dvvircpBKrjTos 

^ afipoSiaiTOS avrjp apniiv t( ai0a>y SI Treirrjycv 

t65' eypaipa ovpos' &fi6jfj.rjTov S* ouSec eyevTO 

Xlappcunos, ic\eivrjs irarpiSos e( fiporots. 

'E<^6ffow. ^ Otos 8' iw^x^^^ tpavrd^cTO -noWaici 

ov8i TTaTp6s \a06p.7]v Evrivopos, 5s (ponaiv 

pa pt 6(pvff€ Ilappaaiq/ Bi' ijiryov, toTos o5 

ypriaiov, 'EWrivav TrpSira tpipov- iarh dpav. 

ra TEX""?'- ' Kleins Beitrdge 2. Geschichte d. 

^ el KoX ainaTa xKvovai, \(fa T&ie alien Literatur (in Sdchsische Berichte 

<^r)pi y&p ijdj) for 1857), p. 285, note i. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION 

epigram a^pobiairos avf]p, as also from the variant details respecting 
the artist's headgear — a gold crown in the first passage, a white 
fillet in the second. If we analyze the stories in Pliny and in 
Athenaios we obtain the following elements : 

(i) The story of the artist's effeminacy and luxury, given in 
Athenaios, first on the authority of Klearchos, and repeated from 
an unnamed author; in Pliny it occurs combined with that of 
the artist's arrogance : fecundus artifex, sed quo nemo insolentius 
usus sit gloria artis habrodiaetum se appellando. 

(2) The boast recorded both in Athenaios and Pliny that 
Herakles often appeared to the artist in dreams w^hile he was 
engaged upon the hero's picture. 

(3) The story, given also by both writers, of the competition 
at Samos, and the insult to Timanthes. 

(4) The story, preserved only in Pliny, of the artist's boasted 
descent from Apollo. 

It is evident that these membra disieda must all have been 
found united in some older writer, from whom they found their 
way through different channels into Pliny and Athenaios re- 
spectively. Now Klearchos of Soloi was himself a pupil of 
Aristotle ' ; and, although Athenaios does not name his authority 
for the rest of the story, it is evident from its character, and from 
the mention moreover of Theophrastos for the parenthetical 
anecdote that Parrhasios was in the habit of singing at his 
work, that we are full among the Peripatetics. Therefore, as 
H. L. Urlichs has pointed out, the original authority must be 
a Peripatetic who had written upon the painters; in a word, it 
must be Duris of Samos ". This conjecture finds confirmation 
in the comments respectively made by Schubert ' and Miinzer * 
on the especial delight which Duris takes in describing details of 
dress (above, p. xlvi). It is significant that out of eighty-four 
fragments in Miiller no less than ten ^ are concerned with elabo- 
rate descriptions of costume. Parrhasios the effeminate, with 
his purple robe and his golden crown, is reminiscent of the 
effeminate Demetrios, with his yellow hair and painted face, of 
frag. 27; of the regal Demetrios, with the gold-embroidered robes 
and the hair-band shot with gold (/iiVpa ;i(/)uo-o'7ra(r7-or), of frag. 31. 

• 

' Athen. xv, p. 701 c. * Op. cit. p. 536. 

^ Griechische KanstschriftsteUer, ■' Fr. 14, 20, 22, 24, 27, 29, 31, 47, 

P- 25- 50, and 64. 
' Pyrrhus, p. 15. 



DURIS OF SAMOS Ivii 

But Parrhasios was not the only painter who delighted in 
gorgeous apparel. According to Pliny (xxxv, 62), his rival Zeuxis 
carried the same taste so far as to make his appearance at Olympia 
displaying his own name woven in letters of gold into the em- 
broideries of his garments — aureis litteris in palliorum tesseris 
intextum nomen — a detail which recalls the description of the 
chlamys of Demetrios, into which was inwoven the vault of 
heaven with its golden stars and twelve signs of the zodiac ^ 
Robert ^ had already pointed out that the similarity of the stories 
narrated by Athenaios of the costume of Parrhasios, and by Pliny 
of that of Zeuxis, showed them to be derived from the same 
author. Since in the case of Parrhasios this author was Duris of 
Samos, it follows that it is to him also we must refer the Plinian 
anecdote of the luxury of Zeuxis ^. 

A word remains to be said about the epigrams out of 
which the stories concerning Parrhasios are in great measure 
elaborated. It was the opinion of Jahn that all the epigrams 
purporting to have been written by Parrhasios upon himself, and 
inscribed upon his pictures — with the exception perhaps of the one 
celebrating the nocturnal apparitions of Herakles — were apocry- 
phal *- Jahn included in the same category the self-laudatory 
epigrams placed in the mouth of the painter Apollodoros by one 
Nikomachos °, and the epigram which, according to the orator 
Aristeides (Or. xlix, vol. ii, p. 521 Dindorf), had been elicited 
from Zeuxis in answer to the boasts of Parrhasios. 

' Listen now,' writes Aristeides, ' to another swaggering painter,' 
and quotes the following epigram of Zeuxis : 

' Herakleia my Fatherland, Zeuxis my name ; if any among men pretend to 
have attained the limits of my art, let him come forward and be proclaimed 
conqueror. . . . Yet methinlis that mine is not the second place °.' 

^ Duris «/. Athen. xii, 535 f ( = fr- hung in front of pictures which he 

31) ; al Si x^^A^^fs outou ^(roj" exhibited at Olympia (see Arch. Ep. 

if^vivov ixovaai rb (peyyos rijs )(p6as, Mitth. aus Oeslerreich, xii, 1888, p. 

TO i\ Ttav [verba suspecta, Keil] 1 06 f., and the article /Vir/«?-o in Smith's 

TTcJ^os eviJ<))avTo -xpvaom dffrepas ex""' Du/. of Ant. vol. ii, p. 410). 

KoX ToL SiiSeKa (wSia. Cf. Plut. De- * Kleine Beitrdge, p. 286 ff. 

metrios, ^\. ° ApudYLs^aisXiointiplyiirpav koX 

^ Arch. Mdrchen, p. 80. -noaiix. iv, 7 : 

^ The remarks made above will OStos S^ aoi 6 KKftvbs &v' 'EWiSa 

show sufficiently why I have thought irdaav 'AiroWS- 

it unnecessary to refer either here or Soupos' yiyvdufftcets Tovvo/ja tovto 

in the Comm. to the witty explanation aKvav. 

of the pallia of Zeuxis as the curtains ' 'HpaK\na Trarpis, ZeCfis 8' broji'- 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

These poetical criticisms, passed in similar vocabulary by three 
great contemporary painters upon their own or one another's 
achievements, seemed suspicious to Jahn. Bergk, however, 
saw no reason to dispute their authenticity', and in the case of 
Zeuxis at least it has lately been pointed out that his epigram has 
a parallel in the acrostic inscribed upon the grave of the rhetor 
and sophist Thrasymachos of Chalkedon, a younger contem- 
porary of Sokrates : ToiVo/ia e^ra 'P£ "AX^a %av 'Y Mu "AX^o Xci Oi 
Sax, I TTarph XoKKriSmv- ^ 8c rex"'] <TO<f>lr] (Athen. X, 454 {=Anih. App. 

359)^- We may gather from the observation that Zeuxis stood;, 
as probably also Polykleitos, in close relation to the Sophists *. 
And the same is possibly true also of Parrhasios. 

But to return to Duris. We have seen that those episodes 
of the Zeuxis-Parrhasios legends, designed to point the ethical 
qualities of the artists, might with certainty be referred to him. 
Now it has been finely discerned by Robert that the amiable 
Apelles and Protogenes are conceived as a pendant, so to speak, 
to the haughty and arrogant Zeuxis and Parrhasios, ' the faults of 
the older couple serving as a foil to the virtues of the younger. 
As a contrast to the productive and luxurious Parrhasios, we get 
Protogenes, struggling with the bitterest poverty, working with 
the most painstaking care, and accordingly producing but little : 
summa paupertas initio artisque summa intentio et ideo minor fer- 
tilitas. The portrait of Apelles is drawn with an even more 
loving hand; his simplicitas, which manifests itself in his un- 
grudging recognition of the superiority of masters who surpassed 
him in special points ; his comitas, to which he owed the intimacy 
of Alexander ; his benignitas displayed towards Protogenes — are 
dwelt upon with admiration, and instances are adduced in their 
support *.' 

The intercoherence of the two sets of anecdotes is so patent 

(1 Se Tis avlfSiv ^/icrepi;? rtx^n^ duces himself to the reader as : ifioX 

TTCipara ip-qaiv ix^iv Sei^as viKcnai- 'AyaBias niv ovojm, Mvptva Si irarpU 

SokSi Se, (ptjaiv, fiixas oixl tcL Sevrep' (VLeiivovios Si TtaTqp), Tcx^ij SI rd 

cX""- 'PaiMiav vdiu/M ko! oi Tfiy Sixaarripianr 

The resemblance to the second epi- aySii'es. See Reitzenstein, Hermes, 

gram of Parrhasios, quoted by Athe- xxiv, 1894, p. 238. 

naips, is striking. a Roijgrt, VoHvgemalde eines Apo- 

1 ZyW«Cra««,ed.4,vol.ii,p.3i6f. baten,-p. 20; Diels, Deutsche Liter.- 

''■ Imitated as late as the second half Ztg. May 29, 1886, p. 784, and Arch. 

of the sixth cent. A. D. by Agathias Anz. 18S9, p. 10. 

(pp. 8, 18, ed. Niebuhr), who intro- » Arch. Mdrchen, p. 81. 



DURIS OF SAMOS lix 

as of itself to justify us in assuming Duris, to whom we owe the 
one set, to be the author also of the other. This assumption is 
confirmed when we look more clearly into the details. 

Most of the anecdotes recounted of Apelles and Protogenes 
are intended, as Robert has already remarked, to give concrete 
expression, above all, to the moral qualities of the artists, and at 
times also to their technical excellencies. The famous story of 
the 'splitting of the line' (xxxv, 80-82), like that of the circle 
traced by Giotto in presence of the Pope's envoy', is merely 
a comment on the delicate draughtsmanship of Apelles. Proto- 
genes is made to split the line which Apelles divides once more, 
that the latter's superiority may be only the more triumphantly 
established by a great rival's acknowledged discomfiture. The 
setting of this particular anecdote moreover — the description 
of the studio with the solitary old woman (see Comm.) 
guarding in the master's absence the large easel with the panel 
ready to be worked upon — is specially Duridian in its picturesque 
detail. 

The two proverbs attributed to Apelles, 'No day without a 
stroke ' (§ 84), and ' Cobbler, stick to thy last ' (§ 85), were intended 
to bring out his industry, and his respect for the opinion of 
others, though naturally only in so far as they speak of what 
they understand. The moralizing tone of the Peripatetic is heard 
in both the anecdotes elaborated out of the proverbs ; nor is it 
superfluous to note that Duris seems to have had a strong 
leaning to proverbial sayings, possibly actually to have collected 
them \ 

The anecdote recounted in §§ 85, 86 of Alexander the Great's 
visit to Apelles illustrates another of the artist's qualities, his 
comitas or amiability. The kindly snub administered by Apelles 
to the king is evidently apocryphal, belonging to that class of 
anecdotes which, as Freeman would say, ' go about the world with 
blanks for the names V for Ailianos (see Comm.) has it of Zeuxis 
and a Megabyzos or Priest of Kybele. The story of Pankaspe, 
which, on the other hand, is a comment on the monarch's 
generosity and self-control, is not only practically inseparable 
from the first, but Alexander's detection of his artist friend's 
trouble, and the magnanimous self-denial with which he gives up 

' Vasari, ed. Milanesi, vol. i, p. id. 11,28; b. ^s^^VhA. Lysander, \%. 
383. " Freeman, Methods of Historical 

^ See fr. 49 = Zenob. v, 64; fr. 68= Study, p. 134. 



Ix INTRODUCTION 

to him the most beloved of his mistresses, bear an extraordinary 
resemblance to the tale recounted by Plutarch (Demetr. xxxviii) 
of how King Seleukos gave up his wife Stratonike to his sick son 
Antiochos, whose love to his step-mother had been discovered 
by the physician Erasistratos as the cause of the young man's 
disease. The Plutarchian story has been traced back to Duris ', 
whose partiality for erotic subjects, moreover, is abundantly 
proved by the extant fragments'*. 

The story told in § 87 emphasizes the benignitas of Apelles 
towards all rivals, by singling out for our admiration his conduct 
in the case of Protogenes. The episode was evidently originally 
of a piece with the visit recounted in §§ 81, 82. To the story of 
the horses in § 95 we shall return later (p. Ixiv) ; it may, how- 
ever, be noted here that it shows the amiable and good-tempered 
artist losing patience, as in the case of the cobbler, with people 
pretending to know more about art than himself. 

The Duridian character of the story of the rise of Protogenes 
from poverty to fame (§ loi) has already been noted in another 
connexion. His homely fare of soaked lupins gives point to his 
poverty and sobriety. The story in § 103, telling how the froth 
at the dog's mouth in the picture of 'lalysos' was rendered 
by a lucky accident, when all the artist's efforts had failed, is 
eminently Peripatetic and Duridian in its delighted insistence upon 
the miracle of chance {canis . . . quem pariter et casus pinxerit ; 
fecitque in pictura fortuna naturani) ^^ It is almost the anecdotic 

' Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 21. xiii, p. 605 E), who not impossibly had 

^ Cf. fragm. 2, 3, 19, 27, 35, 37, himself got it from Duris, the statue in 

42,43,58,63. Thus he might possibly question having been at Samos. We 

be responsible for the story of Pausias learn, moreover, from Athenaios (xiii, 

and Glykera (xxxv, 125), and for the p. 606 A), on the authority of Adaios 

anecdote recounted in xxxv, 140, of ofMitylene,thatitwasthework ofone 

a Queen Stratonike, who may be Ktesikles (cf. Brunn, K. G. i, p. 424) : 

identical with the Stratonike men- he is otherwise unknown, and the 

tioned above. Perhaps too he had name happens to be identical with 

the stories of the lovers of the Knidian that of the painter of ' Stratonike and 

Aphrodite (xxxvi, 2i) and of the Eros the Fisherman.' 

at Parion (ib. § 22) ; the stories, it is ' The similar story recounted of 

true, were derived by Pliny from Nealkes (xxxv, 104) is probably a 

Mucianus (p. xc), but the latter may mere doublette of that of Protogenes; 

quite well have had access to Duris but there is nothing in the date of 

(cf. p. xci) or to art-literature based Nealkes, as now established by Miin- 

upon Duris ; at any rate we find a zer (see Comm.), to prevent its having 

similar anecdote recounted by Klear- originated with Duris. 
chos of Soloi (fragm. 46 ap. Athen. 



DURIS OF SAMOS Ixi 

illustration of a line of Agathon quoted by Aristotle : rfx^i Tvxnv 

fo-rep^e, koX Tvxr) Tex"'!'' '■' (Addenda.) 

The story of the protection accorded by Demetrios (who by 
the way is a favourite hero of Duris) to Protogenes '■', and of the 
friendly intercourse between the warrior and the artist (§§ 104, 
loc), recalls the intercourse of Alexander and Apelles. Moreover, 
the scenic setting, the description of the artist living in hortulo 
suo (see Comm.), must be by the hand which had described the 
anus una keeping watch in the empty studio. Of the Satyr 
upon which Protogenes was at work when Demetrios besieged 
Rhodes, Strabo (xiv, p. 652) tells an anecdote characteristic of 
Duris. The Satyr was represented leaning against a column 
upon which perched a partridge ; now so greatly was the painting 
of the bird admired that it detracted from the attention due to 
the central figure ; the painter, accordingly, vexed because his 
main theme had become subsidiary (to tpyov irapepyov •yeyoi'dr), 
erased the bird. The story is identical in spirit and intention 
with that of the boy and grapes painted by Zeuxis, and recounted 
by Pliny (xxxv, 66) and Seneca Rhetor (see Comm.\ I incline 
to credit the Samian historian with the authorship of both. Lastly, 
the story of Aristotle's advice to Protogenes to paint the feats of 
Alexander is obviously more likely to proceed from the Peripatetic 
Duris than from any other of the Plinian authors. 

We have thus recovered considerable fragments of as many as 
four of Duris's Lives of the Painters. There still remain scat- 
tered up and down the Plinian narrative a number of Duridian 
passages, which I propose to examine in conclusion. 

Closely connected with the anecdotes illustrative of character 
comes another series, designed to give concrete form to certain 
art-problems which had at different times exercised different 
schools. A striking instance is the story told in xxxv, 64, of how 
Zeuxis combined the beauty of his Helen painted for Kroton 
(the Agrigentum of Pliny is a mistake, see Comm.) from the best 
features of the five fairest maidens of that city. The anecdote 
embodies the axiom that since ' there is no excellent Beauty, that 
hath not some strangenesse in the proportions,' the artist, striving 
for the ideal perfection, must needs ' take the best Parts out of 
Divers Faces to make one Excellent '.' Both the problem and 

"■ Ethics, vi. 4. lSbc Addenda. Demetrios, for which Duris is one of 

^ The story is also told with only the main sources, 
slight discrepancies by Plutarch in the ^ Bacon, Essays, xliii. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION 

its solution had been discussed by Sokrates in the studio of 
Parrhasios\ Cicero, recounting the story of Zeuxis and the 
maidens as an illustration of the method he had himself followed 
in his study of rhetoric, had naturally combined it with the axiom 
it was originally intended to illustrate. The long passage {de 
Invent. Rhet. ii, i, i) is too well known to need full quotation, 
but the closing words are significant for our purpose, as showing 
how the anecdote had its rise in philosophic speculations : — 

'. . . he (Zeuxis) did not believe that all the excellencies he needed for his 
beauteous image could be found in one body, for this reason, that nature never 
puts the perfect finishing touch to all the parts of any one object. Therefore, 
precisely as though by bestowing everything on the one she would have nothing 
left for the rest, she confers some benefit, now here now there, which is always 
inseparable from some defect ^' 

Dionysios irav apx- KplcTLs I), by using the anecdote to prove that 
we may, out of a varied erudition (ffoXu^d^fia), combine and 
inform the indestructible image of Art, shows his thorough 
appreciation of the philosophic lesson it was intended to convey. 
To a genial inventor like Duris, trained moreover in philosophic 
doctrine, may well be attributed the shaping of a story so much 
more apt to clothe an aesthetic problem than to convey an actual 
artistic practice. The fable of the five maidens of Kroton is of 
perennial interest ; it haunted the imagination of Raphael, who, 
writing of his Galatea to Baldassare Castiglione, says that 'per 
dipingere una bella, mi bisognerei veder piii belle,' and at a later 
date we find it astutely criticized by Bernini ' (see Add.). 

Duris may also be credited, I think, with the expression of 
another problem of kindred nature, conveyed this time, how- 
ever, not as an anecdote but as an apothegm. The judgement 
which Lysippos had passed upon his predecessors (xxxiv, 6r), 
saying that, while iAey represented men as they are, Ae strove 
to represent them as they appeared to be, expresses, as I have 
pointed out in the notes, a dominant problem of art, the 

' Xenophon, Memorah. iii, lo, i : simpliciin genere omnibus ex partibus 

. . . IjreiS^ ov fiaSiov kvl avepimai iripi- perfectum natura expolivit. Itaque, 

TVxeTv diieinrra irivra ex""", l« toK- tanquam ceteris non sit habitura 

Xav amayovTis rd ef kiciaTov icaWia-- quod largiatur, si uni euncta conces- 

TatovTOJs oKa to, aii/mra aaXA troiarf serit, aliud alii commodi, aliquo 

tpalveaSai ; iroioviiiv yap, itprj, ovrms. adiuncto incommodo muneratur. 

' Ncque enim putavit omnia, quae ' See Baldinucci, Notizie del' Pro- 

quaereret ad venustatem, una se in fessori del Disegno da Cimabue in 

corpore reperire posse idea, quod nihil qua (Firenze, ed. 1847), p. 661. 



DURIS OF SAMOS Ixiii 

problem of impressionism versus realism. Miinzer' has lately 
referred the passage to Antigonos, who records a somewhat similar 
judgement passed by the philosopher Menedemos upon his prede- 
cessors '\ This, however, only proves the later hand of Antigonos. 
So illuminating an aphorism could only have arisen in the brain 
of a far more powerful writer. The Lysippian judgement recalls, 
as has often been noticed ', that which Aristotle makes Sophokles 
pass on himself and Euripides (Arist. Poetics, 1460 b*) — is, in 
fact, but the application to a new problem of a phrase traditional 
in Aristotelian circles °. It is evident that Duris, who moreover is 
expressly named by Pliny as the authority for the early career of 
Lysippos, is far the likeliest of the Plinian authors to be responsible 
for the Lysippian apothegm'- The attribution is corroborated, 
moreover, by his partiality for such sayings, which he possibly 
collected systematically in emulation of the dno(j)deynaTa or 
anoiivTuioveifiaTa of his brother Lynkeus '. 

He was an adept at deducing apothegms out of well-known 
lines of the poets and dramatists, even at the cost of occasional 
misapplication (Plutarch, Demetr. 14, 35, 45, 46 ; with Athen. vi, 
249 c, cf. Odyss. xi, 122- Schubert, Pyrrhus, p. 20 f.) ; and I 
would therefore likewise refer to him the apothegm of Euphranor 
to the effect that 'his Theseus was fed on meat, but that of 
Parrhasios on roses' (xxxv, 128). Miinzer has detected in the 
words the latent reminiscence of an Aristophanic line preserved 
in Diogenes on the authority of Antigonos ' (see Comm.), but this 

^ Op. cit. p. 527. p. 95 (for Greek, see Comm.). 

^ Antig. Kar. ap Diog. ii, 1 34 ( = ^ To say this, however, is far from 

Wilam. p. 98); ^av h\ StSaaxaKaiv admittingthe theory of OttfriedMuUer 

Ttuj' irept HX&Twva KoX BiVoKparqv iri {Kunst-Archdol. IVerie, ll.p. 165 ff.), 

8^ Hapm^aTrjv rbv Kvptivawv icare- lately revived by K^kule {Arch. 

<j>p6vu, 'SriXTToiva 8' iTiBavpaKa' xai Jahrb. viii, 1893, p. 39 ff.), that the 

TTore kptoTijBels Trepi aitrov dWo p.'iv original Greek of the Lysippian say- 

ovS\v (lire irXiiv on (\ev9ipios. The ing was a slavish imitation of the 

resemblance to the Lysippian phrase Sophoklean (Kekule, p. 45) — and the 

is little more than formal and verbal. guales viderentur esse of Pliny a 

' Among others by Vahlen in the clumsy misunderstanding of something 

notes to his ed. of the /farfzVj (Leipzig, like oi'ous Ioikcv dvai. On the con- 

1885), p. 265. trary, the viderentur is the very pith 

* ' Further, if it be objected that of the apothegm, which conveys a 

the description is not true to fact, the problem totally different to the Sopho- 

poet may perhaps reply, — " But the klean. 

objects are as they ought to be ": just ° Duridian authorship seems hinted 

as Sophokles said that he drew men at by Diels, Arch. Anz. 1893, p. II. 

as they ought to be drawn ; Euripides ' Ath. vi, 245 ; viii, 337. 

as they are.' Tr. S. H. Butcher, ' I trust I am not misapprehending 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION 

is no proof that Antigonos is also responsible for the new turn 
given to the phrase in the mouth of Euphranor. 

There remains to note, with H. L. Urlichs^ and Miinzer'-*, that 
Duris was presumably the source for sundry stories of art-com- 
petitions preserved in Pliny. Their authenticity is suspicious, as 
Jahn long ago maintained ^ because in all of them the competition 
itself offered no interest whatsoever to the writer, but was merely 
used — we may at once say invented — in order to bring great artists 
of the same or adjoining epochs into presence, and often to point 
some saying supposed to have been uttered on the occasion. 
The animating idea is the same as in the story which represented 
the young Lysippos venturing upon the higher paths of art at the 
bidding of Eupompos. Such is the contest between Parrhasios 
and Timanthes, already discussed in another connexion (above, 
p. liv), where we are not even told the subject of the picture by 
the latter artist ; the competition between Zeuxis and Parrhasios 
with the curtain and the grapes {ib. 65) ; and the kindred anecdote 
of Apelles' appeal from the verdict of human judges to that of 
beasts (ib. 95). 

The story of the four statues of Amazons made in competition 
by four great artists for the Temple of Ephesos belongs to the 
same series. The garb it borrows from the legend of the award of 
the prize of valour after Salamis (see Comm.) sufiSciently betrays its 
apocryphal character, even though it have a groundwork of truth. 
There is the undoubted existence of four distinct types of Amazons, 
similar in size and pose; and Furtwangler has lately made the 
acute suggestion that the anecdote of the evaluation grew out of 
the order in which four statues of Amazons by the said four 
masters were exhibited in the Ephesian Artemision (see Comm.). 
Certainly such an order of exhibition *, could it be proved, would 

the rapprochements attempted on it from Greek art-writers : Aug., De 

p. 5275. of Miinzer's article. Doctrina Christiana, ii, 8 : Non enim 

^ Griechische Kunstschriftsteller, audiendi sunt err ores gentilium super- 

p.aSf. stitionum qui novem Musas Icniis 

' Op. cit. p. 534. et Memoriae filias essefinxerunt. Re- 

' Kleine Beitrdge, p. 289 f. fellit eos Varro, quo nescio titrum 

' It may be worth pointing out apud eos quisquam talium rerum 

here that the story of the Four Ama- doctior vel curiosior esse possit. Di- 

4pns has a curious parallel, not, I be- cit enim civitatem nescio quam, non 

lieve, observed before, in Augustine's enim nomen recolo, locasse apud tres 

explanation of the origin of the num- artifices terna simulachra musarum, 

ber of the Muses ; it is quoted on the quae in templo Apollinis dona poneret, 

authority of Varro, who of course had et quisquis artificum pulchriora for- 



DURIS OF SAMOS Ixv 

be a fine opportunity for imagining the rivalry of the four artists, 
precisely as a joint inscription of (the Elder) Praxiteles and 
Kalamis had given rise to some popular explanation, afterwards 
elaborated by Duris or a writer of his stamp into the anecdote 
recorded in xxxiv, 71, of the kind consideration of Praxiteles for 
the artistic reputation of Kalamis— an anecdote, by the way, that 
recalls the kindness of Apelles to Protogenes. Finally, the 
competition between Panainos and a totally unknown Timagoras 
(xxxv, 58), on the testimony of a carmen vetustum, of whose 
content, however, no hint is given, looks suspiciously like fiction. 

There is still one passage in conclusion where Miinzer (p. 535) 
detects, I believe rightly, the influence or authorship of Duris. 
This is the account of the women painters in xxxv, 147, ' woman ' 
being one of the most favourite Duridian themes '. Miinzer further 
remarks that the painter Olympias is a namesake of the mother 
of Alexander the Great, for whom Duris evinced a lively interest,' 
as for every one connected with Alexander ; that Aristarete is the 
daughter of Nearchos, who, as the namesake of one of Alexander's 
generals ", would likewise interest Duris ; and that the three women 
Timarete (xxxv, 59), Irene, and Aristarete, at once daughters 
and pupils of their respective fathers, Mikon, Kratinos, and 
Nearchos, are conceived too manifestly on the same pattern to be 
above suspicion. Finally, the dancer Alkisthenes and the juggler 
Theodoros, painted by Kalypso, are evident Duridian personages ; 
they recall the BaviiaTovowi, Xenophon and Nymphodoros, of fragm. 
44 ( = Ath. i, p. 19, f), where the clever tricks of Xenophon's 
pupil Kratisthenes of Phlious are described. The analogous 
formation of the names Alkisthenes — Kratisthenes, Theodoros — 
Nymphodoros, is certainly significant. 

This closes the list of passages that may be attributed with any 
certainty to Duris. It is most improbable that either Varro or 
Pliny had direct access to his writings ; he seems so certainly the 
authority of Antigonos for the statement concerning Pythagoras of 
Samos (above, p. liii), and so many of the passages traced back to 

masset ab illo fotissimum electa emeret. posuisse vocabula. Non ergo lupiter 

Itaque contigisse ut opera sua quoque novem Musas genuit, sed tres fabri 

illi artifices aeque pulchra explica- ternas creaverunt. 

rent, et placuisse civitati omnes novem ' Cf. fragm. 2, 3, 19, 24, 35, 42, 

atque omnes emplas esse, ut in Apol- 58, 63. 

linis templo dcdicarentur. Quibus ' Ft. 24. 

postea dicit Hesiodum poetam im- * Plut. Alex. 66, 73 and often. 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

Duris were likely to interest Antigonos from their purely anecdotic 
character, that it is not unreasonable to assume that all the 
Duridian stories we meet with in Pliny were brought in by Anti- 
gonos, who had drawn largely from Duris for his Book of Marvels 
(Miinzer, op. cit. p. 531). Antigonos presumably did not always give 
the name of his authority; like Pliny and most ancient writers, he 
would be willing enough to assume the credit of the greater part 
of his information, and would only mention his authorities by name 
in cases where the statements seemed to him to outpass belief. 
So, too, Varro quoted the artifices qui condidere haec, in xxxiv, 68, 
and again in xxxv, 68 (giving them here a second mention by 
name), in cases where he felt he needed an excuse for a weak 
explanation, or a warrant for an over-bold criticism. Thus it was 
that, after passing through many different hands, the name of 
Duris of Samos, preserved in xxxiv, 61 in testimony of the 
incredible story that the great Lysippos of Sikyon had been wholly 
a self-taught artist, has given us a clue leading us to assign, as I 
believe, to their right author no inconsiderable portion of the 
Plinian anecdotes. 

At the same time the vindication of these tales for the Samian 
historian throws considerable light on the nature of his art-writings. 
They reveal him as above all a biographer in spirit and not only 
in form. He seeks to bring before his readers the individuality of 
the man rather than the technical or aesthetic quality of his work. 
For this purpose he employs popular traditions, giving to these 
voces populi the literary form which was to secure them from 
oblivion. In the attention he bestowed upon character-drawing, 
real and fictitious, he was a true product of his age in its newly 
awakened desire to ascertain the features of great men present or 
past. The words of Pliny were as true of the third century as of 
his own : pariunt . . . desideria non traditos vultus, sicut in Homero 
evenit: sculptors were not content to portray contemporaries — 
a Menander or a Poseidippos — but must needs discover and 
fix for a late posterity the likeness of Aisop, Archilochos, Epimeni- 
des, nay of Homer himself ^ In many cases the monuments 
are still there to show how nearly a deep intuition of the genius 
peculiar to each personage portrayed might help to restore the 
•image which no contemporary hand had traced. The same 
occurred in literature : the Peripatetics, Chamaileon of Herakleia, 

' See the remarks of Wilamowitz, Antigonos -von Karystos, p. 149 ff. 



DURIS OF SAMOS Ixvii 

or Dikaiarchos of Messana— to quote two out of a host — had 
attempted to reconstruct the Hves of Alkman, of Alkaios, or of 
Semonides. Duris himself had written a biography of Euripides ', 
of which recent criticism has recovered at least one characteristic 
fragment, which tells how Sophokles on receiving the news of the 
death of Euripides clad himself in robes of mourning. When 
Duris wrote his biographies of the artists he determined they 
should be ' Lives ' in the most realistic sense of the word, refusing 
to discuss the works divorced from the artists' personalities. It is 
little wonder if in essaying to breathe back life into the persons of 
Lysippos, of Apelles, or Protogenes, his vivid imagination and 
strong powers of presentment led him, when historic facts failed, 
to offer telling anecdote in their place. 

We may feel impelled from the side of historical verity to echo 
the complaint of Plutarch that Duris shows, even where not 
misled by interest, an habitual disregard of truth'', but we are 
none the less indebted to him for what is perhaps the most 
enduring charm in the history of the ancient artists. The stories 
we have been studying, like those countless others which enliven 
the pages of Greek history, have their rise in a profoundly popular 
instinct, in the desire to find expression, at once simple and 
striking, for distinguishing qualities of temperament or of workman- 
ship. And in their graphic force, that ' power,' if we may borrow 
from the words which Dionysios applies to the oratory of Lysias, 
of ' driving home to the senses the subject of discourse ^' they 
have entered into the very substance of our thought. While 
every schoolboy is familiar with the tale of Zeuxis and the 
grapes, a scholar such as August Boeckh could express his ideal 
of the learned life in the words dies diem docet ut perdideris quant 
sine linea transmiseris, or the orator Burke sum up the qualities of 
that masterly state-paper, ' whose every stroke had been justified 
by historic fact,' in the telling phrase Thus painters sign their 
names at Co.*^ 

' Printed at the commencement of one allusion to Duris {Att. vi, i, i8) 

Kirclihoff's ed. Berlin, 1867, vol. i, judges him more leniently. 
p. viii. Cf. Schubert, ij/^r^aj, p. 16. 'Dion. Hal. de Lys. vii 8t;Va/«'s 

^ Pericl, xxviii : Aovpt^ i^^v ovv ovb' tis vtt6 rds aitjOrjffds dyovffa toL Ktyo- 

birov liTjilv avT^ rrp6ai(Tnv iSiOV iraSos /j-fva. 

fiaSais Kpwruv t^i' diTifr]aiv iirl t^s * Burke, ^fl?-Ai(ed. 1823), vol. viii, 

&\Tj9eias. . . . Cicero, however, in his p. 129 (Letters on a Regicide Peace). 



e 2, 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

IV. Literary Epigrams. 

The literary epigram, at once descriptive of a work of art and 
embodying its criticism or eulogy, was among the most fruitful 
sources of information at the disposal of ancient writers upon art '. 
It plays accordingly, as Otto Jahn first perceived ^, a considerable 
part in Pliny's descriptions of pictures or statues, where it 
becomes of the highest importance to the critic to detect it : for, 
as it strongly coloured the Plinian narrative, so it has gone on to 
this day, colouring our appreciation of ancient works of art, nay, 
predisposing us in many cases to read into them intentions, which 
are within the expressive range of poetry rather than of the plastic 
arts. Pliny's own phrase describing what the Apellian Aphrodite 
owed to the verses written in her praise remains true in greater or 
less degree of all works extolled in epigrams : versibus Graecis tali 
opere, dum laudatur, victo sed illustrato. 

A first list of the Plinian passages based upon epigrams was 
drawn up by Otto Jahn [loc. cit.), and afterwards supplemented by 
Benndorf '- The subjoined list is compiled from theirs, but with 
some few additions indicated by an asterisk. 

1. — xxxiii, 156 Antipater (sc. Diodoros, see note) — qui Satyrum in phiala 
gravatum somno conlocavisse verius quam caelasse dictus est. 
Cf Anth. Plan. 248 : 

Tov ^arvpov AiSSwpos eKoif^ifffv, oiiK eropevtrep' 
fiv vv^rj^, kyepiis' apyvpos virvov ^x** *- 

2. — xxxiv, 55 Polyclitus . . . diadumenum fecit molliter iuvenem . . . et dory- 
phorum viriliter puerum. 

(The epigrammatic qualification is so finely knitted to the 
mention of the works that it must have been brought in at a very 
early date^) 

3. — xxxiv, 59 Pythagoras — fecit — claiidicantem, cuius ulceris dolorem sentire 
etiam spectantes videntur. 

1 See in connexion witli the epi- = De AniAologiae Graecae Epigram- 

grams of the Anthology which deal matis quae ad artes spectant; diss, 

with works of art the admirable essay Leipzig, 1862. 

of J. W. Mackail, Select Epigrams * ' This Satyr Diodorus engraved 

from the Greek Anthology, p. 47 ff. ; not, but laid to rest ; your touch will 

^cf. P. Vitry, &tude sur les Elpigr. wake him ; the silver is asleep.' Tr. 

de PAnthol. Pal. qui contiennent la J. W. Mackail, op. cit. p. 179. 
description d'une auvre d'Art, in = Munzer, o>. «V. p. 529. Dilthey, 

Rev. Arch. xxiv. 1894, p. 315 ff. Rhein. Mus. xxvi, 290, first pointed 

^ Kunsturtheile des Flinius, p. out the epigrammatic juxtaposition of 

118 ff. the two works. 



LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixix 

Cf. Antk. Flan, iv, 113; 11. 1-2 : 

o7Ba ^iKotcrqrrjV dp6aiv, Srt Traffi (paeivei 
0X705 l^(/ /caJ Tots Trj\60i SepKOfiivOiS '. 

*4. — xxxiv, 1^0 (Praxiteles) fecit et puberem Apollinem subrepenti lacertae corn- 
minus sagitta insidiantem quem sauroctonon vocant. 

Cf. the same or perhaps identical epigram as adopted by 
Martial, xiv, 172 : 

Ad te reptanti, picer insidiose, lacertae 
Farce ; cupit digitis ilia perire tuts ^ 

5.' — ^xxxiv, 70 (Praxitelis) spectantnr et duo signa eius diversos adfectus expri- 
mentia, flentis matronae et meretricis gaudentis. hanc putant 
Phrynen fuisse deprehenduntque in ea amorem artijicis et mer- 
cedem in voltu. meretricis. 

The juxtaposition of the statues is purely epigrammatic ; in the 
description of Phryne's portrait lurks perhaps a reminiscence of 
Anth. Plan, iv, 204 (see Comm.). 

*6. — xxxiv, 71 Ipse Calamis et alias guadrigas bigasque fecit se impari, equis 
sine aemulo expressis. 

The rhetorical point betrays the underlying epigram; the 
Propertian Exadis Calamis se mihi iactat equis (Prop, iii, 9, 10) 
is doubtless from the same source, for where should Kalamis 
boast of his horses so well as in some epigram purporting to be 
written by the artist himself? 

7. — xxxiv, 74 Cresilas volneralum deficientem, in quo possit intellegi quantum 
restet anim^e, 
et Olympium Periclen dignum cognomine, mirumque in hac arte est 
quod nobiles viros nobiliores fecit. 

8. — ib. 11 Euphranoris Alexander Paris est, in quo laudatur quod omnia 
simul intelleganlur, iudex dearum, amator Helenae et tamen 
Achillis interfector. 

9. — ib. 78 Eutychides Eurotam, in quo artem ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi 
dixere. 

^ ' I behold Philoktetes. His agony hatefulthan the Greeks was my maker, 

is made manifest, even to those who a second Odysseus, who brought back 

look on from afar.' The analogy tothe to me my woeful dire disease. The 

Flinian description is pointed out by rock, my rags and blood and wound 

Miinzer, /. c. In the notes I have fol- and grief, were not enough, but he has 

lowed Brunn in quoting Anth. Plan. even wrought my pain in bronze.' 
112 {where the omission of the name ' Pointed out by Miinzer op. cit. 

of Philoktetes is perhaps the cause of p. 527, note i. 
its unusual omission in Pliny) : ' More 



Ixx INTRODUCTION 

Cf. Antk. Pal. ix, 709 : 

Eipiirav oii apn Sii,0poxov, iv tc fieeSpois 

a\icv(j^ & rext'tTTjs iv irvpl \ova6,p.evov' 
iraai ycip kv K&iKois vbaroi^ivos &fi(ptV€vevK€y 

e« Kopv(pTJs Is aKpovs vypoparwv ovvxct^ 
a 5i rkxvo. Trora^ai avv^-n-iipuc^v a ris 6 irciffas 

XaXxdy aajp^^etv vSaros vypSrepov ^ ; 

*10. — xxxiv, 79 Lycius . . . fecit dignum praeceptore puerum sufflantem 
languidos ignes. 

The description of the 'dying fire,' which was of course not 

represented in bronze, betrays the epigram. 

11. — xxxiv, 79 Leochares aquilam sentimlem quid rapiat in Ganymede et cut 
ferat parcentemque unguibus etiam per vestem puero. 

Cf. Anth. Pal. xii, 221 : 

STcfxc Trpos oXQkpa. Siov, avipxto Trai^a KO/u^ajv 

aiere, ras 5i<pvits k/cinT&ffas irrepvyas' 
trreixe Toy a^phv exaiv TavvfirjSea, f^rjde fif9eir]S 

ritv Atbs ^Siaroy olvox^ov kvKikojv 
(peiSeo 5* atpd^at Kovpov yap^ijvvxt rapffa, 

fjiil Zei;s dhyrjari^ tovto ^apvv6fievos^. 

12. — xxxiv, 80 Naucerus (censetur) luctatore anhelante. 

The analogy to xxxv, 71, makes it probable that the anhelante 

is from an epigram ; cf Benndorf, op. cit. 

xxxiv, 81 Styppax uno celebratur signo, splanclinopte — Periclis Olympi vernula 
hie fuit exta torrens ignemque 07'is pleni spiritu accendens. 

The last words, the insistence on the swelling cheeks of the 
boy as he blows the fire, clearly point to an epigram. How far 
removed the real 'Entrail Roaster' would be from the Plinian 
description may be seen at a glance by studying the boy's statue 
from the Olympieion at Athens, which has lately been brought, 
with much probability, into relation with the statue by Styppax 
(see Comm. on passage). 

13.— xxxiv, 81 Silanion ApoUodoram fudit . . . nee hominem ex aere feeit, sed 
iraeundiam. 

(See Add. to the Comm. on the passage.) 

^ 'Dragged by the artist through flowing than the Hoods ? ' 

a bath of fire, the Eurotas seems fresh ^ ' Speed on to the heaven divine, 

from the water and amidst his streams. go thy way, eagle, with the boy. 

He bends to either side while water spreading either pinion wide. Speed 

pours from all his limbs, and the drops on with beauteous Ganymedes, nor 

fall from his head even to his feet. suffer the boy to fall who poureth 

Art too hath joined in contest with sweetest cups for Zeus. Yet spare to 

the river ; ah, who hath taught the wound the boy with thy crooked talon, 

bronze to burst into waves more lest Zeus sorrow in grief thereat.' 



LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixxi 

14. — xxxiv, 88 Epigonus . . . praecessit in ... matri interfectae infante 
miserabiliter blandiente. 
(From an epigram similar to the one on the ' dying mother ' by 
Aristeides in xxxv, 98.) 

15. — xxxiv, 141 Ferreus Hercules, qnem fecit Alcon laborum dei fatientia 

inducius. 
16. — xxxv, 59 (Zeuxis) fecit et Penelopen, in qua pinxisse mores videtur. 
17. — a. 69 (Parrhasius) pinxit demon Atheniensium argumento quoque in- 

genioso. ostendebat namque varium, iracundum iniustum incon- 

stantem, eundem exorabilem clementcm misericordem, gloriosum, 

excelsum humilem, ferocem fugacemque et omnia pariter. 
18. — ih. 70 (Parrhasius) fueros duos, in quibus spectatur securitas et aetatis 

simplicitas. 
19. — ib. 71 (Parrhasi) duae picturae nobilissimae, hoplites in certamine ita de- 

currens ut sudare videatur, alter arma deponens tit anhelare 

sentiatur. 

20. — ib. 94 (Apelles) pinxit et heroa nudum, eaquepictura naiuram ipsampro- 

vocavit. 
21. — ib. 98 (Aristidis) oppido capto ad matris morientis ex volnere mammam 

adrepens infans, intellegiturque sentire mater et timere ne 

emortuo lacte sanguinem lambat. 

Cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 623 : 

"EXxe, TaKav, napd fxijTpbs bv oiiKeri fiaffrov d/icAfeis, 

f\Kv(Xov varcLTLOV vdfia KaTa(pOifiivtjs' 
tJStj yap ^t<pee(f(ri \i-rr6jryoos' d\Ad tcL fjiT]Tp6s 
fpiKrpa Kal ftv 'Ai'Sjj iratdofcofxiiv efJiaSev^. 
22. — xxxv, 99 (Aristides pinxit) supplicantem paene cum voce. 
*23. — ib. 99 (Aristides pinxit) anapauomenen propter fratris amorem. 

(Cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 183, 184, and see H. L. Urlichs' note in 
the Comm. on the passage.) 

24. — xxxv, 106 (Protogenis) Satyrus — ^est, qnem anapauomenon vocant, ne quid 

desit temporis eius securitati, tenentem tibias. 
(Cf. Anth. Plan. 244.) 
*25. — xxxv, 138 Antiphilus ^Kew ignem conflante laudatur ac pulchra alias 

domo splendescente ipsiusque pueri ore. 

I suspect an epigram from the forced point made in the de- 
scription of the room ' which is in itself beautiful.' 

26. — xxxvi, 21 (Praxitelis Veneris) eSSgies deafavente ipsa, ut creditur, facta. 

(Cf. Anth. Plan, r 59-1 70.) 
27. — xxxvi, 24 Cephisodotus . . . cuius laudatum est Pergami symplegma nobile 
digitis corpori verius quam marmori inpressis. 

' ' Drink, poor bahe, from thy taken her life, yet a mother's love 

mother, whose breast thou shalt suck knows, even in Hades, how to care 

no more ; drink thy last draught from for her child.' 
her in death. Now has the sword 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION 

Cf. Herondas iv, 59 f. ^ quoted in the Comm. on the passage. 

Besides the epigrams descriptive of works of art, we may note, 
for the sake of completeness, the allusion to the epigrams on 
Myron's cow (xxxiv, 57) and on the Anadyomene of Apelles (xxxv, 
92) ; the epigram upon Zeuxis which lurks in the words ab hoc 
{ApoUodord) artis fores apertas, Z£uxis . . . intravit in xxxv, 6 1 
(see Comm.) ; the epigram in which Apollodoros reproached 
Zeuxis with having not learnt — but stolen the art of his masters 
(ib. § 62) J finally the reference to the laudatory verses composed 
by Parrhasios upon himself, discussed above (p. liv f.). In all 
these descriptive passages it is evident that the writer has been 
concerned to outstrip rather than to explain the artistic aim. We 
are confronted by a series of pointed sayings, inspired indeed, or 
they would miss their effect, by some quality actually existent in 
the work of art, but using this quality as a theme to be expanded 
freely into the fluidity of language, whereas the artist had been 
forced to compress his conceptions within the limits imposed by 
visible form. Whatever Euphranor's ethical conception of the 
separate or conflicting traits in the character of Paris, he must 
perforce combine and fuse them in the portrayal of one single 
personage. The versifier, on the other hand, remains within the 
limits of his art if he picks out the qualities suggested rather than 
definitely indicated by the Paris of Euphranor, and embodies 
these in a series of consecutive images : thus the Paris of the 
sculptor will be converted by the epigrammatist from a unit into 
a triad ; the compacted whole is resolved into the judge of the 
goddesses, the lover of Helen, the murderer of Achilles— each 
trait calling up in the mind of the reader a distinct sensuous 
image, whereas the statue, however complex, called up only one. 
Or, again, the epigram may catch at a purely accidental detail — 
accidental so far as regards any ethical import — such as the 
drapery which Leochares gave as a background to his Ganymede, 
and interpret it to mean what it lay entirely outside the power of 
the formative arts to express, — the eagle's care to avoid wounding 
the boy. The achievement of artist and of epigrammatist is bound 
to be different, because of the dissimilarity of the material with 
which each clothes his thought. The question touches one of the 

' ' Pray look at this naked child ; flesh palpitates in the picture like 
if I pinch him can you not fancy I a warm spring'— (a< f antes calidi, 
shall really hurt him Kynno? For the v. Crusius, orf /<;;:.). 



LITERARY EPIGRAMS Ixxiii 

most difficult of all the problems suggested by the study of art, 
the problem how far the language of form can be translated into 
that of words, and vice versa. It could only be adequately treated 
in context with the written Greek epigrams of the same class as 
those we have been considering, and with the various descriptions 
in ancient literature, outside Phny, based upon such epigrams; 
and this, after all, would be only one chapter of a vast discussion 
that should embrace the literature, whether ancient or modern, 
that aims at the analysis of works of art. But I have touched 
upon it here only as a passing protest against the practice, still 
too common, of searching in what were often but plays of fancy 
for definite evidence concerning the intention to be conveyed by 
a work of art. The modern scholar shows himself scarcely less 
credulous in this respect than Pliny himself, who introduced 
most of his epigrammatic descriptions by the intelligere, which, as 
we learn from Cicero, was the special term used of the insight and 
criticism of the man who knows \ 

These descriptive epigrams were doubtless interwoven with the 
original Xenokratic fabric that underlies the Plinian account at 
different times. We have seen that some — perhaps even a large 
number — were certainly due to Antigonos of Karystos. Others may 
be due to the Greek artist and writer upon art, Pasiteles of Naples 
(p. Ixxviiff.); Varro or Mucianus may have brought in others; 
nor need we decide whether Varro, or Pliny, or another Roman, 
was first guilty of the comic blunder arising from the attribution 
in xxxiv, 57 to the sculptor Myron of the little monument, sung 
by two poets of the Anthology, which the girl Myro had raised 
to her pets, a cricket and a grasshopper '. 

' Brutus, 184 etenim necesse est, wily craft of the servile character.' 

qtii ita dicat, ut a multitudine pro- Possibly the notice in xxxiv, 88 of 

betur, eundem doctis probari ; nam Nikeratos' group of Alkibiades and 

quid in dicendo rectum sit aut pravum, his mother ' Demarate sacrificing by 

ego iudicabo, si modo is sum, qui id torchlight' belongs to the same class 

possim aut sciam iudicare : qualis (cf. note 2 on p. xliv). The descrip- 

vero sit orator ex eo, quod is dicendo tion in xxxiv, 93 of the Hercules 

efficiet poterit intelligi. See O. Jahn, 'wearing the tunic,' considered by 

loc. cit. p. 120. Benndorf (p. 55) as epigrammatic, 

^ The list of works whose descrip- seems inseparable from the notice 

tion is based upon literary epigrams of the three tituli on the statue, 

should further include the notice in and is presumably an observation of 

xxxiv, 79 of the group by Leochares Pliny's own, not borrowed from any 

of the slave-dealer Lykiskos and a special source, 
boy ' on whose face may be read the 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION 

V. Heliodoros of Athens {fl. igo B.C.). 

Heliodorus qui de Atheniensium anathematis scripsit is cited in 
the Indices of authors to Books xxxiv and xxxv ; the mention of 
his name in the Index to Book xxxiii, which contains no material 
that could be derived from him, must be looked upon as an 
interpolation. Till recently the literary personality of Heliodoros 
remained so shadowy ' that all attempts to recover traces of him 
in Pliny had proved ineffectual I Now, however, that Bruno KeiP 
has succeeded in proving Heliodoros to be the source for the 
periegetic portions in the Pseudo-Plutarchian Lives of the Ten 
Orators, it has become possible to ascertain also the extent of 
Pliny's debt — and it remains very small — to the Athenian 
periegete. 

The interest of the results attained by Keil lies almost entirely 
outside Pliny ; it will suffice to indicate them briefly. The passage 
in the Life of Hypereides (849 c) concerning the burial-place of 

the orator itpo tmk 'lititahav ■nvKav, &s 0r;crii» 'HXtoSmpor iv Ta rpira 

wept Mvrjfidrav forms the basis of the inquiry. The reading of the 
MSS. 'HXid8(Bpor, which Ruhnken had unnecessarily altered to 
AidSfopor, has been rightly retained in this place by both Keil (I.c) 
and by Bernadakis in the new edition of the Moralia (vol. v, 
p. 193). For not only does the date of Heliodoros* accord 
precisely with the date required by certain other statements of 
periegetic nature contained in the Lives (cf. in particular 
Lyk. 842e=fr. 5* KeiP), but the information conveyed in these 
dateable fragments and in the remaining periegetic passages 
scattered through the Lives is of a strictly homogeneous 
character, which Keil defines as follows (op. cit. p. 237, cf. p. 201) : 
'The first interest of Heliodoros is for extant monuments; he gives 
details concerning the nature of the monument, its material, its 
locality and present condition ; then follow in natural sequence 
statements of an historical character, such as the original con- 
dition, change of locality, occasional details concerning cost, 

' Seven fragments are collected by ' Hermes, xxx, 1895, pp. 199-240. 

Miiller, F. H. G. iv, p. 435. See * After Antlochos Epiphanes (b. C. 

also Susemihl, Geschichte d. Al. Lit. 175-164), cf. Athen. II, p. 45 c. 

i, p. 692 f. ' KaJ iartti avTav (Lyknrg. and his 

' E. g. the attempts of Wachsmuth, children) tA lairiiiaTa avrixpii T^i 

Stadt Athen, i, p. 36, note 2 ; on the IlaiajKtas 'Afli/i/as iv ry tlLi\av6iov toS 

difficulty of the Heliodoran question <pi\o(T6tl>ov xfjua (date of Melanthios 

see Brieger, De Fontibus, p. 33. circ. B.C. 150, Keil, /. c). 



HELIODOROS OF ATHENS Ixxv 

artists, or donors. These statements are corroborated by the 
epigrams and inscriptions . . . relative to the monument de- 
scribed \' 

Now if we turn to Pliny we shall find some four passages 
which bear this peculiar Heliodoran stamp. Three occur in 
Book xxxiv, in the first alphabetical list of the bronze-workers ; 
one in Book xxxv, towards the close of the main account of the 
painters. In xxxiv, § 74, the passage Cephisodorus Minervam 
mirabilem in portu Atheniensium et aram ad femplum lovis Serva- 
toris in eodem portu, cui pauca comparantur (sc. fecit) has long 
been admitted by a number of authorities ■', though on different 
grounds, to be from a source other than that of the main account. 
It will repay careful analysis. We know from Pausanias (i, i, 3) 
that the 'Minerva' and the 'Jupiter' belonged to the same 
temple, namely to the Aio-cor/ypioi', where Zeus and Athena were 
worshipped respectively as Smrijp and SmTcipa". Now, if we 
examine the Plinian passage we note at once a certain looseness 
of construction, a certain hesitancy in the wording ; it is as if 
Pliny, or the author from whom he quotes, were not fully 
conscious — or at least fully persuaded — that the 'wondrous 
Athena ' which was to be seen ' in the harbour of Athens ' were 
really in the same place as the altar, which was in the same city, 
' in the temple of Zeus the Saviour.' I accordingly believe that 
we have here the juxtaposition of two statements derived from 
separate sources. The words Cephisodorus Minervam mirabilem 
in portu Atheniensium would belong to the main account — the 
mention of the Athena, which was bronze {^oKkov fiev afxcpoTepa ra 
ayaXfjiaTa), being in place in a history of bronze-sculpture — while a 
later hand introduced from another source the mention of the ara, 
another work by Kephisodoros. Now this altar, which would 
naturally be marble and be decorated with reliefs, is obviously out 
of place in a history which was only concerned with works in the 
round and in bronze ; this discrepancy, however, was unnoticed 
by the art-writer (Pasiteles (?), p. Ixxx) who made the addition. 

' Cf., in particular, Isokr. 838'' pieces, p. 145 ; Oehmichen, Plin. 

(= Keil, fr. 4''), the inscription from Studien, p. 151. 

the statue of Isokrates by Leo- ' See Comm. p. 60 ; cf. Liv. xxxi, 

chares, which Timotheos put up at 30, 9. The whole literature on 

Eleusis. the passage, both ancient and modem, 

* Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, i, p. given by Hitzig and Bliimner, Fau- 

36, note 2; Furtwangler, Master- sanias,^. i2oi. 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION 

The connecting link was afforded by the name of Kephisodoros. 
Nor was any special attention bestowed upon the fact that the ara 
which was now mentioned stood not only in eodem portu, but 
actually in the same temple as the Athena. That the addition 
itself is Heliodoran seems probable from the precision with which 
the locality of the altar is noted {ad temflum lovis Servatoris), 
whereas the Minerva was simply cited as being in portu Atheni- 
ensium. The altar moreover — doubtless itself an avddriaa — was 
a likely object to be included in a work de anathematis. 

Close by the notice of Kephisodoros occurs the second passage 
detected as Heliodoran by Keil. The statement in xxxiv, 76 that 
' Demetrios made a statue of Lysimache, who was priestess of 
Athena for sixty-four years,' has a precision of detail, due to the 
fact that the years of Lysimache's priesthood were taken from 
the inscription on her statue (see Comm.), unlike anything that 
meets us in the main account, where such detail is alien to the 
nature of the inquiry. 

With these two passages recognized as Heliodoran by both 
Keil and Miinzer ^ I incline to associate a third, claimed for 
Heliodoros by Wachsmuth ^, but rejected by Keil (/. c). The 
passage (xxxiv, 72) concerning the 'Lioness' of Amphikrates, 
whose name was doubtless taken from the inscribed basis, 
belongs essentially to a book de anathematis, and accordingly to 
Heliodoros, one of whose works specially described the monu- 
ments of the Athenian Akropolis (n-epi Tr\s 'ABrji/rjcnv aKpoTroX^as, fr. I— 

3 Miiller). At the same time, it must be admitted that the 
story related in connexion with the monument has, in its Plinian 
form, a more imaginative flavour than we find in any of the accre- 
dited Heliodoran fragments or in those more recently recovered 
by Keil. It is possible, therefore, that only the kernel of the 
passage is Heliodoran, and that the anecdote itself was expanded 
under the influence of other sources ^ 

' "/• "'• P- 541- from the same source as Pliny, while 

' loc. cit. The Heliodoran author- the words of Pausanias (i, 23, 2), 

ship seems admitted by Gurlitt, Pau- ^€701 tk ovk Is avyypacpiiv irpoTipov 

samas, p. 96. ij/covTa, seem to indicate that Pausanias 

= It is noteworthy that the name of had the story merely from hearsay ; 

Amphikrates is preserved only in moreover, he has no allusion to the 

Pliny. As regards the mention of the animal's tonguelessness. The story, 

statue and the anecdote attached without mention of the statue, recurs 

thereto,Plut.,Gff>7-«/. 8, andPolyainos, once again in Pliny (vii, 87), and 

Sirategem. viii, 45, appear to draw is told by Athen., xiii, 596 f. 



PASITELES OF NAPLES ixxvii 

We return to safer ground in the passage in Book xxxv, claimed 
for Heliodoros by Keil. He argues that the sentence (§ 134) 
pinxit (i. e. Aihenion) in templo Eleusine Phylarchum et Athenis 
frequentiam quam vocavere syngenicon is marked off from the rest 
of the account of Athenion's pictures by the careful notice of 
locality, a special Heliodoran characteristic, while the rest of 
the enumeration, being resumed with item, points to the juxta- 
position of different sources. Both the ' Phylarchos ' and the 
' syngenicon,' moreover, being votive offerings, fall within the 
range of the de anathematis. 

As already hinted, it seems probable that these additions from 
Heliodoros to the older text-books of Xenokrates and Antigonos 
were made by Pasiteles, the Plinian author whom we pass to 
consider next. 

VI. Pasiteles of Naples. 

This curiously many-sided man *, at once worker in marble, in 
ivory, and in bronze, who was a careful student of animal life, 
who modelled and chiselled, who could raise a chryselephantine 
statue or make the design for a silver mirror, and who was the 
master of a considerable school, is known to us only from Pliny 
and from one mention in Cicero {de Div. i, 36, 79). His date 
is given by the former (xxxiii, 156) as circa Pompei Magni 
(b. 108 B.C., murd. 48 B.C.) aetatem. He received the right 
of Roman citizenship in 88 b. c. (xxxvi, 40, where see Comm.), 
at a time when he had presumably attained to manhood ^ if not 
yet to fame. Of his five volumes concerning famous works of 
art [quinque volumina scripsit nobilium operum in toto orbe, xxxvi, 
40) we may expect to find traces in Pliny's work, where a 
distinguished place is assigned to him in the Indices of authors : 
in the Indices to xxxiii and xxxv he heads the list of Greek 
writers, in the Index to xxxiv he closes it ; for xxxvi he appears as 
sole Greek authority. Brunn's researches have proved that a 
writer appearing in so prominent a position must be a main 

See Jacobi, FleckdserCs Jahrb. 1873, ' The fullest account of Pasiteles 

p. 367 f. ; Gurlitt, he. cit.\ Kalk- is still that of Kekule, ZJze C?-;.!//* (^ej 

mann, Pausanias der Perieget, p. 52, Kiinstlers Menelaos, 1870, p. 11 ff. ; 

note I ; Reisch, Weihgeschenke, p. 13, see also Helbig, Untersuchungen 

note I. Grote {Ilist. iii, p. 332) Uber die campanische Wandtnalereij 

inclined to accept the story of p. 10 f. ; Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, 

Leaina, but took no notice of the p. 26 f. 
monument. " Kekule, op. cit., p. 1 1 f. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION 

authority — yet there is no writer so difficult to lay a definite hold 
on as Pasiteles, when we come to analyze the Plinian text. The 
only passage (xxxvi, 40) where he was thought to be cited by 
name for an expression of opinion has fallen away before 
Furtwangler's criticism : the reading admiraior et Pasitelis must 
be restored in place of the unsatisfactory admiratur et Pasiteles 
of the editions '- The attempt of Brieger ^ to detect Pasitelean 
authorship in passages betraying periegetic interests or points of 
view, and that of Otto Jahn ' to detect it wherever a work of art was 
qualified by the epithet nobilis, have likewise been disposed of 
by Furtwangler, whose own association of Pasiteles, however, 
with all the more properly artistic criticism in Pliny is in- 
adequately based upon the fact that Pasiteles was an artist, since, 
as we have seen, he only shared that qualification with Xenokrates, 
Antigonos, and others. Nor are there any accredited fragments 
of his writings which could serve as clues. We are left, in order 
to account for his singular position in the Indices, with the sole 
alternative, already indicated by Brunn *, of accrediting him with 
a final and wholesale working up of the old Greek Treatises upon 
art into his own five volumes. That Pasiteles should thus have 
elected to return to the Treatises of Xenokrates and Antigonos, 
rather than apply himself to formulate fresh theories and judge- 
ments, accords admirably with his artistic leanings : he created 
no style of his own, but turned back to Greek models — at times 
simply copying them, at others adapting or combining them 
for the presentment of a new subject ". Even as we doubtless 
owe to him and his school ° not a few of those copies which 
have rescued Greek statues from complete oblivion, so we may 
owe it to his reverence for the art-literature of the Greeks that 
some part of it has filtered down to us through the subsequent 
medium of the Roman authors. Thus Varro, and Pliny after 
him, would quote, as their manner was, the names of Xenokrates, 

' Furtwangler, Plinius und seine 1890), p. 134 f. ; Hauser, Die neu- 

Quellen, p. 40 f. attischen Reliefs, p. 182 ; cf. the 

' De Fontibiis, p. 36. interesting summary of Wollers, 

' Kunsiurtheile,^. 12^. Jahrh. xi, 1896, p. 3 f, and now 

* Sitzungsberichte der Munchener Furtwangler, Staitienkopien im AUer- 

Aiademie (phil.-hist. Classe), 1875, thum, p. S44 f. 

P- 313- " For Stephanos, pupil of Pasi- 

'- On this point see especially teles, and Menelaos.pupilof Stephanos, 

Furtwangler, Eine argivische Bronze see Commentary on xxxvi, 33. 

(50, Winckelmannsprogramm, Berlin, 



PASITELES OF NAPLES Ixxix 

of Antigonos, and other Greek writers, at second or third 
hand^ And that Pasiteles himself should chance not to be 
quoted in the actual text, for any of the additions which he 
made, is natural enough if we suppose that he gave merely an 
uncoloured enumeration of new material, unaccompanied by 
striking or disputable comment. For it is clear, if we inspect 
the cases in which authorities are cited in the Plinian text (xxxiv, 
6i, 68, &c.), that the mention is in no wise determined by the 
modern conscientiousness in such matters — not even by a senti- 
ment of honour among thieves — but by the occasional wish to 
disclaim responsibility (cf. p. Ixvi). Pliny, at any rate, thought it 
sufficient to acknowledge the debt which he owed indirectly to 
Pasiteles, whom he found cited as main Greek authority in Varro, 
by assigning him the leading place in the Indices, a place corre- 
sponding to that which he doubtless occupied in the Varronian 
lists of Greek authors ^ Varro seems to have marked his debt to 
Pasiteles by a general complimentary allusion to his productiveness 
both as writer and artist (xxxvi, 40). The quae fecisse nominatim 
non refertur is an addition by Pliny, who, not seizing the precise 
intention of the passage, expected to find the works of Pasiteles 
enumerated singly in this particular connexion. He forgets that 
just above he has mentioned on Varro's authority the gold-ivory 
Jupiter in the temple of Metellus; Varro himself, who was a 
contemporary and possibly a friend of Pasiteles ', must have 
known his works well. 

To Pasiteles, moreover, may be traced almost certainly one 
important extension of the original Greek treatises. These 
terminated, as we have seen (p. xxi), with 01. 121, a date which, 
though purely accidental, was accepted by subsequent writers 

' That the name of Antigonos naeo — Menandris Prienaeo et Hera- 

reached Pliny only through Pasiteles cleote with the Varronian item Am- 

has been suggested by Wilamowitz, philochus Atheniensis . . . Menandri 

Antigonos von Karystos, p. 7. duo unus Prienaeus alter Heracleotes. 

^ For Pliny's method of compiling Brunn (de Indicibus, p. 48) coa- 

long lists of authors from Varro see in jectures that the nine Greek writers 

especial the Index to Book viii; it con- vepl fifXtTovpyixd, ladex to Book xi, 

tains the names of twenty-nine Greek were taken straight over by Pliny 

authors, not one of which is cited in from the lost work of Hyginus ; cf. 

the text of the work ; they appear to also Brunn, p. 50, and F. Aly, Zur 

have been taken bodily over from Varro, Quellenkritik des dlteren Plinius, 

Re Rust. i. 1, 8, Pliny even adopt- 1885, p. 7 ff. 

ing for a long stretch the same order ^ Kekule, p. 17. 
of enumeration ; cp. Amfhilocho Athe- 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION 

as the close of a period of art. It was probably Pasiteles who, 
while preserving this date as the lower chronological limit for 
Greek art, brought in the mention of the revival in 01. 156 
(xxxiv, 52)^- This revival seems connected with the works of 
art and decorations executed for the buildings of Metellus, for 
which at a later date Pasiteles himself had made a Jupiter in 
ivory and gold. But if Pasiteles be the author of the additions 
to the chronology of the statuaries he must also be credited 
with the similar extension of the history of the painters, to 
include those who flourished from 01. 156 onwards (xxxv, 135)'' 
To the actual contents of the five volumes nobilium operum 
we have no clue, but from their number a certain .vidth of 
range may reasonably be argued. The design of Pasiteles was, 
we may conjecture, to give a general survey of all the arts of 
antiquity, rather than, like Xenokrates, to develop a definite 
scheme in relation to the department of art in which he was 
himself engaged, or which came within the sphere of his personal 
interest. We may therefore tentatively attribute to him — at any 
rate without violating any ascertained principle upon which he 
worked — the otherwise unallotted information in the early parts 
of xxxiv concerning bronze as used {a) for furniture, (b) for 
temple ornaments, (c) for statues of the gods, [d) for statues of 
mortals ; each category is linked to the following by the purely 
artificial conception of progress from the less to the more noble. 
Under these headings the Roman authors afterwards fitted in, 
as best they could, fresh material concerning Roman art, com- 
mitting themselves in the process to singular contradictions" 
Statuary proper, moreover, was further divided into colossal 
images and lesser images (§ 49). These artificial categories seem 
likely enough to have been adopted by Pasiteles as a convenient 
mode of tabulating his vast material. Thus he would further 
break up the old Greek Treatises into a chronological table and 
an alphabetical list (above, p. xxii), into which new names 
or works of special merit were introduced from Heliodoros ' 
or other sources, only the insignes being reserved for separate 
treatment. New lists were appended ; of these it is significant 
that the first comprises almost solely the names of artists who 
were also distinguished for their silver-chasing, a branch of 

1 Munzer, op. cit., p. 538; cf. ^a>-£--4. p. 135, note i. 
Comm. on xxxiv, 52, 1. 4. » Cf. Miinzer, p. 501. 

2 Munzer, I.e.; Robert, Arch. * Cf.B.KeU,^«/-»j«xxx,i895,p.226. 



PASITELES OF NAPLES Ixxxi 

art in which Pasiteles himself specially excelled. Indeed, 
with regard to the account of the silver-chasers themselves in 
xxxiii, 154-157, failing information concerning the unknown 
writers Menaichmos ^ and Menander '', who appear as authorities 
in the Index to Bk. xxxiii, or any clue to guide us here 
to Antigonos, Pasiteles must, for the present, be accepted 
as authority for the whole passage, with the sole exception of 
the subsequent interpolations and additions commented upon 
in the notes. 

In Bk. XXXV, again, it may be Pasiteles who divided the 
painters into two classes, according as they painted in tempera 
(53-111) or in wax by the process called encaustic (122-149), 
and who elaborated the curiously artificial theories (§ 149) as to its 
development. The latter recall the conventional notions of 
artistic progress unfolded at the commencement of Bk. xxxiv; 
they are equally devoid of that apprehension of a living growth 
within a living organism which, in spite of all blunderings, never 
seems to have deserted Xenokrates. In his written works, as in 
many of the copies of Greek statuary attributed to him, Pasiteles 
had caught the sense but not the spirit of the masters he so 
zealously emulated. Lastly, he arranged the painters of second 
rank (§§ 138-145), those of third rank (§ 146), and the women 
painters (§ 148) in three closing alphabetical lists. 

That the account of modelling (xxxv, § 151 f.) went through 
his hands is clear from the exceeding stress he laid upon the 
indispensable function of modelling in every branch of the 
plastic arts ; his opinion on this subject, quoted by Varro, was 
probably the main addition Pasiteles made to the original 
Greek Treatise. That Pasiteles would leave the account of 
the modellers prefixed to that of the statuaries in bronze is 
evident from the connexion he established between the two, 
Jilasticen matrem caelaturae et statuariae sculpturaeque dixit. It 
has already been noted (p. xxxv) that the exigencies of his plan 
compelled Pliny to transfer the account to its present awkward 
position. 

Pasiteles is the last writer upon art, properly so called, whose 
name meets us in the pages of Pliny. His comprehensive work 
proved not only a rich but a convenient store for the Roman 
encyclopaedists. Above all does he seem to have been excerpted 

' Above, p. xl, note i. 

'' Only known through Pliny ; cf. Susemihl, i, p. 524, note 47. 
f 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION 

by Varro, whose extracts from Pasiteles, altered and re-adapted to 
his own purposes by Pliny, have thus survived down to our own 
day. 



VII. Varro (116-28 li. c.)— Cornelius IVepos (circ. 99-24 b. c.)— 
Fabius Vestalis. 

The first step in Plinian criticism went from Pliny back to 
Varro as authority for the bulk of the history upon art. In the 
light of a clearer analysis, Varro has fallen again into a subor- 
dinate place, overshadowed no longer indeed by his debtor 
Pliny, but by those earlier authorities to whom he was in his turn 
indebted. By the emergence now into a certain definiteness of 
the Greek authorities : of Xenokrates and Duris, with their very 
distinctive histories, the one of art, the other of the artists ; of 
Antigonos in whom this uncongenial and even antagonistic 
material was worked up into a singular union ; and of Pasiteles, 
who yet further manipulated, rearranged, and amplified it, the 
Roman Varro is reduced from his position as authority to the 
humbler office of final intermediary. Though he is undoubtedly 
the author whom Pliny quotes most frequently in his account of 
the Artists ^, as generally throughout the Historia Naturalis, 
yet any discussion of his literary or scientific personality would 
be foreign to the present enquiry^. It is perhaps fortunate for 
his great reputation that so few of his voluminous writings have 
survived : the criticism of their comparatively meagre fragments 
will, for the world at large, always be outmatched by that 
picture of his learning which we owe to the genius of Cicero 
{Acad. Post, i, 3, 9), who as a fact neither loved nor admired him, 
but who, in order to secure by a counter-compliment the 
gratification of his own vanity, was ready to flatter the ttoKv- 
ypa(j)ii>Taros homo " Neither in the great list of his works preserved 
by Jerome, nor outside it, do we come upon traces of any work 
exclusively devoted to the history of art. The probability is that 
in the case of Varro, as in that of Pliny, this history formed but 

1 xxxiv, 56; XXXV, 113, 136, 154, sen, vol. Ill, p. 602 ff. On Varro's 

J55 ff- ; xxxvi, 14, 17, 39, 41 ; cf. compilatory methods see the just 

Furtwangler, Flinius, p. 56 ff. estimate of G. Boissier, £tude sur 

' For Varro, see especially Teuffel, la vie et Us ouvrages de Varron, p. 

Geschichte der Romischen Literatur, 27 ff. 
5§ 164-169, and the sketch in Momm- * Cic. Ep. ad Att. xiii, 18. 



VARRO Ixxxiii 

an episode of a larger work, such for instance as the section on 
'Human Affairs' in the 'Antiquities.' Further, we know from 
extant fragments ^ that various notices of artists were scattered up 
and down a number of Varro's lesser works. 

It only remains to indicate the few and comparatively insigni- 
ficant passages which we know, in most cases from Pliny's express 
mention of him, to be in a more special sense Varronian, for 
which Varro is, so far as we know, the final and sole authority. 
Even these I shall be content to summarize very briefly, 
apologizing for a brevity that may seem disproportioned by 
reminding the reader that till lately the disproportion has been 
all to the score of Varro, and that as a fact the value of the 
Plinian sources increases in the order, not of their nearness to 
Pliny, but of their approach to the distant fountain-head. 

Varro seems occasionally, as in the passage (xxxiv, 6g) on 
Praxiteles, to have modified and doctored the Greek account 
(above, p. xxii) so as to suit the Roman taste. Occasionally also 
he brought in parenthetical scraps of interesting or curious infor- 
mation; for instance, to the statement in xxxvi, § 14, that the 
archaic sculptors worked in marble he tacked on the truly 
Varronian etymology of the word lychnites (see Comm.). For the 
rest, his additions mostly express his personal opinion, or retail 
his personal knowledge, in many cases, of contemporaries. Thus 
from PUny's paraphrase we learn that to the account he borrowed 
from his Greek authors of the Nemesis at Rhamnous (xxxvi, 1 7) 
he added a sentence expressive of his own admiration of the 
statue, which he had doubtless seen during his stay at Athens. 
Thus too his mention of the lady artist laia of Kj'zikos, a friend 
of his youth, is adjoined to the lists of women painters (xxxv, 147). 
In like manner he praises the marvellously naturalistic modelHng 
of fruits by another acquaintance, Possis (ib. 155); this is followed 
(}b. 15s) by the laudatory notice of the friend of Lucullus, the 
Athenian Arkesilaos— who may well have been known to Varro — 
and of Pasiteles (above, p. Ixxix). Further, it appears from § 154 
that he had combined the Greek account of modelling, as he took 
it from Pasiteles, with some account of the art in Rome, and in 
this same connexion of modelling, though scarcely in its present 
context, he had given yet another reminiscence of his Athenian 

■ When the whole of the Varronian siderable traces of lost Greek writings 
fragments dealing with art-questions are certain to be revealed; see e.g. 
are collected and analyzed, con- Ling. Lat.'vii,^,\2; ■ib.Sx.,\i. 

fa 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION 

visit in his explanation of the term Ceramicus. Two statements 
are still more closely personal : he mentioned that he had once 
possessed (habuisse) a bronze figure by the silver-chaser Mentor 
(xxxiii, 154), and a marble group of a Lioness and Cupids by 
Arkesilaos (xxxvi, 41). From his use of the past tense it has 
been justly surmised that Varro had lost these treasures at the 
time of the proscriptions of b. c. 43. 

It is evident that Varro is the authority for both the genre 
pictures by Peiraikos and the huge pictures by Serapion, as 
well as for the portraits by Dionysios (xxxv, 113, 114). All three 
artists are placed antithetically to one another, and moreover, as 
we learn from § 148, they were evidently all three contemporaries 
of Varro. Upon these follows the mention of Kalates, a painter 
only once again mentioned in literature, namely in Varro's Life 
of the Roman People (fr. i Keil). Lastly, it is at least a signi- 
ficant coincidence that, while the pictures of Antiphilos mentioned 
by Pliny {ib. § 1 14) were either inside or in the neighbourhood 
of the Gallery of Pompeius, the same painter is mentioned in 
Varro's Treatise on Rustic Affairs (iii, 2, 5), in that part of the 
dialogue which is supposed to take place b. c. 54, a few months 
after the dedication of the theatre and the Gallery of Pompeius 
in the Field of Mars ^- It shows, at any rate, that Varro, writing 
after his eightieth year, was still interested in the pictures of the 
Egyptian painter, whom he may have discussed in a previous 
work. 

To Varro likewise Pliny owes, as appears from xxxv, 136, 
a number of notices of the high prices paid for works of art — 
mostly pictures. Varro had apparently collected together from 
his Greek authors a number of these instances, and had at the 
same time given, for the benefit of Roman readers, the Roman 
equivalent of the Greek talent : hence the takntum Atticum ^VI 
taxat M. Varro {loc. cit.) of Pliny. Three of the works of art 
which obtained specially high prices are mentioned together in 
vii, 126 (where, however, there is no reference to Varro's evaluation 
of the talent), and again separately at different parts of the 
account of the painters: thus the price paid by Attalos for 
the ' Dionysos ' of Aristeides of Thebes is given again twice in 
xxxv, 24 and 100; the price, 'its weight in gold,' of the picture 
by Boularchos, ib. 55 ; lastly, the price paid by Caesar for the 
'Aias' and the ' Medeia ' of Timomachos, ib. 136". To these 

' Miinzer, p. 541. 2 Miinzer, /. c. 



MUCIANUS Ixxxv 

undoubted instances of Varronian authorship I incline to add as 
a fourth the notice of the price paid for the ' Diadumenos ' of 
Polykleitos (xxxiv, 55). 

Cornelius Nepos, who at one time (e. g. Furtwangler, Plinius, 
p. 25) was credited with the anecdotic portions in Pliny, which 
recent criticism has gradually but surely traced back to Duris, 
is mentioned in xxxv, 16 as Pliny's authority for the existence 
of an early Greek painter Ekphantos, who accompanied the 
Corinthian Damaratos in his flight to Italy. Presumably, therefore, 
Pliny also obtained from him the mention of the Corinthian 
potters, also companions of Damaratos (ib. 152). These extracts 
may be from the same work of Nepos, dealing apparently with 
Roman customs, from which Pliny has citations in other parts of 
the Historia (ix, 61, 136 ; x, 60, &c.) '. 

For Fabius Vestalis, qui de pidura scripsit (Index, xxxv), 
and who possibly had also written on statuary and sculpture, 
since he figures in the Indices to xxxiv and xxxvi, not even the 
acuteness of Miinzer has been able to recover one single fragment 
out of the Plinian history. He is entirely unknown^, save for 
the references in Pliny ' (see Addenda). 

VIII. G. Licinius Mucianus (date of birth unknown ; died before 
B. c. 77, cf Plin. xxxii, 62). 
To the History of the Artists which he borrowed from Varro, 
Pliny made one notable group of additions from the work in 
which his contemporary G. Licinius Mucianus, ter consul'^, had 
published the more or less trustworthy observations compiled 
during a prolonged sojourn in the East. These additions concern 
the works of art of the coast cities of Asia-Minor and the adjacent 
islands, a region that had practically lain outside the ken of 
the Greek art-writers Xenokrates (cf p. xxi) and Antigonos '', and 
after them of Pasiteles ^ 

' Miinzer, p. 542 f. ' We must except, of course, the 

^ Teuffel, § 267, II. traditions derived by Antigonos from 

' Indices, vii, xxxiv-xxxvi ; cf. vii, Duris concerning the island-schools 

213. of the Aegean. 

* Cited Indices to xxxi, xxxiii, ^ Pasiteles, so far as we can tell, 

xxxv, xxxvi, and repeatedly in the seems not to have enlarged the geogra- 
body of the Historia (see Detlefsen's phical range of his predecessor, except 

Index). for the notice of the Greek artists in 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION 

Mucianus, coming from the South ', would first encounter .the 
civilization of the Aegean in Rhodes (v, 132 ; xix, 12 ; xxxiv, 36) ; 
of the islands which he visited, Delos (iv, 66), Syros {ib. 67), and 
Andros (ii, 231) lay furthest to the West, Samothrake (xi, 167) to 
the North ; along the coast proper he came at least as far as 
Kyzikos (xxxi, 19). Pliny not unfrequently introduces the notices 
of works of art extant within this geographical district by such 
words as hodie or nunc, showing that he is quoting from a con- 
temporary or recent authority. Finally, we have also to guide 
us, in our search for the information borrowed by Pliny from 
Mucianus, our knowledge of the man's superstitious credulousness, 
of his keen interest for everything marvellous or miraculous". 
The greater number of the additions to be traced back to 
Mucianus have been detected by Leopold Brunn in an exhaustive 
dissertation', and accepted as Mucianian by the later com- 
mentators of Pliny *. The following list of the passages derived 
from Mucianus in the art-books follows a geographical order 
from south to north. 

I. Rhodes. 

LiNDOS. That Mucianus visited its temple of Athena and 
noted its treasures and curiosities in detail, appears from xix, 12, 
where Pliny, specially using the word nuperrime, describes on the 
authority of Mucianus the cuirass of the Egyptian king Amasis, 
there preserved ; each thread in this cuirass was composed of 
three hundred and sixty-five strands ; Pliny adds that Mucianus, 
who had verified the fact, had remarked that ' almost nothing was 
left of the cuirass owing to these frequent verifications ^' Hence 
the following descriptions of works of art in the same temple 
of Lindos have been justly referred to him °- 

I. xxxiii, 81 : a cup, with the strange story attached to it that 

Rome employed on the buildings of ' De C. Licinio Muciano, Diss., 

Metellus. Leipzig, 1870. 

' Miinzer, op. cit., p. 544. ' Cf. Furtwangler, Plinius und 

'^ E. g. he was in the habit of wearing seine Quellen, pp. 52-56; Oehmichen, 

rotind his neck a fly tied up in a linen Plinianische Studien, pp; 141-149. 
rag as a remedy against ophthalmia, "... Quod se expertum nuperrime 

Plin. xxviii, 5. I am not concerned prodidit Mucianus ter cos., paruasque 

here to reconcile such statements with iatn, reliquias eius superesse hoc ex- 

the glowing tributes paid to Mucianus perientium iniuria, 
by Tacitus (Hist, i, 10; ii, 5, &c.). « First by Brieger, de Fontibus, 

For an estimate of Mucianus see p. 59 ff. 
especially Teuffel, § 314. 



MUCIANUS Ixxxvii 

it was dedicated by Helena, who had moulded it on her breasts. 
(L. Brunn, 43.) 

2. xxxiii, 155: silver cups chased by Boethos, the hodie 
showing that Pliny was quoting from a contemporary authority. 
(L. Brunn, 44.) 

Rhodes (city): 3. xxxiii, 155: silver cups chased by Akragas 
and Mys. (L. Brunn, 44.) 

4. xxxiv, 36 : Rhodi etiamnum LXXIII signorum esse Mucianus 
ter COS. prodidit. (L. Brunn, 12.) 

5. lb. 41, 42 : the description of the colossus of Rhodes 
(L. Brunn, 45) ; it evidently rests on the testimony of an eye- 
witness, and the delighted insistence on the marvellous appearance 
{miraculo est) of the fallen colossus, and its size and its cost, betrays 
the special bent of Mucianus '. 

6. lb. § 42 : Sunt alii centum numero in eadem urbe colossi 
minores (L. Brunn, 45) ; the words are inseparable from the 
notices of the large colossus, and moreover recall xxxvi, 37. 

7. xxxv, 69 : the picture by Parrhasios of Meleager, Herakles, 
and Perseus, thrice struck by lightning and yet not effaced — 
}wc ipso miraculum auget — (L. Brunn, 46), the insistence upon 
the miracle being thoroughly after the manner of Mucianus. 

8. To the seven passages on Rhodian works of art, which critics 
agree in tracing back to Mucianus, should be added the mention 
in xxxiv, 63, of the chariot of the Sun by Lysippos, in primis 
vero quadriga cum Sole Rhodiorum ^. 

II. Knidos. 

9. xxxvi, 20, 21: description of the Aphrodite of Knidos ; it is 
that of an eye-witness, who is interested neither in the motive 
nor technique of the statue, but whose tourist's curiosity was 
roused by the story of King Nikomedes, by the tradition that 
the artist had made two rival statues, the one draped, the other 
not, and finally by the anecdote of the statue's lover '- 

10. lb.: Sunt in Cnido et alia signa marmorea inlustrium 
artificum — inseparable from the preceding notice of the Aphrodite ; 
cf. above, 6 and 5 ' 

' Brieger, I.e. ' The passage first referred to 

^ Miinzer (p. 504) correctly omits Mucianus by Furtwangler, op. cit., 

it from the original Xenokratic list p. 53 f. ; cf. Oehmichen, of. cit., 

of Lysippian works, but makes no p. 148. 

further suggestion as to its authorship. * Furtwangler, /. c. 



Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION 

III. Halikarnassos. 

11. xxxvi, 30, 31 : description of the Mausoleion; it resembles 
in character that of the Knidian Aphrodite ; the size, the beauty, 
and the labour expended upon the monument are described, but 
nothing is said of the subject presented ; the words hodieque 
certant manus point to a contemporary authority ^- 

IV. Miletos. 

12. xxxiv, 75: Apollo of Kanachos, with the wonderful stag. 
That this is an addition to the original Greek account of the 
artist has already been pointed out (above, p. xxii) ; the periegetic 
character of the description, and the insistence upon trivial pecu- 
liarities which were perhaps only the result of accident^, are 
characteristic of Mucianus '. 

V. Samos. 

13. XXXV, 93 : portrait of Habron by Apelles *. 

VI. Ephesos. 

14. xxxvi, 95 : description of Temple of Artemis; it is evidently 
from the same hand as xvi, 213 (= App. IV), where Mucianus 
is quoted by name. Besides, the description bears the same 
character as that of the Mausoleion (No. 11) : the interest of the 
describer centred in the wonder of the foundations, in the size 
and number of the columns, and in the apparition of the goddess 
to the tired artist. 

15. lb. 32 : the Hekate, against whose radiance the guardians 
of the temple advised visitors to shade their eyes. (L. Brunn, 51.) 

16. XXXV, 92 : the portrait of Alexander by Apelles; the descrip- 
tion seems by Mucianus; the price of the work is dwelt upon, and 
the motive of the thunderbolt mentioned only because digiti 
eminere videntur et fulmen extra tabulatn esse. (L. Brunn, 53.) 

17. XXXV, 93: picture of the procession of a Megabyzos by 
Apelles. (L. Brunn, 53.) 

1 First attributed to Mucianus by conversation, first suggested to me 

Furtwangler, /. c. that the puzzling Plinian description 

" See note on passage. Ernest of the stag was a periegetic fable In- 

Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculp- vented out of some trivial failure in 

ture, p. 194, note i, hints at the same the casting. 

possibility. If my memory serves me = Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, p. 

right, it was Mr. A. S. Murray who, 142 f. 

some years ago, in the course of ' Oehmichen, p. 146. 



MUCIANUS Ixxxix 

i8. lb. 129 : picture of the Madness of Odysseus by Euphranor ; 
Mucianus interpreted the action of Palamedes differently to other 
authorities ^ (see Comm.). 

19. lb. 131 : grave picture of a priest of Artemis by Nikias. 
(L. Brunn, 54.) 

20. xxxiv, 58 : Apollo by Myron, taken away by Antonius and 
restored to the Ephesians by Augustus, in obedience to a dream. 
Miinzer (p. 544) has astutely detected the apocryphal character 
of a story invented by a jealous priesthood in emulation of their 
Samian neighbours. (See Comm. on pass.) 

VII. Smyrna. 

21. xxxvi, 32 : the drunken old woman by Myron (for the 
epithet ebria, see Comm.) ''. 

VIII. lasos. 

22. xxxvi, 12 : Artemis, by the sons of Archermos ° j evidently 
from the same writer as following fragment ^ 

IX. Chios. 

23. Ib.\T,: mask of Artemis by the same artists ; the Mucianian 
character patent in the description of the face, which appears sad 
to those who enter the temple, gay to those who leave it. 

X. Pergamon. 

From xxxvi, 131 we learn that Mucianus was in that region; 
accordingly we should perhaps refer to him the notices concerning 
Pergamene art. These are foreign to the original treatises (above, 
p. xxi) : Xenokrates lived too early to take Pergamon into 
account ; Antigonos, although himself one of the artists employed 
by the Pergamene kings (xxxiv, 84), accepted the chronological 
hmit of the Xenokratic Treatises. Pasiteles did the same, 
marking his only addition to the chronology as a 'Revival' 
(above, p. Ixxix f.). It only remains to conjecture that Pliny took 
from Mucianus his descriptions of Pergamene works '"- 

' Rightly attributed to Mucianus by ' Oehmichen, p. 147 ; cf. Miinzer, 

Oehmichen,/.c., asagainstFurtwangler of.cit., p. 525, note i. 
(p. 44), who gave the passage to * That Mucianus visited lasos 

Pasiteles. appears from ix, 33. 

"^ Cf. Furtwangler, op. cit., p. 54. * Cf. Miinzer, op. cit., p. 544. 



xc INTRODUCTION 

24. xxxiv, 84 : Plures artifices . . . Aniigonus ; the words ^ui 
volumina condidit de sua arte may be an addition of Pliny's own. 

25. XXXV, 60 : Aiax fulmine incensus by Apollodoros, the hodie 
pointing clearly to a contemporary authority'. (Oehmichen, 71.) 

26. xxxvi, 24: the 'symplegma' by Kephisodotos, with the 
epigram attached thereto. (Oehmichen, 81.) 

XI. Samothrake. 
From xi, 167 it appears that Mucianus visited this island; 
hence we may refer to him : 

27. xxxvi, 25 : an Aphrodite and Pothos by Skopas ; the words 
sandissimis caerimoniis coluntur are characteristic of the pious and 
superstitious Mucianus. (Oehmichen, 78.) 

XII. Parian. 

28. xxxiv, 78 : Herakles by Hagesias (Oehmichen, 67). That 
this is an addition to the early Greek account was pointed out 
above, p. xxiv. Parion, moreover, only became a colonia under 
Augustus (see Comm.). It was not known as such to Varro, who 
only refers to it as Parion (cf. vii, 13, in Hellesponto circa Parium, 
on the authority of Varro) ; thus Mucianus remains the only one 
of the Plinian authors known to have visited this region at a time 
when it would be generally described as P. colonia. 

29. xxxvi, 22 : nude Eros by Praxiteles in Pario colonia, with 
the story of its lover Alketas of Rhodes, closely resembling the 
story of the lover of the Knidian Aphrodite. (Oehmichen, 68.) 

XIII. Lysimacheia. 

30. xxxiv, 56 : a Hermes by Polykleitos, no longer extant when 
Mucianus visited the city '. 

This bald list serves to indicate the immediate indebtedness of 
Pliny to Mucianus, but there arises the further question whence 
Mucianus derived his own information. That he relied in great 
measure, perhaps mainly, on the tales of ciceroni, is evident from 
the nature of what he relates. Yet in some cases, e. g. in the 
description of the Mausoleion, or of the colossus of Rhodes, he 

1 Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 53. city which lay in the route of Mucianus 

= First attributed to Mucianus by —must be referred to this author : ' it 

Munzer, op. cit., p. 535. In a private has all the characteristic signs : 

note Miinzer further points out to me personal observation and interest in 

that the description of the temple of the miraculous.' 

Erythreia (xi, in, and xxxv, 161) — a 



ROMAN MUSEOGRAPHY xci 

doubtless had handbooks which informed him of such details as 
price and size, or gave the names of the artists employed. To 
ascertain what these handbooks may have been, and whether 
fragments of Greek writings other than those of the Xenokrates- 
Antigonos-Pasiteles group reached Pliny through Mucianus, is 
a task which lies outside the compass of the present essay. 



IX. Fliny's mvn additions. — Roman Museography. 
Retrospect. 

Besides the Varronian additions to the material derived from the 
Greek art-treatises, and besides the material which he derived inde- 
pendently from Varro, Pliny enriched his account of the artists by 
notices concerning the locality in Rome of a number of Greek works. 
It is well known that in the days of Pliny, and already long before 
his time, Rome displayed within her galleries, her temples, and her 
public places an unrivalled collection of works of art, gathered 
together from every part of the Hellenic world. From the day 
when Marcellus had first induced the Romans to admiration of 
Greek art by displaying the spoils of Syracuse \ down to that 
crowning day of a triple triumph when Caesar Augustus cele- 
brated his victory over the last of the Hellenic powers ", statues 
and other works of art had come to be as much a part of the 
pageantry of triumphs as captives or military booty ^ The 
solemn dedication of these objects in some public building was 
the natural sequel of the triumphal procession. The great 
generals of the Republic *, and after them the Emperors '^, had 
shown themselves zealous for the preservation and arrangement 
of these collections. Only a short while before Pliny compiled 

' Liv. XXV, 40 ; see Comm. on cf. Comm. on xxxiv, 54, the statues 

XXXV, 24, 1. 16. dedicated by Catulns in the temple 

^ In 23 B. c. ; for the works of art of the Fortune of the Day, and on 

brought to Rome from Alexandria, xxxiv, 77, the Minerva dedicated by 

see Wunderer, Manibiae Alexan- Q. Lutatius Catulus below the 

drinae. Capitol. 

^ So much so that works of art * E. g. Gallery of Octavius, xxxiv, 

were even displayed in triumphs over 13 ; Gallery of Pompeius, xxxv, 114, 

barbaric and Western nations; the 126,132. 

art booty acquired from Macedonia by ° E. g. Gallery of Octavia, xxxiv, 

Aemilius Paullus, for instance, seems 31 ; xxxv, 139 ; xxxvi, 24, 35, &c. ; 

to have formed an inexhaustible mine and consult the Museographic Index 

whence other conquerors could draw ; (ii). 



xcii INTRODUCTION 

his history of the artists, his patron Vespasian had opened the 
great Temple of Peace, destined with its surrounding Forum ^ to 
receive, alongside the treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem, those 
Greek masterpieces which the greed of Nero had gathered within 
the Golden House ^- The pages of Pliny are certainly the richest 
mine of information concerning the art treasures of Rome. Owing, 
moreover, to his preference for books over personal observation 
of actual fact, Pliny not unfrequently records the locality of 
works of art which had disappeared in his day '. Yet a dis- 
cussion of the sources whence Pliny obtained his museographic 
information, though of matchless interest for the study of Roman 
history and topography, lies entirely outside an inquiry concerned 
with the Greek element in Pliny. It suffices to point out that 
Pliny doubtless had straight from Varro (p. Ixxxiii f.) most of the 
Roman notices relating to events up to the close of the Republic ; 
that for the Early Empire, up to the reign of Nero, he may have 
borrowed from authors such as Deculo * or Fenestella ^ ; while his 
allusions to Nero ", and his eulogies of the Flavian Emperors, and 
of the works of art in their possession ', were probably part of the 
material he had himself compiled for his own History of Rome, 
a work embracing the period from the accession of Nero to the 
Judaic triumph of Vespasian and Titus *. 

It is little or nothing, then, of intrinsic importance from our 
point of view, that Pliny added to the Greek Treatises as he 
found them excerpted in Varro. At most does he bring the 
information thus derived from the Greeks into consonance with 
the taste of his day by occasional flashes of rhetoric, such as the 
repeated lament over the decay of art ' ; his outburst of admira- 
tion at the power of art, which ' could turn the eyes of the Senate 
of the Roman people for so many years upon Glaukion and his 

' xxxiv, 84. evidently from the same source as 

^ ib- the mention of the ' Archigallus ' 

' This remark applies to a great loved by Tiberins, in xxxv, 70 ; see 

portion of the Roman statues men- Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, p. 123. 

tioned in the earlier part of xxxiv. * Cf. Oehmichen, op. cit. p. 125. 

Cf. also xxxiv, 69 (statues by Praxi- ° xxxiv, 45, 48, 63, 84; xxxv, 51, 

teles which had stood in front of 91, 120, &c. 

the Temple of Felicity) ; xxxv, 99, ' See especially xxxiv, 84 ; the 

the Dionysos and Ariadne of Aris- appreciation of the astragalhontes 

teides. belonging to Titus in xxxiv, 55, and 

* From whom he had the anecdote of the Laocoon in xxxvi, 37. 

of Tiberius' passion for the Apoxyo- ° Praef. Hist. Nat. 20. 

menos of Lysippos, xxxiv, 62 ; it is « Cf. xxxiv, 5 ff. ; xxxv, 4,39. 



PLINY'S ADDITIONS xciii 

son Aristippos, persons otherwise quite obscure ' ; ' his simulated 
indignation at the cruelty of Phalaris^; and his allusion to the 
present merited dishonour of that Carthaginian Hercules to whom 
human victims had once been offered up ^ 

In estimating Pliny's account of the artists we must never 
forget that it was inserted into the Historia Naturalis as a digres- 
sion, which was artificially linked to the history of mineralogy on 
the pretext of the materials employed. In doing this Pliny was 
responding rather to the curiosity of his time in artistic matters * 
than following any special inclination of his own. If Pliny cared 
for art at all, it was only for its most realistic and imitative 
aspects. He admires the brutal realism of the dog licking her 
wounds ^ and in the workshop of Zenodoros his enthusiasm is 
roused by the colossal model which, even when covered with its 
wax tubings, betrayed an extraordinary likeness to Nero°. 
Occasionally too — and we may pay this tribute to our author as 
we take our leave of him — we seem to detect that, if he appears 
too often as an indiscriminating compiler, this is not so much 
through total lack of the critical faculty as through lack of time. 
At least he does not omit to rail at those critics who ascribed 
to Polykleitos (the elder namesake being the only Polykleitos 
known to him) the statue of Hephaistion, the friend of Alex- 
ander, although Hephaistion had lived nearly one hundred years 
after the artist', while in xxxiv, 79 he expresses by a vigorous 
turn of phrase his astonishment at finding Daidalos, whom in 
his hurry he confuses with the old Homeric craftsman, figuring 
among the artists of the historic age*. Yet the critical note 
is rare, and, in the larger inquiry concerning the sources whence 
Pliny drew, his own estimate of these sources appears but as 
a trivial accident. 

Thus the tendency of modern research is to lessen more 
and more the importance of Pliny's personal contribution in his 
account of the artists, as indeed in the whole of his great work. 
Yet, by a singular irony, the fundamental faults of his work have 
bestowed upon it a permanent value. He has given us what is 
better than any original criticism which his century could have 
produced — a short compilation which is, to borrow the word he 

' XXXV, 38. in Plutarch treating of art. 

'' xxxiv, 89. ^ xxxvi, 39. « xxxiv, 38. ° ib. 45-46. 

* Cf. Bertrand, £tudes, p. 329 ff., ' ib. 64. 

and his remarks, ib., on the passages * ib. 76. 



xciv INTRODUCTION 

applies to the whole Historia, the ' storehouse ' or thesaurus 
wherein are consigned fragments from the lost text-books of 
Xenokrates, from the Biographies of Duris and Antigonos, nay, 
priceless sayings that had filtered through the ages from the very 
writings of Apelles and Pamphilos \ 

' A short but admirably just estimate of the precise value of Pliny's work is 
given by J. W. Mackail, Latin Literature, 1895, P" ^97- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY ^ 



Editions. Barbarus, Rome, 1492 ; Dalecampius, Lyons, 1586 ; Gro- 
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Amelung, Walther : Die Basis des Praxiteles aus Mantinea 

(Munich, 1895). 
Arndt-Bruckmann : Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker 

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Brunn, Heinrich : Geschichte der Griechischen Kunstler (Brunswick, 

1853 and 1859 ; the second edition, Stuttgart, 1889, is merely a 

reprint of the first) =^.C 

' Only the most important works and those most constantly cited in the 
notes are given. The bibliography of the Plinian sources will be found on 
p. XT f. of the Introduction. 



xcvi BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Brunn-Bruckmann : Denkmdler Grieckischer -und Romischer 

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COLLIGNON, M. : Histoire de la Sculpture Grecque (vol. I, Paris, 1892) 

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CuRTius, Ernst : Stadtgeschichte von Athen (Berlin, 1891). 
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(Berlin, 1896). 
FiCK, A. : Die GriecMschen Personennamen (second edition, Gottingen, 

1894). 
FORSTER, G. H. : Die Sieger in den Olympischen Spielen (I, II, 

Zwickau, 1891, 1892). 
Frankel, Max : Die Inschriften von Pergamon (Berlin, 1890). 
Freeman, E.: History of Sicily (Oxford, 1891-1894). 
Friederichs-Wolters : Die GipsabgUsse antiker Bildwerke (Berlin, 

1885). 
Furtwangler, a. : Der Domauszieherund der Knabe mit der Gans 

(Berlin, 1876). 
Die Sammlung Sabouroff(^tr\m, 1883, 1887). 

Meisterwerke der GriecMschen Plastik (Leipzig — Berlin, 1893). 

Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture, ed. by E. Sellers London, 

189s). 

Statuenkopien im Alterthum (Munich, 1896). 

Gardner, E. A. : A Handbook of Greek Sculpture (London, 1896). 
Gardner, P. : The Types of Greek Coins (Cambridge, 1883). 
Gardner, P., and Imhoof-Blumer : A Numismatic Commentary 

on Pausanias (London, 1887, reprinted from Journal of Hellenic 

Studies). 

Gardthausen, V. : Augustus und seine Zeit (Leipzig, 1891, 1896). 

Gilbert, Otto : Geschichte und Topographie derStadtRom (Leipzig, 
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GURLITT, W. : Ueber Pausanias (Graz, 1890). 

Hartwig, Paul : Die GriecMschen Meisterschalen (Stuttgart and 
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Head, B. V. : Guide to the Coins of the Ancients (second edition, 
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IjELBIG: Wandgemalde der vom Vesuv verschiltteten Stddte Cam- 
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Untersuchungen iiber die Campanische Wandmalerei (Leipzig, 

1873) = Untersuch. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY xcvii 

Helbig : Guide to the Public Collections of Classical Antiquities in 
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l89S) = C/aw. Ant. 

HiLLER VON Gaertringen : Inscriptiones Graecae Insularum Rhodi, 
Chalces, Carpathi cum Saro Casi (Berlin, 1895). 

HITZIG AND Blumner : Pausaniae Graeciae descriptio (I, I Attica, 

Berlin, 1896). 
Holland, Philemon : The Historie of the World, commonly called 

the Natural Historie of C. Plinius Secundus (London, 1635). 
JACOBI, Franz : GrundzUge einer Museographie der Stadt Rom zur 

Zeit des Kaisers Augustus (Part I, Spires, 1884). 
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KiJLB, H. : C. Plin. Secundus Naiurgeschichte Ubersetzt underldutert 

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1892). 
LOEWY, E. : Untersuchttngen zur Griechischen Kiinstlergeschichte 

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Inschriffen Gfiechischer Rildhauer (LeiTpzig, i8Zc,)=I.G.B. 

Marquardt : Privatleben der Romer (Leipzig, 1886). 

Romische Staatsverwaltung (Leipzig, 1894). 

Mayhoff : Lucubrationes Plinianae (1865). 

Novae Lucubrationes Plinianae (1874). 

MOMMSEN, Th. : Romische Geschichte (7th edition, Berlin, 1882). 
Res Gestae divi Augusti (Berlin, 1883). 

Romisches Staatsrecht (Leipzig, 1887, 1888). 

Romische Forschungen (Berlin, 1864). 

Geschichte des Romischen Miinzwesens (Berlin, i860). 

MtJLLER, J. : Der Stil des dlteren Plinius (Innsbruck, 1883). 
MlJLLER, Ottfried : Handbuch der Archaeologie der Kunst (third 

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Murray, A. S. : A Handbook of Greek Archaeology (London, 1892). 

S 



xcviii BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Otto : Sprichworter der Romer (Leipzig, 1890). 

OvERBECK : Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der Bildenden Kiinste bei 

den Griechen (Leipzig, 1 868) = 5. Q. 
Pauly : Real-Encyclopddie (new edition, by G. Wissowa, Stuttgart, 

1893- )• 
Preger : Inscriptiones Graecae Meiricae ex scriptoribus praeter 

Anthologiam collectae (Leipzig, 1891). 
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Griechische Mythologie (fourth edition, by C. Robert, Berlin, 

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AntiquiUs du Bospkore Cimmirien (Paris, 1892). 

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Reisch, Emil: Griechische IVeihgeschenie (Leipzig, 1890). 
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Ares Borghese, Halle'sches Winckelmannsprogramm xix, 
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ROSCHER, W. H. : Lexikon der Griechischen utid Romischen Mytho- 
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V. Schneider, Robert : Album auserlesener Gegenstdnde der antiken 
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Schreiber, Theodor: Die AlexandrinischeToreutik {Leipzig, 1894). 

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SiLLlG, Julius : Dictionary of the Artists of Antiquity (trans, by 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY xcix 

Uruchs, Ludwig v. : GriecMsche Statuen im Republikanischen Rom 
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Das holzerne Pferd (Wiirzburg, 1881). 

Pergamenische Inschriften (Wiirzburg, 1883). 

■ Arkesilaos (Wiirzburg, 1887). 

Wachsmuth, C. : Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum (I, II, Leipzig, 
1874, 1890). 

Weisshaupl : Grabgedichte der Griechischen Anthologie (Vienna, 
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WiCKHOFF, Franz: Die Wiener Genesis (Vienna, 1895). 
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romischen Kunstraubes (Wiirzburg, 1894). 



Ann. Inst.=Annali delP Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica 
(Rome, 1829-1885). 

Ant. Denkm.^= Antike Denkrndler, herausgegeben vom K. Deutschen 
Archdologischen Institut (Berlin, 1887). 

Arch. Anz.=Archdologischer Anzeiger (a supplement printed at the 
end of the Archdologisches Jahrbuch). 

Arch. Ep. Mitth.=Archdologische Epigraphische Mittheilungen aus 
Oesterreich- Ungarn. 

A. Z. = Archdologische Zeitung (Berlin, 1843-1885). 

Ath. Mitth.= Mittheilungen des K. deutschen Archdologischen Instituts, 
Athenische Abtheil. (Athens, 1876- ). 

Berl. Phil. Woch.= Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift. 

B. C.H.— Bulletin de Correspondance HelUnique (Athens, 1877). 
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(Rome, 1829-1885). 

Class. Rev. = Classical Review (London, 1887- ). 

AeXT. = AcXTioj/ 'A/);(aioXo'yiKdj' (Athens, 1888- ). 

'E0. 'Apx. — 'Eiprjiiepls'ApxaioXoyiKrj (Athens, 1883- ). 

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(ed. Fleckeisen u. Masius). 

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Jahrb.=Jahrbuch des K. deutschen Archdologischen Instituts (Berlin, 
1886- ). 

J. H.S.= Journal of Hellenic Studies (London, 1880- ). 



c BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mon. Inst.—Monumenti inediti delP Istituto di Corrispondenza 
Archeologica (Rome, 1829-1885). 

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Rhein. Mus.=Rheinisches Museum fur Fhilologie. 

Rd7n. Mitth.=Mtttheilungen des K. deutschen Archdologischen 
InstittUs, Rom. Abtheil. (Rome, 1886- ). 

T. J. B.= Topographischer Jahresbericht (contributed to the Romische 
Mittheilungen). 

Woch. f. Klass. Phil.= Wochenschrift fiir Klassische Fhilologie 
(Berlin). 

C. I. A. — Corpus Inscriptionum Atiicarum (Berlin, 1873- ). 

C.I. G. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum (Berlin, 1828-1870). 

C. I. G. S. = Corpus Inscriptionum. Graeciae Septentrionalis (vol. I, 
Berlin, 1892). 

C. I. L. = Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. (Berlin, 1863- ). 

C. I. Rhen. = Corpus Inscriptionum Rhenarum (Elberfeld, 1867- ). 



MANUSCRIPTS REFERRED TO. 

Bamb. = the Codex Bambergensis M. V. 10, of the ninth to tenth centnry (see 
our plate) ; in the Royal Library at Bamberg (it contains only the last 
six books of the Hist. Nat.). 

Rice. = the Codex Riccardianus M. II. ii. 488, written about the year iioo 
according to Detlefsen, but probably older ; in the Bibliotheca Ric- 
cardiana at Florence. 

Voss. = the Codex Vossianus Latitvus 61 in folio, of the ninth century (cf. 
Chatelain, Paliographie des Classiques Latins, pi. cxli); in the University 
Library at Leiden. 

Lips. = the Codex Lifsii 7 ^see Geel, Cat. n. 465), copied from the Vossianus 
when this codex was more complete than it is now, and before it had 
been corrected (cf. Chatelain, pi. cxlii) ; in the University Library at 
Leiden. 

e corr.=« corredione and refers to the corrections introduced into a MS. by 
a later hand. 

reliqui=th.e remaining codices save the particular codex or codices anywhere 
quoted. 

** = a corrupt readmg which has not yet been satisfactorily restored. 



t printed before an artist's name in the English translation signifies that the 
artist is so far known only from Pliny. 



C. PLINII SECUNDI 
NATURALIS HISTORIAE 

LIBER XXXm §5 154-157 
LIBER XXXIV §§ 5-93 ; 140-141 

{CAELATURA ET STATUARIA) 



I. CAELATURA. 

Lib. 

xxxm. 

154 MiRUM auro caelando neminem inclaruisse, argento 

multos. maxime tamen laudatus est Mentor de quo supra 
diximus. quattuor paria ab eo omnino facta sunt, ac iam 
nullum extare dicitur Ephesiae Dianae templi aut Capitolini 
incendiis. Varro se at aereum signum eius habuisse scribit. 5 

155 proximi ab eo in admiratione Acragas et Boethus at Mys 



§ 154. 2. maxime . . . laudatus : 
the silver chasers are arranged in 
order of merit in four groups (a) max. 
laudatus, {b) proximi ab eo, (c)fost has 
celebrati, id) item laudantur. Within 
each of these groups the names are 
arranged alphabetically, Benndorf, de 
Anthol. Graec. Epigramm. quae ad 
artes spectant, p. 52, note i. The 
main account, derived, through a 
Roman source, from some Greek 
writer, is interrupted (i) by the 
mention of Varro's statue ; (a) by a 
description {extant . . . habuii) of 
chased works in Rhodes, drawn pre- 
sumably from Mucianus (Brieger, de 
Fontibus Flin. p. 60), Introd. p. Ixxxvi ; 
(3) by the quotation of an epigram. 

de quo supra diximus : the refer- 
ence is to vii, 127, where the cups 
of Mentor are again alluded to as 
being in the Ephesian and Capitoline 
temples. The reader, however, would 
naturally think of (xxxiii, 147) Lucius 
' uero Crassus orator duos scyphos Men- 
toris artificis manu caelatos HS. c (sc. 
emptos habuit); but this statement 
being at variance with the present one, 
they must have been made indepen- 



dently and at different times ; the 
present passage seems a later addition, 
taken straight from vii, 127 (Furt- 
wangler, Plinius u. j. Quellen, p. 57, 
note i). 

3. quattuor paria : cups are men- 
tioned in pairs, xxxiii, 147 (quoted 
above) ; xxxiv, 47 {duopocula Calami- 
dis manu); below § 156 {in duobus 
scyphis). It was apparently customary 
to decorate the pair with one con- 
tinuous subject, as is expressly stated 
in the case of the cups by Zopyros (cf. 
Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 96, 
note 63) and known from extant in- 
stances, e.g. the superb pairs of caps 
from Bemay, Schreiber, Alex. Toreu- 
tik, 54*, 55* (= Babelon, Cab. des 
Antiques, pi. 51 and 14, with Ken- 
taurs and Kentauresses); ib. 6'j*, 68*; 
id. 63*, 64* (at Naples) = ^aj. Borb. 
xiii, pi. 49. 

4. lEjpliesiae . . . incendiis : tH, 
127. The fire, which occurred in B.C. 
356, gives us a lower limit for the 
date of Mentor. For the numerous 
passages in ancient authors referring 
to this, the most celebrated silver 
chaser of antiquity, see Overbeck's 



I. SILVER CHASING. 

Book 
XXXIII. 
Curiously enough, none have become famous as gold chasers, 154 
many as chasers of silver. Of these the most esteemed is that 
Mentor, whom I have already mentioned. He made four pairs 
of cups in all, none of which, it is said, are extant ; they perished 
when the temples of Artemis at Ephesos and of Jupiter on the 
Capitol were burnt down. Varro speaks of a bronze statue in his 
possession also from the hand of Mentor. Next to him -^Akragas, 155 
Boethos, and Mys were had in great admiration. Works by these 



Schriflquellen,2i6^-2i%i. The Capi- 
toline fire occurred B. C. 83, during the 
Civil War, Appian, 'E^k^. i, 83. 

5. Varro : cf.xxxvi,4i, where Varro 
is likewise cited both as author and 
owner. — Like a number of other caela- 
iores (so Kalamis, Ariston, Eunikos) 
Mentor was also a sculptor in bronze. 

§ 155. 6. Acragas : the name, which 
is that of the eponymous river-god 
of Agrigentum (Ailian, Horn. lar. ii, 
33), shows him to have been a native 
of that city, whose early connexion 
with Rhodes (cf. T. Reinach, /(ev. 
Arch, xxiv, 1894, p. 178), would ac- 
count for the artist seeking a field for 
his activity in the brilliant and art- 
loving city of Rhodes (cf. Museogr. 
Index) founded B.C. 408; at present, 
however, we have no nearer clue to 
his date. Against the theory of Th. 
Reinach, op. cit. pp. 170-180, that a 
chaser Akragas never existed, but was 
merely assumed owing to a misunder- 
standing of the legend AKPAFAS on 
coins inserted as the umbilici of silver 
cups, Hans Dragendorff in Terra 



Sigillata, p. 58, maintains that when 
a coin impression decorates the 
interior of a cup, it is always the 
only ornament and therefore inad- 
missible for cups decorated in relief, 
like those of Akragas. For names 
derived from river-gods cf. Atarjiros, 
as early as the sixth century (see 
Fick, Gr. Personennamen, p. 347, 
where a further list of such names 
is given). That the chaser Akragas 
appears only in Pliny need not 
astonish us : to mention only Epi- 
gonos (xxxiv, 88), this apparently 
very famous artist was up to the date 
of the Pergamene finds known from 
Pliny alone. 

Boethus : xxxiv, 84. Cic. Verr. 
II, iv, 14, I- 32 . . . hydriam Boethi 
manu factam. A gem representing the 
wounded Philoktetes, signed BOHQOT 
is probably to be referred to him 
(Furtwangler, Gemmen m. KUnstler- 
inschriften, Jahrb. iii, pi. VIII, 2 1 and 
p. 216). 

Mys : he was a contemporary 
of Parrhasios (xxxv, 65, 68-73), from 



B % 



4 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIII 

fuere. exstant omnium opera hodie in insula Rhodiorum, 
Boethi apud Lindiam Minervam, Acragantis in templo 
Liberi patris in ipsa Rhodo Centauros Bacchasque caelati 
scyphi, Myos in eadem aede Silenos et Cupidines. Acra- 
gantis et venatio in scyphis magnam famam habuit. post 5 

156 hos celebratus est Calamis. et Antipater quoque Satyrum 
in phiala gravatum somno conlocavisse verius quam caelasse 
dictus est. Stratonicus mox Cyzicenus, Tauriscus, item 
Ariston et Eunicus Mitylenaei laudantur et Hecataeus et 
circa Pompei Magni aetatem Pasiteles, Posidonius Ephesius, lo 
*//i?ifj/j *,Thrakides qui proelia armatosque caelavit, Zopyrus 
qui Areopagitas et iudicium Orestis in duobus scyphis 
HS [XII] aestimatis. fuit et Pytheas cuius duae unciae 
5€ X venierunt. Ulixes et Diomedes erant in phialae 

157 emblemate Palladium subripientes. fecit idem et cocos 15 
magiriscia appellatos parvolis potoriis, e quibus ne exem- 

II. Hedys, Thrakides] Furtwangler, FlecTeeiserC s Jahrb. v, xxii, 1876, 
/. 507 ; hedystrachides ^a/n^. ; iedis thiaaides re/i^ui ; Hedystracbides .SV//;^, 
Detlcfsen ; Telesarchides coni. Dilthey ap. Benndorf, de Epigr. p. 53. 

whose designs he executed the Ken- Akragas. in scypMs — the plural as 

tanromachia on the shield of the usual because two cups or perhaps a 

Athena Promachos (Paus. i, 28, 2). set were decorated with one continuous 

The epigram, from a cup at Herakleia subject. 

(Athen. xi, p. 782 B), beginning Vpay.- 6. Calamis : xxxiv, 47, 71. 

/MiJ llappaffioio, rexva- Mi/(Js . . . must § 156. 6. Antipater : the name of 

however, owing to the expression the writer of an epigram has been 

Tfxra riv6s, which does not occur in substituted for Diodoros, the real 

pre-Imperial times, be a later forgery ; name of the artist, and moreover that 

Preger, Inscript. Graec. Metr. p. 142, required by the alphabetical arrange- 

note 185. ment; cf. Anth. Plan. 248 

I. exstant . . . Cupidines : while lov Sarvpov AtSSapos e/coi/uaey, oix 

the introduction of the word hodig eTopfvfffv. 

points to a recent authority, the repeti- ^v "uf i/s, eyepur apyvpos vmiov f x"- 

tion of the artists' names in a different an epigram similar to the one quoted 

order, marks the sentence as an inter- in the words gravatum . . . caelasse. 

polation (Introd. p. Ixxxvii). Introd. p. Ixviii. 

3. Csntauros : for the subject cf. 8. Stratonious : xxxiv, 85 ; he is 

the cups in the Biblioth. Natipnale mentioned Athen. xi, p. 782 B, among 

and in Naples mentioned above. the si'Sofoi Topevrai. 

5. venatio : Dragendorff (Inc. cit.) Tauriscus : in xxxvi, 33 Pliny 

suggests that the hunting scene on the expressly distinguishes him from the 

silvered terra-cotta cups, Ann. d. Inst. sculptor of the same name. 

1871 PI. Q, and kindred compositions 9. Ariston, Eunicus . . . Heca- 

raay be derived from the venatio of taeus : xxxiv, 85. 



/. SILVER CHASING 5 

three are still to be seen in the island of Rhodes : by Boethos in 
the temple of Athena at Lindos, by Akragas cups with figures, 
of Kentaurs and Bacchantes in the temple of Dionysos in the city 
of Rhodes, and in the same temple cups by Mys, with figures of 
Seilenoi and Erotes. Cups decorated round the interior with 
hunting scenes by Akragas were also well known. Next in merit 
to these chasers came Kalamis, \Antifater — whose sleeping Satyr 156 
was said to have been not chased but laid to rest within the cup—, 
Stratonikos of Kyzikos, and t Tauriskos. Other famous chasers 
are ■fAriston and ^Eunikos of Mitylene, t Hekataios, Fasiteles, a 
contemporary of the Great Pompeius, i Foseidonios of Ephesos, 
■*Hedys*, t Thrakides, whose favourite subjects were battles and 
warriors, and t Zopyros, who represented the court of the Areiopagos 
and the trial of Orestes on a pair of cups valued at 1,200,000 
sesterces [£10,500 circ.J. -^ Pytheas too made a cup weighing two 
ounces which sold for 10,000 denarii [£350 circ.]; the design on 
the interior represented Odysseus and Diomedes stealing the 
Palladion. He further made small drinking cups in the shape of 157 
cooks, called \j.ayapujKxa, the delicate chasing of which was so liable 



10. Pasiteles : xxxv, 156; xxxvi, 
39 f. and above § 1 30. Cic. de Div. 
i- 36, 79 mentions a toreutic work by 
him representing the infant Roscius 
wrapped in the coils of a serpent. 
Possibly Pasiteles was influenced in 
the presentation of the subject by the 
' infant Herakles strangling the snakes ' 
of Zeuxis (xxxv, 63). 

Posidonius : xxxiv, 91. 

11. Thxakides: for the name cf. 
Fick, op. cit. p. 141. The corrupt 
Hedys conceals a name whose initial 
letter lies between P — T. 

12. Areopagitas . . . Orestis : 
i. e. Orestes undergoing his trial 
before the Areiopagos, the subject 
being spread over both cups. Cf. 
Winckelmann, Mon. Ined. pi. 151 for 
a silver cup in the Corsini coll. re- 
presenting this subject ; better repro- 
duced by Michaelis, Das Corsinische 
Silhergefdss, Leipzig, 1S59. 

13. fuitet: like the ^aiJ««V«^ below, 
introduces <t new artist who had no 
place in the canonical lists quoted in 



Pliny's main authority. Pytheas and 
Teuker, therefore, lived presumably 
in the period subsequent to Pasiteles. 
The continuance of silver chasing at 
least as late as the reign of Nero is 
proved by the case ofZenodoros (xxxiv, 
47). The decay of which Pliny com- 
plains only applies to his own time ; 
nor need we attach too precise a mean- 
ing to this, or the similar complaint 
on the decay of painting in xxxv, 4, 
both being evidently rhetorical, cf. 
Oehmichen, PUnianische Siudien, 
p. i6i f.; Furtw'angler in Berl. Phil. 
Wochenschr., 1895, p. 814. 

14. mixes et Diomedes : for the 
subject cf. the celebrated Spada relief, 
Schreiber, Hell. Reliefbilder, pi. VII, 
the gem, signed Calpumius Felix, 
Jahrbuch iii, 1888, Pi. x, 7 ; cf. 
Furtwangler, ib. p. 312 ; and the relief 
on the neck of one of the Bemay oino- 
choai, Babelon, Cab. des Ant. pi. 41. 

§157. 15. cooos; [i.e. silver cups 
in the shape of figurines. — H. L. U.] 

16. magiriscia : from /iiyeipos, a 



Lib. 
XXXIV. 



6 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

plaria quidem liceret exprimere, tarn opportuna iniuriae 
subtilitas erat. habuit et Teucer crustarius famam, subito- 
que ars haec ita exolevit ut sola iam vetustate censeatur, 
usuque attritis caelaturis, si nee figura discerni possit, aucto- 
ritas constat. 5 

II. STATU ARIA. 



5 Quondam aes confusum auro argentoque miscebatur, et 
tamen ars pretiosior erat, nunc incertum est peior haec sit 
an materia, mirumque, cum ad infinitum operum pretia 
creverint, auctoritas artis extincta est. quaestus enim causa 
ut omnia exerceri coepta est quae gloriae solebat — ideo lo 
autem etiam deorum adscripta operi, cum proceres gentium 
claritatem et hac via quaererent — adeoque exolevit fundendi 
aeris pretiosi ratio ut iamdiu ne fortuna quidem in ea re ius 

6 artis habeat. ex ilia autem antiqua gloria Corinthium 
maxime laudatur. hoc casus miscuit Corintho, cum cape- 15 
retur, incensa, mireque circa id multorum adfectatio furit, 
quippe cum tradatur non alia de causa Verrem quem 

A.u.c. 711. M. Cicero damnaverat proscriptum cum eo ab Antonio, 
quoniam Corinthiis cessurum se ei negavisset. ac mihi 
maior pars eorum simulare earn scientiam videtur ad segre- 20 
gandos sese a ceteris magis quam intellegere aliquid ibi 

7 suptilius, et hoc paucis docebo. Corinthus capta est olym- 

4. si nee] UrlicJis in Chresiom. p. 301 ; sine Bamb. ; ne reliqui, Detkfsen. 
II. autem] om. omncs praeter Bamb., Detkfsen. 

cook. [The subject influenced perhaps now the amount of precious metals 

by the Middle or New Comedy.— yielded by the analysis of ancient 

H. L. U.] bronzes is so small as scarcely to war- 

i. Teucer: possibly identical with rant Pliny's statement that gold and 

the gem engraver Tempos {ct/aArb. silver were regularly employed in 

'"> P- 323)- the most ancient Greek alloys; cf. 

crustarius : this shows him to Blumner, Technol. u. Terminal, vol. 

have been especially a worker of iv, p. 1 78 ff. ; O. MUUer, Handbuch 

e/iPKrifiaTa or crustae, i. e. of figures 306, Daremberg and Saglio, s. v. aes. 

in relief, wrought separately and § 6. 15. hoo casus miscuit: cf. 

sKtached to the object to be decorated; Florus, ii, 16 ; this and several other 

cf. Cic. Verr. II, iv, 22, § 49 duo anecdotes (see in especial Paus. ii, 3, 3, 

focula non magna, verum tamen cum and Plut. De Pyth. Or. 2, p. 395 B) 

emblemate: z\s.o1ms.\.,i(>. Add. were invented to account for the origin 

§ 5. 6. auro argentoque : up to of Corinthian bronze when the secret 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 7 

to injury that it was impossible to take a cast of them. Teuker 
also enjoyed some reputation for his embossed work. The whole 
art then suddenly disappeared so completely that nowadays we 
only value wrought silver for its age, and reckon its merit estab- 
lished when the chasing is so worn that the very design can no 
longer be made out. 



II. BRONZE STATUARY. 

Book 
XXXIV. 
Bronze was formerly alloyed with both gold and silver, and yet 5 

the workmanship used to be more valuable than the metal ; now ^"i^y "f 

it is hard to say which is worse. It is extraordinary that when 'Mork. 

the price given for works of art has risen so enormously, art itself 

should have lost its claim to our respect. The truth is that the 

aim of the artist, as of every one else in our times, is to gain money, 

not fame as in the old days, when the noblest of their nation 

thought art one of the paths to glory, and ascribed it even to the 

gods. The process of founding valuable bronze is so completely 

lost that for generations even fortune has not been able to secure 

the results formerly ensured by skill. 

Of the bronzes renowned in antiquity, the Corinthian is the g 

most esteemed. An accident first produced this alloy in the fire Connthan 

which followed on the sack of Corinth and the rage for it is 

marvellously widespread. For instance, there is a story that when 

Antony proscribed Cicero he also proscribed Verres (whose 43 b. c. 

condemnation Cicero had once procured), simply because Verres 

had refused to give up to him his Corinthian bronzes. In my 

own opinion, however, most people affect a knowledge of 

the subject solely to exalt themselves above the common herd, 

without having any real insight into it ; this I can prove in a few 

words. Corinth was taken in the third year of the hundred and 7 

of its mixture liad been lost. Pliny witty satire in Petronius, Sat. 50, on 

sees the impossibility of reconciling Corinthian bronze and its wonderful 

the story of the Corinthian alloy and alloy. 

the dates of famous statues, but instead 18. pToscriptum ab Antonio: 

of questioning the truth of the story, cf Seneca Rhetor, .Jaaj. vi,vii, /««/»». 

he proceeds to deny in toio the exist- For the use to which Augustus put the 

ence of Corinthian bronzes, though it proscriptions, in order to obtain Cor. 

is excellently and repeatedly attested : bronzes, see Suet. Aug. 70 ; cf. Plin. 

e.g. Martial, xiv, 172, 177, and often. xxxvii, 81, where Nonius is proscribed 

The reader will ieA reminded of the by Antonius for the sake of a fine opal. 



8 C. PLINIl SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

piadis CLVIII anno tertio, nostrae urbis DCVIII, cum ante 
saecula fictores nobiles esse desissent, quorum isti omnia 
signa hodie Corinthia appellant, quapropter ad coar- 
guendos eos ponemus artificum aetates. nam urbis nostrae 
annos ex supra dicta comparatione olympiadum colligere 5 
facile erit. sunt ergo vasa tantum Corinthia quae isti 
elegantiores modo ad esculenta transferunt, modo in lu- 

8 cernas aut truUeos nullo munditiarum dispectu. eius tria 
genera: candidum argento nitore quam proxime accedens 
in quo ilia mixtura praevaluit, alterum in quo auri fulva 10 
natura, tertium in quo aequalis omnium temperies fuit. 
praeter haec est cuius ratio non potest reddi, quamquam 
hominis manu sed ad fortunam temperatur in simulacris 
signisque, illud suo colore pretiosum ad iocineris imaginem 
vergens, quod ideo hepatizon appellant, procul a Corinthio, 15 
longe tamen ante Aegineticum atque Deliacum, quae diu 
optinuere principatum. 

9 Antiquissima aeris gloria Deliaco fuit mercatus in Delo 
celebrante toto orbe, et ideo cura officinis. tricliniorum 
pedibus fulcrisque ibi prima aeris nobilitas, pervenit deinde 20 
et ad deum simulacra effigiemque hominum et aliorum 
animalium. 

10 Proxima laus Aeginetico fuit. insula et ipsa est, nee 
quod ibi gigneretur, sed officinarum temperatura nobilitata. 
bos aereus inde captus in foro boario est Romae. hoc erit 25 
exemplar Aeginetici aeris, Deliaci autem luppiter in 
Capitolio in lovis Tonantis aede. illo acre Myron usus 

§7. 2. fictores: from meaning liter- 8. trulleos: apparently identical 

ally a modeller in clay, the vorAfictor with the felvis, a basin to wash hands 

is extended to workers in bronze ; see or feet. For a pelvis of bronze of. 

note on XXXV, 153. Juy. x, 64; for one of Corinthian 

4. ponemus . . .aetates: in §§ bronze, Orelli, 3838. 
49~5^- §8. 9. oandidum argento: for 

nam : elliptical ' for of course, as some bronze objects fonnd at Suessula, 

I shall draw from a Greek source, really containing small quantities of 

I shall give them only in Olympiads,' gold and silver, see BlUmner oj>. cit. 

Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 19; for the p. 184, note 5. 

ellipse cf. xxxv, 137 {nam Socrates); § 9. 18. Deliaoo : mentioned three 

xxxvi, 32 {nam Myronis illius), where times, along with Corinthian bronze by 

see note. Cicero, _^;-o Sext. Rose. Am. 46, 133; 

7. luoernas: the familiar oval oil Verr. II, ii, 34, § 83; ib. 72, § 176. 
lamp with flat top. meroatus in Delo : i.e. the fair 



//. BRONZE STATUARY g 

fifty-eighth Olympiad, that is, the year of Rome 608 [146 b.cJ, 
centuries later than the celebrated workers, whose statues our 
amateurs still assume to be all of Corinthian bronze. I shall 
prove that they are wrong by giving the dates of the artists, for 
it will be easy to turn the Olympiads into years of Rome by 
referring to the two corresponding dates given above. It follows 
that the only vessels of Corinthian bronze are those which these 
connoisseurs use as dishes or lamps or basins, with no regard for 
their workmanship. 

There were three varieties of Corinthian bronze — a white 8 
bronze, that shone almost like silver, and contained a very large 
proportion of that metal; a second, in which a reddish tinge of 
gold prevailed; and a third, in which the three metals were 
blended in equal proportions. There is also a fourth alloy, of 
which no scientific account can be given ; it is employed for 
images and statues, and though it is produced by the hand of 
man, yet fortune partly determines the resuk. It is known as 
TjiraTi^ov from the peculiar tint, verging on liver colour, which is 
its chief merit. It is inferior to the bronze of Corinth, but 
superior to those of Aigina and Delos, though these were long 
thought the best. 

The bronze most celebrated in early times was that of Delos, 9 
for as all nations resorted to the market of the island, great care f^J^"" 
was bestowed on the manufacture of bronze. It was first employed 
there for the feet and framework (Add.) of couches, and afterwards 
its use was extended to images of the gods, and figures of men 
and animals. 

Aiginetan bronze was the next to become celebrated. Aigina 10 
also is an island ; it had no mines, but owed its reputation to ■f'S''"^^'"^ 

... * oronze. 

the admirable alloys produced in its foundries. A bronze bull, jj^n ^„ 

taken from Aigina, and now in the Cattle Market at Rome, may Cattle 

Market 
Stand for an example of Aiginetan bronze, and the Jupiter in the „ ' 

temple of Jupiter the Thunderer on the Capitol for an example oi Jupiter the 

Thunderer. 

held in connexion with the quinquen- §10. 23. Aeeinetioo : the alloy was 

nial festival of Apollo and Artemis. renowned because of the famous artists 

21. ad deum simulacra: cf. § 15 who employed it. For a vivid picture 

transit deinde ars vulgo ubique ad of the Aiginetan SchooI,seeCollignon, 

effigies deormii : the imagined pro- Sculpt. Grecque, i, 280-307. 

gress of art from furniture to images 25. in foro boario : Tac. Ann. 

of gods and hence to images of men xii, 24. 

and animals is purely conventional ; 27. lovis Tonantis aede. Cf. 

seeMunzer, ^er/KW XXX, 1895, p. 501. xxxvi, 50. A small temple built (B.C. 



lo C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

est, hoc Polycletus, aequales atque condiscipuli, sed aemu- 
latio et in materia fuit. 

11 Privatim Aegina candelabrorum superficiem dumtaxat 
elaboravit, sicut Tarentum scapos. in his ergo iuncta com- 
mendatio officinarumest. nee pudet tribunorum mihtarium 5 
salariis emere, cum ipsum nomen a candelarum lumine 
inpositum appareat. accessio candelabri talis fuit Theonis 
iussu praeconis Clesippus fullo gibber et praeterea et alio 

12 foedus aspectu, emente id Gegania HS L. eadem osten- 
tante in convivio empta ludibrii causa nudatus atque to 
inpudentia libidinis receptus in torum, mox in testamentum, 
praedives numinum vice illud candelabrum coluit et banc 
Corinthiis fabulam adiecit, vindicatis tamen moribus nobili 
sepulchre per quod aeterna supra terras Geganiae dedecoris 
memoria duraret. sed cum esse nulla Corinthia candelabra 15 
constet, nomen id praecipue in his celebratur, quoniam 
Mummi victoria Corinthum quidem diruit, sed e compluri- 
bus Achaiae oppidis simul aera dispersit. 

13 Prisci limina etiam ac valvas in templis ex aere facti- 
A.u.c. 587. tavere. invenio et a Cn. Octavio qui de Perseo rege nava- 20 

lem triumphum egit factam porticum duplicem ad circum 
Flaminium quae Corinthia sit appellata a capitulis aereis 
columnarum, Vestae quoque aedem ipsam Syracusana super- 
ficie tegi placuisse. Syracusana sunt in Pantheo capita 

22) by Augustus near the great temple delubrum dicunt ; and Macrob. 

of Jupiter Capitolinus to commemorate Satur. iii, 4, 2; cf. Martial, xiv, 43. 
his miraculpus escape from death by 8. Clesippus : the slave was of 

lightning (,Suet,/ia^. 29); ilf«K.^Kfj/y. course a Greek (KX^o-iTnroj). The 

xix, 4, S ; Mommsen, Res Gestae, story is attested by an inscription (close 

p. 81. The temple appears on coins of Republic) C. I. L. i, 805, Clesippus- 

of Augustus, Cohen, Aug. 178-180; Geganius mag. CapifypTymag. luperc. 

184-186. For the bronze statue by viat. tr. apparently belonging to the 

Leochares, see below § 79. sepulchre mentioned in § 12. 

Myron ... Polycletus, §§55- § 13. 19. limina etiam ao valvas: 

S^- either of massive bronze or plated, 

§ 11. 5. tribunorum . . . salariis : Marquardt, Privatleben der Romer, 

cf. Juv. iii, 132. p. 223 ff. 

^6. a candelarum lumine: the 20. Cn. Ootavio : the portico (built 

etymology is Varronian; cf. Varro, b.c. 167) stood in the Campus 

ap. Servius on Aen. ii, 225 ... a/ in Martius near the Circus Flaminius 

quo figimt candelam candelabrum and the theatre of Pompeius. It was 

appellant, sic in quo deum ponunt burnt down and rebuilt by Augustus 



//. BRONZE STATUARY n 

Delian bronze. Aiginetan bronze was employed by Myron, and Bromcs 

Delian by Polykleitos. These two artists were contemporaries ^Myronand 

and fellow-pupils, who carried their rivalry even into their choice Polykleitos. 

of a material. 

At Aigina it was the trays, at Tarentum the stems of cande- ii 

labra which were specially elaborated, so that the efforts of several f '^"'^'«- 

labra. 
workshops combme to recommend these utensils. They are 

things without even a name except the one which they borrow 

from the light of their own candles, and yet we are not 

ashamed to give as much for them as the year's pay of a military 

tribune. Theon, the auctioneer, once included in the same lot as Story of 

one of these candelabra a slave, a fuller named Clesippus, who and 

was humpbacked and altogether hideous. The lot was bought for Gegania. 

50,000 sesterces (£440 circ.) by Gegania, who displayed her 12 

purchase at a banquet, and exposed Clesippus naked to the 

ridicule of the company, yet afterwards, through sheer wantonness, 

made him her lover, and at last her heir. Thus enriched, he 

worshipped the candelabrum as a deity, providing yet another 

story about Corinthian bronzes. Morality, however, was avenged 

in the magnificent tomb that he built only to keep the 

remembrance of Gegania's infamy alive upon the earth. Although 

none of these candelabra are really Corinthian, yet they are called 

so because Mummius destroyed Corinth ; people forget that his 

victory also scattered the bronzes of various other Greek cities. 

In early times the thresholds and folding-doors in temples 13 

were commonly made of bronze. I find, too, that Gnaeus ^j^" ' 

Octavius, who was granted a triumph for his naval victory over 167 b.c. 

King Perseus, built a gallery with double colonnade by the Circus 

of Flaminius, called the Corinthian Gallery, from the small bronze 

capitals of its columns. A decree was also passed that the temple 

of Vesta should be roofed with plates of Syracusan bronze. 

(Festus, p. 178; Mon. Aiic. xix, 4, Top.der Stadt Rom\\i,-^. 2io,n..2^ 

2-4. Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 80), 23. Vestae . . . tegi; cf. xxxiii, 57. 

after the Dalmatian Triumph, B. c. 33. 24. plaouisse : probably after the 

It must be distinguished from the great fire of B.C. 241, cf. vii, 141. 

porticus Octaviae, § 31. Invenio in Pantheo : built (B. c. 27) 

shows that Pliny is quoting from an by Agrippa in his third consulate, 

ancient authority; either the building This earlier building was altered to 

no longer existed in his day, or the its present shape in the reign of 

outer colonnade had not been restored Hadiian. For recent discoveries and 

after the fire, so that the remarks as to literature, cf. C. Hulsen in T.J. B. 

the columns apply to the pre-Augustan iv, p. 305 (A'oot. Mitth.im, 1893) and 

building. (See O. Gilbert, Cesch. u. Gardthausen .^^jwrfaj ii, p. 43of. 



12 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

columnarum a M. Agrippa posita. quin etiam privata opu- 
lentia eo modo usurpata est. Camillo inter crimina obiecit 
A.u.c. 363. Spurius Carvilius quaestor ostia quod aerata haberet in 
domo. 

14 Nam triclinia aerata abacosque et monopodia Cn. s 
Manlium Asia devicta primum invexisse triumpho suo quem 
duxit anno urbis DLXVII L. Piso auctor est, Antias quidem 
heredes L. Crassi oratoris multa etiam triclinia aerata vendi- 
disse. ex acre factitavere et cortinas tripodum nomine 
Delphicas, quoniam donis maxime Apollini Del'phico dica- lo 
bantur. placuere et lychnuchi pensiles in delubris aut 
arborum mala ferentium modo lucentes, quale est in templo 
Apollinis Palatini quod Alexander Magnus Thebarum ex- 

A.u.c. 419. pugnatione captum in Cyme dicaverat eidem deo. 

15 Transiit deinde ars vulgo ubique ad effigies deorum. 15 
Romae simulacrum ex acre factum Cereri primum reperio 

A.u.c. 270. ex peculio Spuri Cassi quem regnum adfectantem pater 
ipsius interemerit. transit et a diis ad hominum statuas 

9. nomine] nomine ac Barnb.; nomine a Voss. 

3. Spvirins Carvilius : his part in arise from a copyist's misunderstanding 

the trial is mentioned only by Pliny. of Delfhicas as a separate object. 

ostia quod aerata; koX ^ra Kal ii. lychnuchi; ori^nally lamp- 

eipat Tivh iXiyovTO x"^*"'" "■"/>' stands {Kvxvoiixot), whence the name 

oirS (pavTJvai Toiy aixiMxKiiTav. Plut. was transferred to the whole candela- 

CanUll.YM. brum, Marquardt, op. cit. p. 711; 

§14. 5. abacosque: the use of DarembergetSaglio,s.v.^3«i&Mr«»j. 

a/iaci as sideboards appears really to pensiles; Verg..4««i, 726; Petron. 

date from the conquest of Asia, Mar- Sat. 30 et lucema bUychnis de camera 

qnardt, Privatkben, p. 319. pendebat. 

Cn. Manlium: Liv. xxxix, 6, 7 12. quale: sc. candelabrum, to be 

ii primum lectos aerates . . . et quae supplied from § 12. 

turn magnificae supelleciilis habe- templo Apollinis: dedicated by 

bantur inonapodia et abacos Romam Augustus B.C. 27, cf. xxxvi, 32. 

advexerunt. § I5. ij. Transiit ... ars : note 

6. Asia devicta : cf. xxxiii, 148. on § 9. 

7. L. Piso; Lucius Calpumius 16. simulacrum: restricted as 
Piso, sumamed Frugi ; cos. B.C. 133; usual to images of the gods, while 
frequently quoted by Pliny, Teuffel, stcdua is more particularly used for 
G. R. L. § 132, 4. mortals. The notion that the Cassian 
. Antias, Valerius, fl. ab. 45 b. c. ; simulacrum was the first of its kind 

_ frequently quoted by Pliny; Teuffel, at Rome is in flagrant contradic- 

§ '56> 2. tion to the mention in § 33 of a 

9. nomine ; cf. Diodoros, xvi, 26. Hercules, consecrated by Evander and 

The corrupt ac of the MSS. must of Noma's Janus ; moreover since in 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 13 

Syracusan bronze was also employed by Marcus Agrippa for the 
capitals of the columns in his Pantheon. Wealthy individuals 
even adopted this fashion for their private houses. The quaestor 
Spurius Carvilius accused Camillus among other things of having 39' ^c- 
had bronze plated doors to his house. doors. 

The practice of using bronze for couches, side-boards and 14 
tables supported on a single foot, was first introduced, according f^y^lt^J^ 
to Lucius Piso, by Gnaeus Manlius, after the conquest of Asia, 
when he triumphed in the year of Rome 567 [187 B.C.]. Antias 
adds that the heirs of Lucius Crassus, the orator, sold a number 
of bronze coucTies. The cauldrons of tripods were also made of Delphic 
bronze ; they were called Delphicae, because they were the gift "■^° ^' 
most frequently dedicated to the Delphic Apollo. Hanging lamps Hanging 
in shrines were also made of bronze, and lamps with the lights '^'"*^- 
fixed like apples on trees, as for instance, the lamp now in 
the temple of Apollo of the Palatine, which Alexander the Great 
carried off when he took Thebes, and dedicated, also to Apollo, 335 ^.c. 
at Kyme. 

Later on bronze was universally employed for statues of the 15 
gods. I find that at Rome the first bronze image was made ^^^j"*/^/ 
in honour of Ceres out of the confiscated property of Spurius of mortals. 
Cassius, who was put to death by his father because he aimed 484 b.c. 
at becoming king. From figures of the gods, bronze came to be 
used in various ways for statues and images of men. The 

§§ 31, 2g, a whole series of portraits on the other hand, speaks of several 

from the period of the Kings and statues. The story involves a com- 

early Republic are mentioned, it is plicated problem. There is much to 

irreconcilable with the theory that art commend the view of Gilbert, Rom ii, 

progressed from the statues of gods to p. 243, note 2 s.f. that the consecration 

those of men. Pliny is quoting from to Ceres, the special patroness of the 

a variety of sources, without even plebeians, of the private property of 

attempting to harmonize them. Cassius was an extension — more accu- 

Cereri : in her temple near the rately an ironic application ( Verhoh- 

Great Circus, vowed by Aulus Postu- nung) of the lex sacrata for the pro- 

mius the victor at Regillns, B.C. 49.^ ; tection of the Trib. PI. (cf. Liv.iii, 55) 

for its paintings and plastic decora- ut qui trib. fl. nocuisset eius caput 

tions see XXXV, 154. loui sacrum esset , familia ad aedem 

17. pater ipsius: cf. Liv. ii, 41, 10 Cereris Libert Liberaeque vemum iret ; 

sunt, qui pairem auctorem eius sup- Dionys.x, 42 where the Patricians who 

pliciiferant : eum cogitita domi causa offend against the assembly of the 

verberasse ac necasse,peculiumque Jilii people convened under the Tribunes 

Cereri consecravisse ; signum inde fac- are punished by confiscation of their 

turn esse et inscriptum ' ex Cassia property to Ceres (rdr ovfrias avrSiv 

familia datum.' Dionysios (viii, 79), Upas ilvu AqfuiTfoi), 



14 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

atque imagines multis modis. bitumine antiqui tinguebant 
eas, quo magis mirum est placuisse auro integere. hoc 
nescio an Romanum fuerit inventum, certe etiam Romae 

16 non habet vetustatem. effigies hominum non solebant ex- 
primi nisi aliqua inlustri causa perpetuitatem merentium, s 
primo sacrorum certaminum victoria maximeque Olympiae, 
ubi omnium qui vicissent statuas dicari mos erat, eorum 
vero qui ter ibi superavissent ex membris ipsorum simili- 

17 tudine expressa, quas iconicas vocant. Athenienses nescio 
an primis omnium Harmodio et Aristogitoni tyrannicidis lo 
publice posuerint statuas. hoc actum est eodem anno quo 

A.u.c. 245. et Romae reges pulsi. excepta deinde res est a toto orbe 
terrarum humanissima ambitione, et in omnium municipiorum 
foris statuae ornamentum esse coepere prorogarique memoria 
hominum et honores legendi aevo basibus inscribi, ne in 15 
sepulcris tantum legerentur. mox forum et in domibus 
privatis factum atque in atris honos clientium instituit sic 
colere patronos. 

18 Togatae effigies antiquitus ita dicabantur. placuere et 
nudae tenentes hastam ab epheborum e gymnasiis exem- 20 
plaribus, quas Achilleas vocant. Graeca res nihil velare, 

19. ita] ista Riccard., Voss. {e corr) ; sta Voss. 

1. bitumine: in order to give a forboxing, 01. 59( = B.c. 544). Pans, 
patina to the new bronze. vi, i8, 7. 

2. auro: xxxiii, 61, 82 ; xxxiv, 63. 7. ubi omnium . . . ioonioas 
Tlie custom of gilding statues was vocant : Lessing has made these 
known la Greece, cf. the gilt statue words the text for a famous passage 
of Gorgias of Leontinoi, Pans, x, 18, in the Laokoon (ii, § 13). Visconti 
7 (Plin. xxxiii, 83, where, however, {Iconograpkie Grecque, Discours pr^- 
it is stated that the Gorgias was of lim. p. viii, n. 4) arguing from Lucian, 
solid gold), and the gilt Phryne by v-nip tSiv (iic6vaiv xi, takes iconicas to 
Praxiteles,Pans. x, 15,1; cf. Eliimner, mean 'grand comme nature'; Prof. 
Technol. iv, p. 308 ff. Klein, however, in a note which he 

4. non habet vetustatem: the kindly allows me to publish, points 

oldest recorded Roman instance of a out that Pliny's statement bears an 

f/a/«aa«?-atoistoM'.AciIiusGlabrio apocryphal character, which has es- 

(B. c. 131), Liv. xl, 34, 6 quae prima caped every one save perhaps Eliimner 

omnium in Italia est statua aurata. in his Comm. on Lessing's Laokoon, 

§ 16. 6. Olympiae : the long p. 503. It is evident that the dis- 

list of athlete statues began with the crepancies between ideal and iconic 

ancient cypress wood statue of Praxi- statues were explained by Pliny, 

damas of Aigina, who won the prize or his author, as the result of an 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 15 

ancients tinted the figures with bitumen, which makes the later 
practice of gilding them the more curious. This may very well 
be a Roman invention, and certainly even at Rome it is not of 
great antiquity. The ancients did not make any statues ofie 
individuals unless they deserved immortality by some distinction^ qI*"^!-"'* 
originally by a victory at some sacred games, especially those of 
Olympia, where it was the custom to dedicate statues of all those 
who had conquered, and portrait statues if they had conquered 
three times. These are called iconic. (See Addenda.) 

The Athenians were, I believe, introducing a new custom 17 
when they set up statues at the public expense in honour '^^ ^^^lui-tors 
Harmodios and Aristogeiton, who killed the tyrants. This 
occurred in the very year in which the kings were expelled from 509 b.c. 
Rome. A refined ambition led to the universal adoption of the 
custom, and statues began to adorn the public places of every 
town ; the memories of men were immortalized, and their honours 
were no longer merely graven on their tombstones, but handed 
down for posterity to read on the pedestals of statues. Later on 
the rooms and halls of private houses became so many public 
places, and clients began to honour their patrons in this way. 

Formerly statues were dedicated wearing the toga. Nude 18 
statues holding a spear were also in favour, modelled after young ^^^'^^^^^ 
men in the gymnasia ; these were called Achillean. The Greek statues. 

improbable rule, simply because the toni : below § 70. 
ancients had no habit of applying § 18. 19. tcgatae effigies : such 
historical criticism to art, and con- as the statues of the kings, § 23. 
sequently of discriminating between 20. tenentes hastam : statues of 
the works of a, time when only the athletes in the scheme of the Poly- 
type was aimed at, from those of kleitan Doryphoros, or leaning on 
periods when art had advanced to their spear. Achilleas (fiom Achilles, 
individual portraiture. It is instruc- the typical hero of the ephebes) a 
tive to compare with Pliny's words a convenient generic term under which 
passage in Dio Chrysostom, Or. xxi, to group such portraits, Furtwangler, 
I TicpX KaWovs, where he attempts Plinius, -p. ,\.'j, note 11. The custom of 
to explain the difference between portraying mortals other than athletes 
the statues of an earlier and a later in heroic nudity during their lifetime, 
date by alleging physical degene- seems to have been introduced by 
ration. The difference observable in Alexander and his successors ; cf. the 
the Olympic statues generally, dis- bronze portrait of a Hellenistic ruler 
tinguished pre- from post- Lysippian in the Museo delle Terme (Helbig, 
portraiture; as it is very well said in Class. Ant. 1052). 
XXXV, 153 hie (Lysistratos) et simili- 21. Graeoa . . . addere: no pre- 
tudines reddere instituit, ante eum cise historical information can be 
quam pukherrimasfaeere studehatur. drawn from these words, which merely 
§ 17. 10. Harmodio et Aristogi- contain a broad comparison between 



i6 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



at contra Romana ac militaris thoraces addere. Caesar 

quidem dictator loricatam sibi dicari in foro suo passus est. 

nam Lupercorum habitu tarn noviciae sunt quam quae 

A.u.c. 617. nuper prodiere paenulis indutae. Mancinus eo habitu sibi 

IS statuit quo deditus fuerat. notatum ab auctoribus et 5 
L. Accium poetam in Camenarum aede maxima forma 
statuam sibi posuisse, cum brevis admodum fuisset. eques- 
tres utique statuae Romanam celebrationem habent orto 
sine dubio a Graecis exemplo, sed illi celetas tantum dica- 
bant in sacris victores, postea vero et qui bigis vel quadrigis 10 
vicissent. unde et nostri currus nati in iis qui triumpha- 
vissent. serum hoc, et in his non nisi a divo Augusto 
seiuges, aut elephanti. 

20 Non vetus et bigarum celebratio in iis qui praetura 
functi curru vecti essent per circum, antiquior columnarum, 15 
sicuti C. Maenio qui devicerat priscos Latinos, quibus ex 

13. aut] E. Sellers; sicnt codii., Detlefsen. 



the typical Greek athlete statues and 
the numerous Roman portraits of late 
Republican and Imperial times. 

I. thoraoea: the statue of Augustus 
in the Vatican, Helbig, Class. Ant. 4, 
well illustrates the combination of the 
military element with the nude athletic 
type. As a reminiscence of the athlete 
statues the legs are left bare, but the 
Emperor wears the cuirass, with the 
mantle rolled round below the waist. 

■i. loricatam, sc. efflgiem: be- 
longing to the class of statues just 
mentioned, of which there are nume- 
rous examples, see Rohden in Bonner 
Studien^^-p. 1-80. Very little is known 
about this particular statue of Caesar 
or the spot in his Fonim where it 
stood. Pliny the Younger {Ep. viil, 
6, 14) says that a decree of the Senate 
in favour of Pallas, the freedman of 
Claudius, was put up ad sialuam 
loricatam divi Julii. 
• 3. IiupercoTum, i. e. with only a 
goatskin aboutthe loins, like the priests 
of Lupercus at the festival of the Lu- 
percalia (Ov. Fast, v, loi). 

5. quo deditus fuerat: nudus ac 



fast tergum religatis manibus Veil. 
Paterc. II, i, 5. 

not. ab auetoribus : probably 
the statue was no longer extant when 
Pliny wrote. 

§ 19. 6. Ii.Aooium: the tragic poet, 
B.C. 170-103. There is no reliable 
copy of the statue, EernouUi, Rom. 
Iconographie, i, p. 289. 

Camenarum = Musarum, in the 
first region, Porta Cafena. 

10. postea vero : the notion that 
art progressed from the representations 
of statues of horsemen to chariot- 
groups, is in harmony with the for- 
malizing theories of the growth of art, 
hinted in § 9 and 515, but it is the in- 
verse of fact (cf. Miinzer, op. cit. p. 502): 
the race with four-horsed chariots was 
introduced at Olympia, Ol. 25 (b. c. 
680), the race on horseback (iWor 
KiKrii), 01. 33 (B. c. 648), and the race 
with two-horsed chariots, 01. 93 (B. c. 
408). The earliest monument of a 
victor on his four-horsed chariot was 
that of Kleosthenes of Epidamnos by 
Hagelaidas, Ol. 66 (B.C. 516), Pans, 
vi, 10, 2. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 17 

custom was to leave the body quite nude ; but the Roman and 
military custom was to add a breastplate, while Caesar, when 
Dictator, allowed a statue of himself wearing a cuirass to be set 
up in his forum. Statues in the dress of the Lupercals are as Qg^^ill 
recent an innovation as those lately introduced wearing short lius Man- 
cloaks. Mancinus set up a statue in his own honour, wearing ""!^^J^ 
the dress in which he had been given up to the enemy. I find 19 
it mentioned by some authors that Lucius Accius the poet set up Lucius 
in his own honour in the temple of the Camenae a statue, which -Acaus. 
was of great size, although he was a very small man. 

Equestrian statues, which are so common at Rome, were Equestrian 
undoubtedly first borrowed from Greece. The Greeks, however, 
only dedicated equestrian statues of those who had been victors 
on horseback at the sacred games ; later on we find statues of 
the victors in the two and four-horse chariot races. From this 
arose our custom of setting up chariots in honour of those who Chariots. 
had triumphed. Until recent times this was unknown, and 
chariots drawn by six horses or by elephants were only introduced 
by the god Augustus. 

The erection of two-horse chariots in honour of those who as 20 
praetors have led the procession round the Circus is also of late 
date. The custom of erecting statues on columns is more ancient. Statues on 
witness the column in honour of Gaius Maenius, conqueror '"l""^"^- 
of the Ancient Latins, a people to whom the Romans were G.Mamius. 

II. currus : Juv. viii, 3, mentions it might be inferred tliat triumphal 

the statue of a triumphator standing chariots were drawn by elephants as 

erect in his triumphal car in the early as Augustus, whereas this oc- 

vestibulum. curred for the iirst time in the reign 

13. seiuges: a gilt chariot, drawn of Alexander Severus, cf Aelius Lam- 
by six horses, had already been dedi- pridius, Vita Al. Sev. 57, 4. The 
cated to Jupiter Capitolinus in B. C. chariots drawn by elephants on early 
i69,bytheConsuIP.Comelius(j«««^ej imperial coins refer to the Pompa 
in CapitoHo auratilj-y.^x-xymtiij^)- circensis, Marquardt, Staatsverw. ii, 
Pliny's meaning must be that under p. 586, note 7. Addenda. 
Augustus the team of six horses was § 20. 15. per ciroum, sc. Maxi- 
first used for other than religious mum, on the occasion of the Ludi 
purposes. Mommsen, Staatsrecht, i, ^/o/ZiKarM, instituted B. c. 212. For 
3rd ed. p. 395, n. i, points out that, the praetorial biga, cf. Mommsen, 
according to Dio Cassius, lix, 7, Staatsrecht, i, 3rd ed., p. 394, note 4 ; 
Caligula was the first to drive in the pp. 412, 447. 

circus with six horses : tA api^a t6 columnarum : from § 36 it is 

■nopmiKov . . Ai Umi tX\Kvaav t lOj- evident that the columnaeyttis statues 

viivoTf i-^i'y6vH. placed on high pedestals. 

elephanti : from Pliny's words 16. C. Maenio : cf. vii, 213. He 



i8 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



foedere tertias praedae populus R. praestabat, eodemque 

in consulatu in suggestu rostra devictis Antiatibus fixerat 

anno urbis CCCCXVI, item C. Duillio qui primus navalem 

A.u.c. 494. triumphum egit de Poenis, quae est etiam nunc in foro, 

21 item L. Minucio praefecto annonae extra portam Trige- 5 
A.u.c. 315. minam unciaria stipe conlata — nescio an primo honore tali 

a populo, antea enim a senatu erat — praeclara res, nisi 
frivolis coepisset initiis. namque et Atti Navi statua fuit 
A.u.c. 702. ante curiam — basis eius conflagravit curia incensa P. Clodii 
A.u.c. 304. funere — fuit et Hermodori Ephesii in comitio, legum quas 10 

22 decemviri scribebant interpretis, publice dicata. alia causa, 
alia auctoritas M. Horati Coclitis statuae, quae durat hodie- 

A.u.c. 246. que, cum hostes a ponte sublicio solus arcuisset. equidem 
et Sibyllae iuxta rostra esse non miror, tres sint licet : una 
quam Sextus Pacuius Taurus aed. pi. restituit, duae quas 15 
M. Messalla. primas putarem has et Atti Navi, positas 



had conquered the Latins with Fnrius 
Camillus ; additus triumpho honos, 
ut statuae equestres eis, rara ilia 
aetate res, in foro ponerentur Liv. 
viii, 13, 9. The statue of Camillus had 
stood on the old Rostra (§ 23), and 
was apparently still extant in the days 
of Pliny the Younger (see Paneg. 55, 
6). The exact site of the statue of 
Maenius is unknovm, of. Jacobi, 
Museographie, p. 60. 

I. ex foedere, i. c. the treaty con- 
cluded by Sp. Cassius in B. c. 493, 
cf. Kom. Forsch. ii, p. 163, note 22. 

■i. Antiatibus : the orator's plat- 
form was from that time called the 
rostra (Liv. viii, 14, 12). For its 
statues, see Gilbert, .ffoTO, p. 153, note 3. 

3. C. Duillio: a portion of the in- 
fcribed basis, restored in antiquity, 
belonging to the columna Duilia, was 
found in i565(Helbig, Class. Ant. $^1; 
C./.i. i, 195). 

4. de Poenis. After the battle 
of Mylae, B. c. 260. 

I 21. 5. L. Minuoio : his column, 
surmounted by the statue, is shown on 
the reverse of a denarius of B. c. 129 
of C. Minucius Augurinus (Babelon, 



Monn. de la Rip. Rom., ii, p. 22S ; 
Mommsen, Rom. Miinzw. p. 550, no. 
265). Livy, iv, 16, 2, mentions only 
a gilt ox erected in honour of Minu- 
cius. 

praefecto annonae : Liv. iv, 12, 8, 
cf Hirschfeld, Verwaltungsgeschichte, 

P- 134- 

6. unciaria stipe collata: accord- 
ing to Mommsen, Staatsrecht, iii, 
p. 1185, note 3, this possibly means 
that the expenses were met by volun- 
tary contributions, whereas they other- 
wise fell to the Aerarium. 

8. frivolis, because the statue was 
set up in honour of the supposed 
miracles of the whet-stone (Liv. i, 36) 
and of the Ficus ruminalis. For 
Pliny's scepticism in these matters see 
XV, 77. 

Atti ITavi : he was represented 
as under average height, and wearing 
the priestly fillet (Dionysios iii, 71, 
S"). The statue stood on the left of 
the steps leading up to the curia 
(Livy, loc. cil.). The mention of 
this statue, in confirmation of the 
statement antea eniTn a senatu, brings 
with it a long digression, thoroughly 



II. BRONZE STATUARY 19 

bound by treaty to give one third of the spoils taken in war. 

In the same consulship, in the year of Rome 416 [338 B.C.], he 

defeated the people of Antium, and fixed the beaks of The 

their ships upon the platform in the forum. Another column, ' ^o^'^^- 

in honour of Gains Duillius, who enjoyed the first naval triumph c. Duil- 

for his victory over the Carthaginians, is still standing in the forum. ^"" > 

Another was set up outside the Porta Trigemina, in honour of 21 

Lucius Minucius, chief commissioner of the corn supply, and Lucius 

for it a rate of one twelfth of an as was levied. This was, ^^^"""'"^ 

439 BC. 
I believe, the first time this honour was conferred by the people, 

for previously it had been left in the hands of the Senate. Cer- 
tainly the distinction were an honourable one save for the 
slight grounds for which it was first conferred. For instance, 
there was in front of the Senate House a statue of Attus statue of 

Navius, the base of which was destroyed when the Senate House ^/'"f 

, . Navtus. 

was burnt down at the funeral of Publms Clodius, and in the .^ ^ j, 

comitium there was another, dedicated at the public expense, ol Hermo- 

Hermodoros, the Ephesian, who expounded the laws drawn up ?^^^-^^ 

by the Decemvirs. Very different were the reasons which 22 

entitled Horatius Codes to the statue which is still standing : ^oratius 

single-handed he had held the Sublician bridge against the foe. 508 b.c. 

Nor am I astonished that a statue, or even three statues, of the 755^ three 

Sibyl should stand near the Rostra. One of these was replaced ^^h^^- 

by Sextus Pacuvius Taurus, when plebeian aedile, and the two 

others by Marcus Messala. I should consider these statues and 

that of Attus Navius, which date from the reign of Tarquin the 

Ancient, to be the earliest we have, were it not that on the Capitol 

in Pliny's manner, on ancient statues the area Volcani Aul. Gell. iv, 5, i. 

in Rome ; the subject of the statues Codes was represented full-armed, 

raised on columns is not resumed till with perhaps an indication of his 

§ 27. lameness, Dionysios v, 25 ; Plut. Publ. 

fait, i.e. the statue had disappeared xvi. 
when Pliny wrote. 14. iuxta rostra, i. e. the old ros- 

10. Hermodori : cf. Strabo xir, tra. These new Sibyls are probably 

p. 642; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1, 36, 105. identical with the rpio <faTa mentioned 

The statue presumably stood in front by Procop. De Bell. Goth, i, 25, p. 122, 

of the old rostra, by the Twelve Tables as standing between the curia and the 

upon which the laws were inscribed. temple of Janus (O. Gilbert, Rom, iii. 

It had been removed in Pliny's day, p. 228, note 2). 
cf. Jacobi, Museographie, p. 50. 15. Sextus Paouius Taurus, 

§ 22. 12. Horati Coolitis : below probably identical with the trib. pi., 

§ 29. The statue stood in comitio B.C. 27. 
Liv. ii, 10, 12 ; afterwards removed to 

c a 



20 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

aetate Tarquinii Prisci, ni regum antecedentiutn essent in 

23 CapitoHo. ex his Romuli et Tatii sine tunica, sicut et 
Camilli in rostris. et ante aedem Castorum fuit Q. Marci 
Tremuli equestris togata, qui Samnites bis devicerat capta- 

A.u.c. 448. que Anagnia populum stipendio liberaverat. inter anti- 5 

quissimas sunt et Tulli Cloeli, L. Rosci, Spuri Nauti, 
A.D.C. 316. C. Fulcini in rostris, a Fidenatibus in legatione interfectorum. 

24 hoc a re p. tribui solebat iniuria caesis, sicut aliis et P. lunio, 
A.u.c. 524. Ti. Coruncanio, qui ab Teuta lUyriorum regina interfecti 

erant. non omittendum videtur quod annales adnotavere 10 
tripedaneas iis statuas in foro statutas. haec videlicet men- 
sura honorata tunc erat. non praeteribo et Cn. Octavium 
ob unum SC. verbum. hie regem Antiochum daturum se 
responsum dicentem virga quam tenebat forte circum- 
scripsit priusque quam egrederetur circulo illo responsum 15 
A.u.c. 592. dare coegit. in qua legatione interfecto senatus statuam 
poni iussit quam oculatissimo loco, eaque est in rostris. 

25 invenitur statua decreta et Taraciae Gaiae sive Fufetiae 
virgini Vestali, ut poneretur ubi vellet, quod adiectum 
non minus honoris habet quam feminae esse decretam. 20 
meritum eius ipsis ponam annalium verbis : quodcampum 
Tiberinum gratificata esset ea populo. 

I. regum. Cf. xxxiii, 9, 10, 24. 3. Q. Marci Tremuli: Liv.ix, 43, 

in Capitolio: cf. Appian, 'E/i<^. 22 statua equestris in foro decreta 

i, 16, where Tib. Gracchus is killed est quae ante temflum Castoris posita 

bythe doors ofthe temple of Capitoline est; cf. Cic./I4z7. vi, 5, 13. Forapos- 

Jupiter near the statues of the kings. sible echo of the statue see Mommsen, 

§ 23. 2. sine tunica, i.e. wrapped Rom. Miinzw. p. 549, n. 263. 
in the toga alone, cf. Aul. Gell. vi, gui . . . liberaverat ; these words 
12; Asconius (on Cic. pro Scaur. 30) appear to come from an inscription 
says that the younger Cato as praetor in Saturnine verse, qui bis devicit 
used to lay aside the tunic ex vetere Samni | -leis Anagniamque || cepit 
consuetudine, secundum quam et populum stipendi | 6 liberavit (Urlichs 
Romuli et Tatii statuae in Capitolio in Chrestom. p. 307). 
et in rostris Camilli fuerunt togatae 5. stipendio; according to the 
sinetunicis. The difference of costume treaty concluded by Sp. Cassius in 
shows that the statues of the kings were B.C. 486, the Hernicans had been en- 
put up at different dates. Pliny's in- titled to a third of the war booty ; 
formation seems derived from Verrius, on this clause see Mommsen, Rom. 
ci. iL-a-^m, f<i tunica aurea triumphasse J^orsc A. ii, t>. 167. n. 22. 
Tarquinium Priscum Verrius docet. inter antiquissimas sunt : the 
et Camilli : see the passage from use of the present shows that 
Asconius quoted above. Pliny is transcribing direct from his 



//. BRONZE STATUARY ai 

we have the statues of Tarquin's predecessors. Among these the 23 

figures of Romulus and Tatius are without the tunic, and so is ^»"««' 

kings* 
that of Camillus on the Rostra. In front of the temple of Castor 

there also stood an equestrian statue of Quintus Marcius Tremulus q, m. 

wearing the toga. He had conquered the Samnites in two battles, Tremulus. 

and by taking Anagnia had freed Rome from payment of 306 b.c. 

the war tax. The statues on the Rostra to Tullus Cloelius, Roman 

Lucius Roscius, Spurius Nautius, and Gaius Fulcinus, ambassadors '^f^''"f-'fj , 

killed by the people of Fidenae, are also among the earliest, by the 

This honour was usually paid by the state to those who had P'-^^"'^'^^- 

been killed in violation of the law of nations ; it was done in many 24 

cases, notably that of Publius Junius and Tiberius Coruncanius, 23° b-c. 

who were put to death by Teuta, queen of Illyricum. It is '^Q'^^ Junius and 

noticing that according to the annals the statues set up in the Tiberius 

forum on these occasions were three feet high ; apparently this was canills. 

the height in vogue in those days. I shall mention the statue of 

Gnaeus Octavius, on account of one clause in the decree of the Cn. 

Senate. King Antiochos had wished to delay an answer, where- '^'i'^'"""- 

upon Octavius drew a circle round him with a rod which he 

chanced to have in his hand, and compelled the king to give an 

answer before he stepped outside the circle. Octavius was killed 162 b.c. 

while on this embassy, and the Senate ordered a statue to be set 

up in his honour ' in as visible a place as possible ' : the statue 

accordingly stands on the Rostra. I find a decree giving a statue 25 

to Taracia Gaia or Fufetia, a Vestal virgin, ' to be placed where Taraaa 

she pleased,' a clause no less to her honour than the actual 

dedication of a statue to a woman. According to the words of 1 

the annals, which I will quote, she received these honours 

'because she had presented to the people the field by the Tiber.' 

author ; the statues had already dis- the last-mentioned statues, but also to 

appeared in Cicero's time : Lars those of the ambassadors to the 

Tolumnius rex Veientium quattuor Fidenates. 

legates populi Romani Fidenis in- 12. On. Oetavium, § 13, murdered 

teremit, quorum statuae steterunt at Laodicea in B. c. 162 ; cf. Cic. 

usque ad meam memoriam in rostris. Phil, ix, 2, 4 statuam videmus in ros- 

Phil. ix, i, 4. tris. By a confusion Plmy attributes 

§ 24. 8. P. luBio, Ti. Corun- to Octavius an act performed by C. 

canio. Polybios, ii, p. 131 (ed. Popilius Laenas, on the occasion of his 

Biittner-Wobst), calls them Titos and embassy to Antiochus IV Epiphanes 

AevKios (KopoyitdviOi). They had been in B. C. 168, Cic. Phil, viii, 8, 23 ; Liv. 

sent to put down piracy on the lUyrian xlv, 12. 
coast. § 25. 18. Taraciae Gaiae sive 

II. tripedaneas refers not only to Fufetiae . . . populo : this curious 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



26 Invenio et Pythagorae et Alcibiadi in cornibus comitii 
A.u.c. 411. positas, cum hello Samniti Apollo Pythius iussisset 

fortissimo Graiae gentis et alteri sapientissimo simulacra 
A.u.c. 666. celebri loco dicari. eae stetere donee Sulla dictator ibi 
curiam faceret. mirumque est illos patres Socrati cunctis 5 
ab eodem deo sapientia praelato Pythagoran praetulisse 
aut tot aliis virtute Alcibiaden et quemquam utroque 

27 Themistocli. columnarum ratio erat attolli super ceteros 
mortales, quod et arcus significant novicio invento. primus 
tamen honos coepit a Graecis, nullique arbitror plures 10 
statuas dicatas quam Phalereo Demetrio Athenis, siquidem 
CCCLX statuere nondum anno hunc numerum dierum 

A.u.c. 670. excedente, quas mox laceravere. statuerunt et Romae in 

8. toUi onines praeter Bamb., Detlefsen. 



statement is best examined in the light 
of a passage from Aulus Gellius, vii, 7, 
1-4 Accae Lareniiae et Gaiae Taraciae, 
sive iila Fufetia est, nomina in anli- 
quis .nnnalibus celebria sunt. eai~um 
alterae post mortem, Taraciae auiem 
vivae amplissimi honores a populo 
Romano habiti. et Taraciam quidem 
virginem Vestalem fidsse lex Horatia 
testis est, quae super ea ad populu7?i 
lata, qua lege ei plurimi ho^iores 
fiunt, inter quos ius quoque testimonii 
dicendi tribuitur ' testabilis'^«r? ttna 
omnium feminarum ut sit datur. id 
verbum est legis ipsius Horatiae ; con- 
trarium est in duodecim tabulis scrip- 
tum : improbns intestabilisque esto. 
praeterea si quadraginta annos nata 
sacerdotio abire ac nubere voluisset, 
ius ei potestasque exaugurandi atque 
nubendi factaestmunificentiae et bene- 
ficii gratia, quod campum Tiberinum 
sive Martium populo condonasset. 
Though the personality of Taracia is 
clearly defined in this passage, it cannot 
be supposed that the region of the 
Campus Martius had been so late as 
republican times in the possession of 
a single person, and that a Vestal 
virgin ; close examination shows the 
aitiological nature of the whole story. 



The privileges granted to Taracia are 
simply the common privileges of all 
the Vestals ; in order to account for 
these the story of the gift of the land 
was adapted from the myth of Acca 
Larentia. Taracia is in fact a mere 
double of Larentia ; her name betrays 
an evident connexion with Tamtius, 
the Tuscan husband of Acca Larentia, 
to whom he leaves the Ager Turax, 
i.e. the Campus Tiberinus (Plut.^wK. 
v.), which Larentia in turn bequeaths 
to the Roman people ; a genuine myth 
which has for kernel the fact that the 
region of the Campus Martius had 
once been Etruscan (^see Plut. Publ. 
viii, where the story of the gift and 
the privileges is substantially the 
same, but the name of the heroine is 
TafKvvia; cf. Liv. ii, 5, 2 ager Tar- 
quiniorum). A statue was possibly 
put up to the mythical Vestal, bene- 
factress of the Romans, but as no 
statue is mentioned either by Gellius 
or Plutarch (see Detlefsen, De Art. 
Rom. Ant. ii, p. 13), and as Pliny does 
not say he saw the statue, but merely 
that the armals stated that one was 
decreed, it is probable that the statue 
only existed in the anecdote, and that 
its mention represented what was 



11. BRONZE STATUARY 23 

I find that statues of Pythagoras and Alkibiades were erected 26 
at the corners of the comitium, after an oracJe of the Pythian ^^f^il'^^ 
Apollo, delivered in the course of the Samnite war, had ordered biades. 
that a statue in honour of the bravest man of Hellenic birth, ^43 ^.c. 
and another in honour of the wisest should be dedicated in 
a much frequented place. These statues remained until the 
dictator Sulla built the Council Chamber there. It is strange 88 b.c. 
that the Senate of the day chose Pythagoras in preference to 
Sokrates, whom Apollo had declared to be wiser than all men, 
or that they chose Alkibiades before many other brave men, and 
in fact that they selected any one for either quality in preference 
to Themistokles. 

The use of the columns was to raise the statues above 27 

ordinary men, and this is also the purpose of the arches which ^''^^" "f 

have been recently introduced. The Greeks, however, were the raised on 

first who conferred statues as a mark of honour, and I imagine '^"^"J""^ 

' ° and 071 

that no man has had so many statues dedicated to him as arches. 
Demetrios of Phaleron at Athens, inasmuch as three hundred Demetrios 
and sixty were set up at a time when the year only contained "fP"^- 
that number of days. All these statues were afterwards broken Gaiu's 
up. At Rome too the tribes put up statues in every street in #"7f-f 

dianus. 
most likely another clause of the lex (§ 21), and rebuilt by Faustus Sulla, '^ ^■''• 
Horatia, namely, the right of the son of the dictator. 
Vestals to have their portrait-statues § 27. 8. columnarum : resumes 

erected. O. Gilbert, Rom, ii, p. 112, the subject of § 21. 
note 3. 9. arcus: on which stood statues and 

The praenomen Gaia was given to chariots. The oldest known instance 
Taracia in order to latinize her; is the arch or fornix of Q. Fabius 
cf. Tanaquil, who also bore the Latin Maximus Allobrogicus (B.C. 120) of 
names of Caia Cecilia. The alter- which remains are to be seen close to 
native name Fufetia is according to the temple of Faustina. The simpler 
Gilbert loc. cit. probably Etruscan, fornix developed into the elaborate 
For the masculine Fufetius cf. the triumphal arches of the Emperors. 
famousAlban dictator Melius Fufetius, 13. nondum, i. e. before thereform 

Liv. i, 23, 4 &c. ofthe calendar by Julius Caesar. Add. 

§ 26. I. Pythagoras et Aloib. 13. laoeravere : on the entrance 

in oornibus, en\ t^s dyopas Plut. of Demetrios Poliorketes into the 
Num. viii. city, Strabo ix, p. 398 ; Diogenes 

5. curiam : altered and enlarged Laertios v, 5, 75 f. Pliny evidently 
by Sulla (n. c. 88), who caused many has this statement as to the number 
of the statues in or in front of the curia of statues put up to Demetrios from 
to be removed. This new curia was Varro (see Imagines, ap. Nonius, 
burnt in B.C. 52, on the occasion of p. 528 M.); cf. Wachsmuth, Stadt 
the riots at the funeral of Clodius Athen, p. 611, note i. Addenda. 



24 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

omnibus vicis tribus Mario Gratidiano, ut diximus, easdem- 
A.u.c. 671. qug subvertere Sullae introitu. 

28 Pedestres sine dubio Romae fuere in auctoritate longo 
tempore, et equestrium tamen origo perquam vetus est 
cum feminis etiam honore communicato Cloeliae statua 5 
equestri, ceu parum esset toga earn cingi, cum Lucretiae 
ac Bruto, qui expulerant reges propter quos Cloelia inter 

29 obsides fuerat, non decernerentur. hanc primam cum 
A.U.C.246. Coclitis publice dicatam crediderim — Atto enim ac Sibyllae 

Tarquinium ac reges sibi ipsos posuisse verisimile est — nisi lo 
Cloeliae quoque Piso traderet ab iis positam qui una opsides 
fuissent, redditis a Porsina in honorem eius, e diverse Annius 
Fetialis equestrem, quae fuerit contra lovis Statoris aedem 
in vestibulo Superbi domus, Valeriae fuisse Publicolae con- 
sulis filiae, eamque solam refugisse Tiberimque transnata- 15 
visse ceteris opsidibus qui Porsinae mittebantur interemptis 
Tarquinii insidiis. 

30 L. Piso prodidit M. Aemilio C. Popilio iterum cos. 
A.u.c. 69 . ^ censoribus P. Cornelio Scipione M. Popilio statuas circa 

forum eorum qui magistratum gesserant sublatas omnis 20 
praeter eas quae populi aut senatus sententia statutae essent, 
eam vero quam apud aedem Telluris statuisset sibi Sp. 
Cassius qui regnum adfectaverat etiam conflatam a censori- 

I. Mario Gratidiano, ut dixi- Romans awarded the statue ; see 

mus; xxxiii, 132; he introduced '^itz^, Rom. Annalistik,^. c^i. 

a method of testing the i^««fl:ra issued 12. e diverse ... Valeriae: cf. 

by the mint (cf. Cic. de Off. iii, 20, Plutarch, Publ. xix. The doubt as 

80). According to Mommsen {Rom. to the name shows that the statue 

Miinzw. p. 388) this would be insuffi- bore no inscription. Neither Pliny 

cient to account for the almost divine nor Livy could probably have seen 

honours paid to him ; it seems more it, since Dionysios (v, 35) speaks of 

than probable that he also withdrew it as having disappeared in his day. 

the plated coins from circulation. From Seneca {Consol. ad Marciam, 

§ 28. 6. Lucretiae ao Bruto : 16) and Plutarch lac. cit., it appears 

of the statue of Lucretia nothing that it was restored at a later date 

more is known. The statue of Brutus (cf. Urlichs, Qaellen-Register, p. 5). 

stood near those of the kings (§23) Annius Fetialis : only known 

oji the Capitol ; see Plut. Brutus, i, from Pliny {Indices to xvi, xxxiii, 

where the statue is described as hold- xxxvi). 

ing a drawn sword. 13. lovis Statoris, ii, 140. The 

§29. II. ab iis qui ... fuissent : temple stood on the Sacred Way, 

Livy {loc. cit.) says simply that the at the commencement of the Clivus 



// BRONZE STATUARY 25 

honour of Gaius Marius Gratidianus, as I have said, and over- 
threw them again when Sulla entered the city. S3 b.c. 

It is certain that standing statues were customary in Rome at 28 
a very early date. Still the first equestrian statues are extremely ^1'^^'"'''' 
old, and women shared the honour of them with men when antiquity ,. 
Cloelia, as if it were not enough that she should be ^^-"(^^""f"^ 
presented wearing the toga, was granted such a statue, though equestrian 
none were given to Lucretia and Brutus, and yet they had ^*°■*"■'^■ 
expelled that royal family for whose interests Cloelia was a "^ ''^' 
hostage. I should readily believe this statue and that of Codes 29 
to be the first dedicated by the state (for it is probable that Tar- 5°^ b.c 
quinius set up those to Attus and the Sibyl, and that the kings 
each set up their own), were it not for Pise's statement that the 
statue to Cloelia was raised by her fellow-hostages, who were sent 
back by Porsenna in honour of her. Annius Fetialis on the other 
hand says that the equestrian statue which stood opposite the 
temple of Jupiter the Upholder in the vestibule of the house of 
Tarquin the Proud was that of Valeria, the daughter of the consul Valeria. 
Publicola. She alone, he says, escaped and swam across the 
Tiber, while the other hostages sent to Porsenna were treacherously 
killed by Tarquinius. Lucius Piso states that in the second con- 30 

sulship of Marcus Aemilius and Gaius Popilius all the statues of If^ ^•'^■, , 
*^ ^ Kemoval of 

magistrates standing round the forum, except those which had been statues of 

set up in accordance with a decree of the people or of the Senate, ^"■'^p^t'>'<j*^J 
'^ '^ '^ _ ' not erected 

were removed by the censors Publius Cornelius Scipio and Marcus by a decree 

Popilius. The one near the temple of Earth, set up in his own ^'ff 
■^ . . '^ . ' people or 

honour by Spurius Cassius, who aimed at the kingship, was further the Senate. 
melted down by the censors ; thus even in the matter of a statue 

/'atom«i', near the arch of Titus; the ended at conflatam. For the duties 

house of Tarquin was close to it (Liv. of censors as regards the removing of 

i, 41, 4), cf. Liv. ii, 13, 11 in summa statues, cf. Mommsen, op. cit., p. 443. 

sacra via fuit posita virgo insidens As there were, however, no censors 

equo, without any closer definition of in the days of Spurius Cassius 

the spot. (office created B. c. 445), we must con- 

§ 30. 21. praeter eas : the measure elude that Pliny's account is incorrect, 

would be intended to prevent the AccorAingtoMommssa^Rotn.Forsch- 

crowding of public places by statues ungen, ii, p. 167, note 28) Piso, 

put up by private individuals (Joca inreconntingtheeventsof A.u.c. 596, 

iueri) ; Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii, may have stated that Sp. Cassius had 

p. 437, cf. Liv. xl, 51, 3. set up a statue in his own honour on 

23. conflatam a censoribus : not the spot where at a later date stood 

of course by the censors mentioned the temple of Tellus (vowed B. c. 268 

above, or the sentence would have and ded. B. c. 252 by P. Sempronius 



26 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

bus. nimirum in ea quoque re ambitionem providebant 

31 illi viri. exstant Catonis in censura vociferationes mulieribus 
A.u.c. 570. g^g^^y^g Romanis in provinciis poni. nee tamen potuit in- 

hibere quo minus Romae quoque ponerentur, sicuti Corneliae 
Gracchorum matri, quae fuit Africani prloris filia. sedens 5 
huic posita soleisque sine ammento insignis in Metelli publica 
porticu, quae statua nunc est in Octaviae operibus. 

32 Publice autem ab exteris posita est Romae C. Aelio 
A.u.c. 469. tr. pi. lege perlata in Sthennium Stallium Lucanum qui 

Thurinos bis infestaverat. ob id Aelium Thurini statua et 10 
corona aurea donarunt. idem postea Fabricium donavere 

A.u.c. 472. statua liberati obsidione, passimque gentes in clientelas ita 
receptae, et adeo discrimen orane sublatum ut Hannibalis 
etiam statuae tribus locis visantur in ea urbe cuius intra 

A.u.c. 543. muros solus hostium emisit hastam. is 

33 Fuisse autem statuariam artem familiarem Italiae quo- 
que et vetustam indicant Hercules ab Evandro sacratus, 
ut produnt, in foro boario, qui triumphalis vocatur atque 
per triumphos vestitur habitu triumphali, praeterea lanus 
geminus a Numa rege dicatus, qui pacis bellique argumento 20 
colitur digitis ita figuratis ut CCCLXV dierum nota per 

3. Romanis statuas omnes praeter Bamb., Detlefsen. 

Sophus), and that this statue was on the site of the porticus Octaviae ; 

melted down when he was con- it is inscribed {a) Opus Tisicratis, 

demned — some such statement mis- (i) Cornelia Africani ff^Va) Graccho- 

leading Pliny into the double error of i-um (sc. mater), {b) is the earlier 

supposing (i) that the statue stood in inscription ; it is probable that the 

the temple of Tellus, (2) that the statue of Cornelia was destroyed in 

second measure recounted above was, the great fire of A. D. 80, after which 

like the first, carried out by censors, the basis was used a second time for 

whom he was naturally at a loss to some copy of a work of Teisikrates 

name. (§ 67), Lowy, /. G. B. 493. Cf. 

i. illi viri ; used by Pliny to cover Bernoulli, Rdm. Iconogr. i, p. 72 if. 

his ignorance of the censor's names. From the shape of the basis, Cornelia 

§ 31. mulieribus: cf.Cato's speech appears to have been represented 

on the Lex Oppia, as narrated by seated, in the scheme familiar from 

Livy, xxxiv, 2-4 ; for his dislike of the so-called statues of Agrippina. 

statues in general cf. the anecdote 6. MetelU . . . porticu : erected 

told by Plutarch, J>raec. Gerend. Reip. by Q. Metellus Macedonicus after his 

xxvii, B (Bernardakis, v, p. 1 15). triumph B.C. 146. On its site Augustus 

4. Corneliae: vii, 57; Plutarch built in honour of his sister the famous 

C. Gracchus, iv. The rectangular porticus Octaviae. 

basis of this statue was found in 1878 § 32. 9. lege perlata : this measure 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 27 

they provided against possible ambition. We know the protests 31 

of Cato, in his censorship, against the statues set up to Roman "84 b.c. 

women in the provinces, and yet he could not prevent their being Cato'the 

set up in Rome itself, for example to Cornelia the mother oi Censor 

the Gracchi and daughter of the elder Africanus. It is a seated ftatml of 

figure, remarkable as having shoes without thongs, which was ■women. 

formerly in the public colonnade of Metellus and is now in 

the galleries of Octavia. 

The first statue set up at Rome at the cost of a foreign S2 

nation was to Gaius Aelius, tribune of the people. He had ^'"'"'^j 
. . ' I- r erected by 

carried a law against Sthennius Stallius Lucanus, who had on t'^o foreign 

occasions molested the people of Thurii. They in return pre- "*^^^-^ 

sented Aelius with a statue and a golden crown, and later on 

also gave a statue to Fabricius, who had delivered them from 2S2 b.c 

a siege. This method of receiving a people into clientship 

became very general, and all distinction was so completely lost 

that statues of Hannibal can be seen in three places in a city statues of 

within whose walls he, alone among its enemies, has hurled his Hannibal 

m Rome. 
spear. 211 b.c. 

That there was an ancient art of statuary, native to Italy, 33 

is proved by the tradition which assigns to Evander the con-'lr'J^^^ 

secration of the Hercules in the Cattle Market, which is known statuary. 

as the triumphal Hercules and draped at every triumph in Hercules. 

a triumphal robe. There is moreover the two-headed Janus p""- 

dedicated by King Numa, which is honoured as marking -peace jatius. 

or war; his fingers are bent to form 365, which is the number of 

is mentioned only in this passage ; near the curia at the N.E. end of the 

nothing further is known of this statue Forum. The head ofthe statue appears 

or that of Fabricius. on the oldest Roman libral asses 

1 3. Hanuibalis : brought either (Roscher s. v._/aK«J, Mommsen,/i'^OT. 

from Carthage or from Asia Minor. Munzw. p. 175). One of the faces 

§ 33. 16. statuariam: seeon^i?>-e«- looked towards the West and the 

ticen in § 54. Great Forum, the other towards the 

17. Hercules : in the ancient shrine East and the Forum Julium (cf. Pro- 

(Tac. Ann. xv, 41 : magna arafanum- cop. Bell. Goth, i, 25). 
que, quae praesenti Herculi Areas 20. pacts bellique arg. : indicem 

Evander sacraverat) near to which, facts bellique fecit Liv. i, 19, i. 
at a later date, was built the roimd 21. digitis ita figuratis : this 

temple of Hercules, which contained curious statement is confirmed by 

the paintings of Pacuvius ; Peter ap. Macrobius, Sat. i, 9, 10, and John 

Roscher, i, 291 1 ff. ; cf. note on xxxv, Lydos, mpl /irjvwv, i, 4. A number of 

19), and below on § 33. ingenious explanations are quoted in 

19. lanus geminus : in his temple Hardouin's note on the passage. 



aS C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

significationem anni temporis et aevi esse deum indicent. 

34 signa quoque Tuscanica per terras dispersa quin in Etruria 
factitata sint non est dubium. deorum tantum putarem ea 
fuisse, ni Metrodorus Scepsius cui cognomen a Romani 

A.u.c. 489. nominis odio inditum est propter M M statuarum Volsinios 5 
expugnatos obiceret. mirumque mihi videtur, cum sta- 
tuarum origo tam vetus Italiae sit, lignea potius aut fictilia 
deorum simulacra in delubris dicata usque ad devictam 

35 Asiam, unde luxuria. similitudines exprimendi quae prima 
fuerit origo, in ea quam plasticen Graeci vocant dici con- 10 
venientius erit, etenim prior quam statuaria fuit. sed haec 
ad infinitum effloruit multorum voluminum operi, si quis 
plura persequi velit, omnia enim quis possit ? 

36 M. Scauri aedilitate signorum M M M in scaena tan- 
A.u.c. 695. ^yjj^ fuere temporario theatro. Mummius Achaia devicta 15 
A.u.c. 608. replevit urbem non relicturus filiae dotem. cur enim non 

cum excusatione ponatur? multa et Luculli invexere. 
Rhodi etiamnum LXXIII signorum esse Mucianus ter 
COS. prodidit, nee pauciora Athenis, Olympiae, Delphis 

37 superesse creduntur. quis ista mortalium persequi possit 20 
aut quis usus noscendi intellegatur ? insignia maxime et 
aliqua de causa notata voluptarium sit attigisse artificesque 
celebratos nominavisse, singulorum quoque inexplicabili 
multitudine, cum Lysippus MD opera fecisse prodatur, 
tantae omnia artis ut claritatem possent dare vel singula, 25 
numerum apparuisse defuncto eo, cum thensaurum effre- 
gisset hereSj solitum enim ex manipretio cuiusque signi 

12. operi Bamb. ; opere reliqut, Detlefsen. 18. LXXIII] Bamb. Rice. ; 

LXXIII Voss. {teste Detlefsen) ; numerus aferte corruftus. 

I . aevi esse deum : aiad. toC aiwos of olive wood in the Erechtheion at 

naripa, John Lydos, loc. cit. Athens, Pans, i, 26, 6 ; 27, I ; ii, 

§34. 4. Metrodorus Soepsius : 25, j, &c. 

bom about B.C. 145 ; MuUer, F. H. G. fictilia : xxxv, 157. 

iii, pp. 202-205; Susemihl, Griech. §35. 11. prior quam statuaria : 

Lit. in der Alexandr. Z.eit, ii, p. since a bronze statue presupposed 

352 'f- a clay model, note on xxxv, 153. 

7. lignea : in Italy, as in Greece, § 36. 14. M. Scauri aedilitate : 

statuary began with the wooden idols viii, 64, xxxv, 127. For the theatre 

which not unfrequently remained see xxxvi, 5, 50, 113-115, 189; it 

objects of worship even in the greatest was erected in the Campus Martius, 

periods of art, e. g. the Athene Polias but the exact spot is unknown. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 29 

days in the year, and by thus indicating the year they mark him 
as the god of time and the age. We also find, scattered in 34 
dififerent countries, statues in the Tuscan style, which must 
certainly have been made in Etruria. I should incline to think 
that these were only figures of the gods, did not Metrodoros of 
Skepsis, whose other name of /uio-opm/iaio? or Roman-Hater was 
given him from his hatred of Rome, accuse us of having taken 
Volsinii for the sake of its two thousand statues. To me it seems 365 b.c. 
strange that, though statuary in Italy has so ancient an origin, ^^'^S^^ "f 
the images of the gods dedicated in the shrines were by preference term-cotia 
made of wood or of terra-cotta until the conquest of Asia intro- P^'^fi/^ed 

m the 

duced luxury. It will be better to speak of the origin of the model- temples. 
ling of portraits when we treat of the art which the Greeks call ^^ 
TrXao-TiKij, as it is earlier than statuary. The latter art has been 
infinitely developed; a fuller discussion would require many 
volumes, an exhaustive treatise is scarcely possible. 

Marcus Scaurus in his aedileship adorned the stage of a mere 36 
temporary theatre with three thousand statues. Mummius filled ^^ ^/^' . 
all Rome with sculpture after his conquest of Achaia, and yet Theatre of 
I must add in his favour that he eventually died too poor to ^'^'''''^ 
leave his daughter a dowry. The Luculli too brought over a 146 b.c 
number of statues ; seventy-three thousand are still to be seen at a.d. 67, 70, 
Rhodes, according to Mucianus, who was three times consul, '^' 
and it is supposed that at least as many still remain at Athens, 
Olympia and Delphoi. A detailed knowledge of all these is 37 
unattainable and would moreover serve no purpose ; still I should 
like to touch on the most famous, and those which any par- 
ticular circumstance has made noteworthy, and to name the 
illustrious artists. Even the works of individual sculptors are 
too numerous to be catalogued; Lysippos, for example, is said to 1500 
have made fifteen hundred pieces of statuary, all of such merit /^'"lij'f 
that any one alone would bring him fame. Their number was 

15. Achaia deviota: xxxiii, 149. ed. Schoene, p. 139: templa Rho- 

16. dotem: cf. Frontinus, Strateg. diorum depopulaius est Cassius, but 
iv, 3, 15. from Pliny it appears that the 

17. et Luculli: i.e. L. Licinius, plundering cannot have been so 
the conqueror of Mithridates, cos. B. c. thorough as set forth either by Appian 
74 (xxxv, 125, 155), and his brother iiitj>vK. iv, 81, Val. Max. i, 5, 8, or 
Marcus, below §39; cos. B.C. 73; Orosius, vi, 18, 3. 

triumphed B.C. 71. Mucianus : see Introd. p. Ixxxv. 

18. Ehodi etiamnum : Jerome § 37. 24. Lysippus : the anecdote 
(see Addenda) Chron. 01. 184, 4, of the money-box may be traced 



30 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

38 denarios seponere aureos singulos. evecta supra humanam 
fidem ars est successu, mox et audacia. in argumentum 
successus unum exemplum adferam, nee deorum hominumve 
similitudinis expressae. aetas nostra vidit in Capitolio, 

A.u.c. 822. priusquam id novissime conflagraret a Vitellianis incensum, 5 
in cella lunonis canem ex acre volnus suum lambentem, 
cuius eximium miraculum et indiscreta veri similitudo non 
eo solum intellegitur quod ibi dicata fuerat, verum et satis- 
datione, nam quoniam summa nulla par videbatur, capita 
tutelarios cavere pro ea institutum publice fuit. 10 

39 Audaciae innumera sunt exempla. moles quippe 
excogitatas videmus statuarum, quas colossaeas vocant, 
turribus pares, talis est in Capitolio Apollo tralatus a 

A.u.c. 681. M. LucuUo ex Apollonia Ponti urbe, XXX cubitorum, 

40 D talentis factus, talis in campo Martio luppiter a Claudio 15 
Caesare dicatus, qui devoratur Pompeiani theatri vicinitate, 
talis et Tarenti factus a Lysippo XL cubitorum. mirum in 
eo quod manu, ut ferunt, mobilis — ea ratio libramenti est — 
nullis convellatur procellis. id quidem providisse et artifex 
dicitur modico intervallo, unde maxime flatum opus erat 30 
frangi, opposita columna. itaque magnitudinem propter 
difficultatemque moliendi non attigit cum Fabius Verru- 

A.u.c. 545. cosus, cum Herculem qui est in Capitolio inde transferret. 

41 ante omnis autem in admiratione fuit Solis colossus Rhodi, 

back to Duris, below § 51 ; Introd. 9. capite: cf. xxxvi, 29 . . . capi- 

p. xlviii. tali satisdatione fama iudicet dignos 

I. denarios : the Roman golden (i. e. two statuary groups), 

denarius was worth about (.1, but the § 39. 13. Apollo: KdKa/uSos epyov. 

reference here must be to the araTrip^ Strab. vii, p. 319. 

16s. nearly. Introd. p. Ixxxiv. | 40. 15. a CI. Caesare. Claudius 

§ 38. 4. in Capitolio : after the restored the theatre of Pompeins 

temple had been burnt down in B.C. 83, after a. fire, and probably dedicated 

Sulla undertook its reconstruction, the Jupiter on the same occasion. Tac. 

which was eventually carried out by Q. ^nn. iii, 72. 

Lutatius Catulus, who dedicated the 16. Pompeiani theatri ; near the 

new temple in B. c. 69. It was burnt Great Circus, 

again a Vitellianis, Tac. Hist, in, 71. 17. factus a Lysippo : it repre- 

6. in cella lunouis ; on the sented Zeus, and according to Strabo, 

right of the central cella of Jupiter ; p. 278, was the tallest colossus after 

the cella on the left was dedicated to that of Rhodes. 
Minerva. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 31 

discovered when his heir broke open his money-box after his 
death, for it was his custom to lay by a piece of gold out of the 
price he received for each statue. 

Art has made extraordinary progress, in technique first and 38 
afterwards in audacity. As an example of successful technique £,^'™"jj 
I shall mention a figure representing neither god nor man. Be- 
fore the last fire on the Capitol, caused by the soldiers of Vitellius, a.d. 69. 
our own generation could see in the temple of Juno a bronze 
dog licking its wound : the wonderful workmanship and Bronze 
absolutely life-like treatment are sufficiently proved not only by ''^' 
the sacred spot where the work was dedicated, but also by the 
unusual guarantee demanded for it. No sum of money was 
considered equivalent : it was a public ordinance that the curators 
should pledge their lives for its safety. 

Of audacity countless instances can be given. For example 39 
artists have conceived the idea of gigantic statues called colossi, /^w * //(, 
as tall as towers. Of this class is the Apollo in the Capitol, in the 
brought from Apollonia in Pontos by Marcus Lucullus ; it is j^^f" 
forty-five feet high, and cost five hundred talents [;^i 20,000]. {h) Jupiter 
Another is the Jupiter dedicated in the Field of Mars by Claudius ^-/^f r 
Caesar, which, however, is dwarfed by its proximity to the theatre Jfew. 
of Pompeius. Yet another is the Zeus at Tarentum by Lysippos, 40 
which is 40 cubits [58 ft.] in height and is noteworthy because the ^P ^T^^-'' 
weight is so nicely balanced that the colossus can, they say, be turned at Taren- 
round by a touch of the hand, and yet cannot be overthrown by the '""*" 
wind. The artist is said to have provided against this by placing 
a column a little way off, on the side where it was most necessary 
to break the violence of the wind. The size of the statue and the ^ ^ 
difficulty of transporting it prevented Fabius Verrucosus from (d) Hera- 
touching it, although he brought the Herakles in the Capitol from c"J//J " 
Tarentum. The most marvellous of all, however, is the statue 41 

mirum . . . procellis : periegetic Fabiiis himself (Phit. i^ai. ^ajr.xxii), 
explanation. which he doubtless set up in imitation 

22. non attigit Fabius: cf. Liv. ofCarvilius. 

xxvii, 16, 8. § 41. 24. ante omnis ... in ad- 

23. Herculem : Avai-mrov ijrjov, miratione : cf. hue. /tip. Trag. 11. 
Strabo, loc. cit. The hero was repre- It was even reckoned among the Seven 
sented without weapons and seated, Wonders of the world. The notion 
resting his head on his left hand ; cf. that it stood with one foot on each of 
Niketas Akominatos de signis Con- the moles which formed the entrance 
stantinop., p. 859. Near the Hercules to the harbour while ships passed full 
stood a bronze equestrian statue of sail between its legs was unknown to 



32 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

A.u.c. 527. quern fecerat Chares Lindius, Lysippi supra dicti discipulus. 
LXX cubitorum altitudinls fuit. hoc simulacrum post LVI 
annum terrae motu prostratum, sed iacens quoque miraculo 
est. pauci pollicem eius amplectuntur, maiores sunt digiti 
quam pleraeque statuae. vasti specus hiant defractis mem- 5 
bris, spectantur intus magnae molis saxa quorum pondere 
stabiliverat eum constituens. duodecim annis tradunt effec- 
tum CCC talentis quae contigerant ex apparatu regis 

42 Demetrii relicto morae taedio opsessa Rhodo. sunt alii 
centum numero in eadem urbe colossi minores hoc, sed lo 
ubicumque singuli fuissent, nobilitaturi locum, praeterque 

43 hos deorum quinque quos fecit Bryaxis. factitavit colossos 
et Italia, videmus certe Tuscanicum Apollinem in biblio- 
theca templi Augusti quinquaginta pedum a pollice, dubium 
aere mirabiliorem an pulchritudine. fecit et Sp. Carvilius 15 

A.u.c. 461. lovem qui est in Capitolio victis Samnitibus sacrata lege 
pugnantibus e pectoralibus eorum ocreisque et galeis. ampli- 
tudo tanta est ut conspiciatur a Latiari love, e reliquiis 
limae suam statuam fecit quae est ante pedes simulacri eius. 

44 habent in eodem Capitolio admirationem et capita duo quae 20 
A.u.c. 697. P. Lentulus cos. dicavit, alterum a Charete supra dicto 

factum, alterum fecit . . . dicus conparatione in tantum victus 

45 ut artificum minime probabilis videatur. verum omnem 
amplitudinem statuarum eius generis vicit aetata nostra 
Zenodorus Mercurio facto in civitate GalHae Arvernis per 25 

the ancients, and arose in the Middle p. 60. Introd. p. Ixxxvii. 

Ages. See Cecil Torr, Rhodes in 8. ex apparatu : Pint. Demetr. 20. 

Ancient Times, -p. ^6 i. 9. opsessa Rhode; vii, 126; 

2. LXX cub. altitudinis : pre- xxxv, 104, 105. 

sumably from Varro, the measurement 5 42. 12. Bryaxis: below, § 73. 

being practically identical with that § 43. 13. Tuscanicum ApoUinem: 

given by Vibius Sequester {^Colossus from what we know of Etniscan work- 

Rhodi alius pedes CF), who is known manship, Pliny's admiration must be 

to have drawn from Varro, Urlichs, prompted by patriotism. 

Quellen-Reg. p. 11. in bibliotheoa : belonging to 

hoc simulacrum . . . Bryaxis : the temple of Augustus (xii, 94), 

th% picturesque desciiption of the built by Tiberius and Livia in B.C. 

prostrate colossus, and the mention of 14, Die Cassius, Ivi, 46 ; cf. Suet. 

the hundred other colossal statues in Tib. 74 in bibliotheca templi novi. 

Rhodes, have been rightly referred to Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. I2i, n. 3 ; it also 

Mucianus by Brieger, de Font. Plin. contained, besides the customary busts 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 33 

of the Sun at Rhodes, made by Chares of Lindos, a pupil of the (e) Colossus 
Lysippos already mentioned. It was seventy cubits [102 feetl in f^^f^" 

,■,.,_ T,-„„ ■'by Chares 

height, and after standmg for fifty-six years was overthrown by an of lindos. 

earthquake, but even as it lies on the ground it arouses wonder, b.c 227. 

Few men can clasp their arms about its thumb, its fingers are taller 

than most statues and wide caverns gape within its broken limbs, 

while inside can be seen huge fragments of rock, originally used 

as weights to steady it. According to tradition, its construction 

lasted twelve years, and cost 300 talents [£72,000], contributed 

by the Rhodians out of the siege-train left with them by King 42 

Demetrios when he wearied of the siege of Rhodes. There are Other 

a hundred smaller colossal statues in this city, any one of which "t^f^l at 

would have made famous the place it adorned, besides five Rhodes. 

representing gods, made by Bryaxis. In Italy too colossal ^^y^^^ 

statues have been made ; we have before our eyes the Tuscan 43 

Apollo, in the library of the temple of Augustus, which mea- Tuscan 

sures 50 feet from its toe. It is not easy to say whether the ^^''"''■ 

beauty of the statue or of the bronze is the more worthy ol JJ^^^ ^^ 

wonder. After the victory over the Samnites, who fought Italy- 

bound by a solemn vow, Spurius Carvilius made from their b.c. 293. 

breastplates, greaves, and helmets the Jupiter in the Capitol, /«/«V«?-. 

a statue large enough to be visible from the temple of Jupiter 

Latiaris. From the filings he made a statue of himself, to . . 

stand at the feet of the other. Two heads, also placed on the Colossal 

Capitol, deserve to be admired. They were dedicated by "^'^"■'"• 

Publius Lentulus : one is the work of the Chares mentioned 

above, the other is by . . . dikos, who however suffers by 

the comparison so as to seem a most unattractive artist. In 45 

our own times however Zenodoros exceeded the proportions Zenodoros. 

of all other statues of this class. His Mercury was made in His 

Gaul, in the state of the Arverni; he spent ten years upon ''''"'')'■ 

ofillustrious men, a statue of Minerva, later date, and that Pliny, or his 

Plin. fii, 210. author, confused the first and second 

16. viotis Samnitibus : cf. Liv. consulship of Carvilius. 

X, 38-46. It is at least curious that 18. Xiatiari love : on the Mons 

Livy in his elaborate accoxmt of the Albanus (Monte Cavo). 

triumph of B.C. 293 should only men- 5 44. 21. Charete supra dicto : 

tion the temple of Fors Fortuna (x, in §41. Pliny is the only author who 

46, 14) as erected out of the booty. mentions any worli of Chares besides 

A. Schaeffer (Comm. phil. in hon. the Colossus. 

Momms. p. 7) accordingly supposes § 45. 25. Zenodorus : perhaps an 

the statue to have been set up at a Alexandrian established in Uaul, see S. 



34 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



annos decern, HS [CCCC] manipreti, postquam satis artem 
ibi adprobaverat, Romam accitus a Nerone, ubi destinatum 
illius principis simulacro colossum fecit CXIXS pedum 
longitudine, qui dicatus Soli venerationi est damnatis sceleri- 
48 bus illius principis. mirabamur in officina non modo ex 5 
argilla similitudinem insignem, verum et de parvis admodum 
surculis quod primum opens instaurati fuit. ea statua 
indicavit interisse fundendi aeris scientiam, cum et Nero 
largiri aurum argentumque paratus asset et Zenodorus 
scientia fingendi caelandique nulli veterum postponeretur. lo 

47 statuam Arvernorum cum faceret provinciae Dubio Avito 
praesidente, duo pocula Calamidis manu caelata, quae Cassio 
Salano avonculo eius praeceptori suo Germanicus Caesar 
adamata donaverat^ aemulatus est ut vix ulla differentia 
esset artis. quanto maior Zenodoro praestantia fuit, tanto 15 
magis deprehenditur aeris obliteratio. 

48 Signis quae vocant Corinthia plerique in tantum capiuntur 
ut secum circumferant, sicut Hortensius orator sphingem 
Verri reo ablatam, propter quam Cicero illo iudicio in 
altercatione neganti ei aenigmata se intellegere respondit 20 
debere, quoniam sphingem domi haberet. circumtulit et 
Nero princeps Amazonem, de qua dicemus, et paulo ante 

3. CXIXS] Urlichs in Chrestom. Plin. ; CVIS Detlefsen ; qui nonagiuta 

Bamb. 

Reinach, Bronzes Figuris de la Gaule Hercules, which were afterwards re- 

Romaine, p. 12, who shows that the moved (AeliauLamprid. Ce»2?»0(/. 17, 

name is met with principally in Syria 10). The size of the Neronian colossus 

and Egypt. became proverbial, C. I. L. viii, i, 

Arvernis : where Mercury had a 212, p. 36, 1. 82. Cf in xxxv, 51, 

celebrated ritual in his temple on the the colossal painted portrait of Nero. 

Puy de D8me ; see Addenda. § 46. 5. mirabamur : practically 

3. colossum : in the vestibule of the only instance where Pliny speaks 
the Golden House, Suet. Nero, 31. from personal observation. 

4. dicatus Soli venerationi : i. c. in officina : sc. aeraria, cf. below, 
by Vespasian, Suet. Vesp. 18, who set § 134 ; xvi, 23 ; xviii, 89 ; C. I. L. vi, 
up the colossus on the Sacred Way, 8455, &c. Addenda. 
DioCassius, 66,15; Marti.il, .S^crf. 2, 6. argilla ; i.e. the irpowKacrna, 
1,71,6. The basis may still be seen 2« cf. xxxv, 155. 

niu between the temple of Venus and 7. surculis : the surculi must, I 

Rome and the Colosseum. Com- think, be the Tpvn-rniaTo. or wax tubes 

modus replaced the head by a portrait with which the wax model was 

head of himself (Herodian, i, s, 9), covered previous to its being cased 

and gave to the statue attributes of in loam; these tubes were intended 



// BRONZE STATUARY 35 

it and received in payment forty million sesterces [£350,000 

circ.J. After he had won his reputation in Gaul, Nero sum- ms colossal 

moned him to Rome, where he made a colossal statue 11 94 feet ^"'''• 

in height. It was originally intended to represent the Emperor, 

but after Nero's crimes had met with their punishment, it 

was dedicated to the worship of the Sun. In his workshop 46 

our wonder was excited not only by the extraordinary likeness 

in the clay model, but by the slender tubing which was the 

first stage towards the completion of the work. This statue 

proved that the secret of the composition of bronze was lost, 

since Nero had been ready to provide the gold and silver, 

and in modelling and chasing Zenodoros was the equal of any 

ancient artist. When he made the statue for the Arverni, during 47 

the governorship of Dubius Avitus, he imitated two cups, chased -^* "P^^^ 

by the hand of Kalamis, which Germanicus Caesar had prized byKalamis. 

very highly, and had given to Cassius Silanus his tutor, the 

uncle of Dubius, with such nicety that scarcely any difference can 

be detected between the original and the copy. Thus the artistic 

cunning of Zenodoros only strengthens the proof that the art of 

alloying bronze was forgotten. 

The figures known as Corinthian are often so much prized that 48 

the owners carry them about with them, as the orator Hortensius ^"ifg„f 

did the figure of a sphinx which he had taken from his cUent Corinthian 

Verres. The image was mentioned in the course of the trial, for sphinx of 

when Hortensius declared that he could not guess riddles, Cicero \Hortensius. 

replied that he should be able to do so since he kept a sphinx in his 

house. Nero when Emperor also took about with him an Amazon /iViroV 

Amazon. 

to produce in the loam-coating holes 12. Calamidis : xxxiii, 156; xxxvi, 

for the pouring in of the bronze, and 36. 

the letting out of the air. The co- 13. praeoeptori : in oratory- Ovid 

lossalwaxcast of ahorse covered with addressed the Pontic Ep. ii, 5, to 

tubings, Clarac, Musie de Sc. i, pi. v, Salanus. 

figs. 5, 6, p. loi ff., exactly illustrates § 48. 18. Hortensius : the cele- 

what I imagine would be the appear- brated orator and art amateur, re- 

ance which the Neronian colossus peatedly mentioned by Pliny, viii, 

presented when Tliny saw it. Oddly 211 ; ix, 170; xxxv, 130, &c. 

enough neither Clarac nor Bliimner 21. sphingem : according to Pint, 

(cf. Technol. iv, p. 325) comment, so Apophthegm. Rom. Cic. ii. it was 

far as I am aware, on this interesting silver, but according to the same 

passage. author, Cic. vii, a, it was of ivory. 

8. indicavit interisse : cf. § 5. See Addenda. 

§47. II. Dubio Avito. Tac. 22. de qua dioemus : below, 

Ann. xiii, 54. § 82. 

D a 



36 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



C. Cestius consularis signum, quod secum etiam in proelio 
habuit. Alexandri quoque Magni tabernaculum sustinere 
traduntur solitae statuae, ex quibus duae ante Martis Ultoris 
aedem dicatae sunt, totidem ante regiam. 

49 Minoribus simulacris signisque innumera prope artificum s 
multitude nobilitata est, ante omnis tamen Phidias Atheni- 
ensis love Olympio facto ex ebore quidem at auro, sed et 
ex acre signa fecit, floruit autem olympiade LXXXIII, cir- 
citer CCC urbis nostrae annum, quo eodem tempore aemuli 
eius fuere Alcamenes, Critias, Nesiotes, Hegias, et deinde lo 
olympiade LXXXVII Hagelades, Gallon, Gorgias Lacon, 
rursus LXXXX Polyclitus, Phradmon, Myron, Pythagoras, 

50 Scopas, Perellus. ex his Polyclitus discipulos habuit 

7. Olympiae omnes praeter Bamb., Detlefsen. 



1. C Cestius. Tac. Hist.y, 10. 
consularis signum : where Frbh- 

ner {Rhein. Mus., 1892, p. 292) 
proposes consularis (plans') signum. 
But Pliny is concerned merely with 
proving what store was laid by Corin- 
thian bronzes, and not with their 
subjects. If he specifies Nero's 
Amazon, it is only because it had 
become a familiar object. 

2. tabernaoulum : Pliny has here 
misunderstood the Greek word aKTjvrj 

= tent or canopy. The description 
in the original can only have been of 
the golden Nikai, which according to 
Diodoros (xviii, 26) supported at 
each of its comers the canopy of the 
chariot upon which Alexander's corpse 
was borne to Alexandria; Urlichs, 
Chrest. p. 314. 

3. Martis Ultoris: in the forum 
of Augustus, dedicated B.C. 2. Mon. 
Anc. (iv) xxi, 21-22 ; Mommsen, Res 
Gestae, p. 88. 

4. regiam : close to the temple 
lof Vesta. 

5 49. 5. Minoribus, i.e. colossis 
supradictis. 

7. love Olympio, § 54; xxxvi, 
18. 



8. floruit = iJKiia^e. 

olymp. LXXXIII : probably 
date of commencement of Parthenon. 
Then about Pheidias as representative 
are grouped — failing more precise his- 
torical information — other artists con- 
nected with the restoration of Athens 
after the Persian wars and its subse- 
quent embellishment. The group of 
the Tyrant-slayers, madeby Kritios and 
Nesiotes (archonship of Adeimantos 
B.C. 477, Marm. I'ar.), replaced the 
older group by Antenor, which had 
been carried away by Xerxes (5 70). 
Hegias appears as contemporary of 
K. and N. (cf. Lucian, A'^ei. Praec. 9) ; 
Alkamenes worked chiefly for Athens 
{Schrifiquell. 812-82 2)'. The follow- 
ing groups likewise, when they can be 
determined at all, seem the result of 
similar uncritical combinations. As 
a rule the given Olympiad strictly 
refers only to the first artist in each 
group. 

circiter : i. e. more accurately, 306. 

9. aemuli : the epithet is applied 
quite loosely, and means little more 
than ' of rival merit ' : so in xxxvi, 30, 
the fellow- workers of Skopas on the 
Mausoleion are called his aemuli; in 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



31 



which will be mentioned later on, and a little earlier Gaius ' 
Sestius, a consular, had a statue which he even took into 
battle. It is said too that the tent of Alexander the Great was 7V»/ of 
always supported by statues, of which two have been dedicated '^¥^'^"'^''- 
in front of the temple of Mars the Avenger, and two in front of 
the Regia. 

The number of artists whose reputation rests on images and 49 
statues of smaller size can hardly be counted. Pheidias of ^"'""'".S?' 
Athens, however, stands first of all with his Olympian Ztns. principal 
This was of ivory and gold, but he also worked in bronze. He ''''''"'*• 
flourished in the eighty-third Olympiad [448-445 B.C. J, about 
three hundred years after the foundation of Rome. Of the same 
date were his rivals, Alkamenes, Kritios, Nesiotes, and Hegias. 
In the eighty-seventh Olympiad [432-429 e.g.] came Hagelaidas, 
Kallon and the Laconian Gorgias, and in the ninetieth [420-417 
B.C.] Polykleitos, Fhradmon, Myron, Pythagoras, Skopas, \Perellos. 



xxxT, 64, Illustrious contemporaries 
of Zeuxis figure as iiis aequales et 
aemuli; cf. also xxxv, 124. 

II. Hagelades : a contemporary 
of tlie Elder Kanachos; flourished circ. 
B. c. 515-485, Robert, Arch. March- 
pp. 39, 93. He is placed in 01. 87, 
because his Herakles, 'AKf^'maKos (in 
Melite, Schol. Aristoph. Barpaxoi, 
504), like the Apollo Alexikakos of 
Kalamis, Paus. i, 3, 4 (cf. Brunn, 
A'. G. i, p. 126), was connected in the 
popular imagination with the staying 
of the great Plague in the third year 
of the Peloponnesian war — the asso- 
ciation arising of course from the 
epithet (Brunn, i, p. 68). The real 
occasion for the dedication of the 
Herakles remains obscure ; cf. Robert, 
loc. cit. ; Studniczka, Rom. Mitth. ii, 
1887, p. 99, note 27 ; Wolters, Ath. 
Mitth. xvi, 1891, p. 160. The mention 
of Hagelaidas brings with it that 
of his contemporaries, Gorgias and 
Kallon. See Addenda. 

Gallon : it is uncertain whether the 
Eleian Kallon (Paus. v, 25,4; 27, 
8 = /. C B. 33), or his more cele- 
brated Aiginetan namesake (/. G. B. 
27 ; Paus. ii, 32, 6 ; iii, 18, 8). 



Gorgias : /. G. B. ^6 ==€./. A. iv, 

373 (214)- 

12. Polyclitua : § 55, possibly dated 
by the gold and ivory Hera, which 
he made for the new Heraion at 
Argos, after the fire of E. c. 424. 
Together with Polykleitos are grouped, 
besides Phradmon (probably a real 
contemporary, Paus. vi, 8, i, below, 
§ 53), Myron and Pythagoras, for no 
other reason, I imagine, than that, 
all three masters being celebrated for 
their statues of athletps, they fitted in 
better with him than with any other 
fifth-century artist for whom a date 
could be found. As a fact the best 
activity of Myron falls within the first 
half of the century (Fiirtwangler, 
Masterpieces, p. 182), while Pytha- 
goras, as we know from his statues of 
athletes whose victories ranged from 
B.C. 488-480, was considerably the 
older artist. 

13. Scopas : he appears here by 
a singular anachronism : in xxxvi, 30, 
he is correctly dated from the Mauso- 
leion at Halikarnasso.'!. The error is 
however insufficient reason for assum- 
ing (with Klein and Robert cf. Arch. 
Marchen, p. 46) an elder Skopas. 



38 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



Argium, Asopodorum, Alexim, Aristidem, Phrynonem, Dino- 
nem, Athenodorum, Demean Clitorium, Myron Lycium. 
LXXXXV olympiade floruere Naucydes, Dinomenes, 
Canachus, Patroclus, centesima secunda Polycles, Cephi- 
sodotus, Leuchares, Hypatodorus, CIIII Praxiteles, Eu- 5 
51 phranor, centesima septima Aetion, Therimachus. CXIII 
Lysippus fuit, cum et Alexander Magnus, item Lysistratus 
frater eius, Sthenis, Euphron, Sofocles, Sostratus, Ion, 

I. Argium Asopodorum Vetle/sen. Phrynonem Dinonem omnes praeter 
Bamb., [Dinonem] Detlefsen. 8. Sofocles] coni. Loewy in Inschr. Gr. 

Bildh. 102<^J>. 384; fucles Bami.; icles Jlicc, Voss.; Eucles_^», Detlefsen. 



§ 50. I. Asopodorum : a later 
artist than the Asopodoros who worlced 
on the bathron of Praxiteles of Kama- 
rina at Olympia {I.G.B. 30). See Add. 

Alexim : if identical with the 
father of Kantharos of Silsyon in § 85 
(the pupil of Eutychides; Pans, vi, 
3, 6), he must have been a pupil of 
Polykleitos II. His insertion here 
would be due to an error of Pliny. 

2. AthenodoTum, Demean : men- 
tioned together, Paus. x, 9, 7, as em- 
ployed on the Lakedaimonian votive 
offering set up at Delphoi in comme- 
moration of Aigospotamoi (b. c. 405). 

Lycium : as his father appears in 
the same Olympiad with Polykleitos, 
he is placed in the 01. of the sons of 
Polykleitos; but he was already a 
flourishing artist in B.C. 446, if Lolling 
(AeXTi'oy, 1889, p. i8i ff.) is right in 
referring the statues ofhorsemen (Paus. 
i, 22, 4), on whose basis his signature 
occurs, to the expedition of Perikles 
to Euboia. 

3. Kaucydes : § 80, son of Patro- 
kles (/. G. B. 86), and brother of 
Daidalos of Sikyon, Pans, vi, 34 ; 
/. G. B. 88-89. On his relation 
to the older Polykleitos, next to 
whose statue of Hera at Argos had 
stood a Hebe by Naukydes, Paus. 
ii.*i7, 4 (the two statues on coins of 
Argos.P. Gardner, iV«»«. Comm.l,xv), 
see Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 226, 
and cf. Robert, Arch. March, p. 104 ff. 



Dinomenes : below, § 76. 

4. Canachus, i.e. the younger: 
a Sikyonian and a pupil of Polykleitos 
(Paus. vi, 13, 7). His chronology, 
like that of Patrokles, is determined 
by the fact that he worked on the 
votive offering of Aigospotamoi (Paus. 
X, 9; ?)• 

Polycles : § 80. 

Cephisodotus ; father of Praxi- 
teles? (Brunn, ^. G. i. p. 269) or elder 
brother ? (Furtwangler, Masterpieces, 
p. 295). His chronology seems de- 
termined by his Eirene holding the 
infant Ploutos, which should probably 
be dated shortly after B. o. 375 ' to 
correspond with the institution of the 
annual offering to Eirene consequent 
on the victories of Timotheus' (Furt- 
wangler, loc. cit.). 

5. Leuehares = Leochares. Cf. 
Leutychides = Leotychides in Hero- 
dotos. For his works, see below, 79 
and xxxvi, 30. The extant dates for 
his activity are comprised between 
(a) a period previous to the banish- 
ment of Timotheus in B.C. 355, for 
whom he made a statue of Isokrates 
(Heliodoros ap. Ps. Plut. Vita X 
Orat. Isocr. 27), and (b) the year in the 
reign of Alexander, when, in conjunc- 
tion with Lysippos, he made Alex- 
ander's Lion Hunt (below on § 64). 

Hypatodorus : he is possibly 
identical with the H. who, in con- 
junction with another artist Sostratos, 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



39 



The following were pupils of Polykleitos, Argeios, Asopodoros, 50 
Alexis, Aristeides, \Phrynon, \Deinon, Atkenodoros, and Demeas of 
Kleitor. Myron was the master of Lykios. In the ninety-fifth 
Olympiad [400-397 b.c.J Naukydes flourished, with Deinomenes, 
Kanachos, and Patroklos ; in the hundred and second [372-369 
B.c.J, Polykles, Kephisodotos, Leuchares, Hypatodoros ; in the hun- 
dred and fourth [364-36 1 b. c], Praxiteles and Euphranor ; in 
the hundred and seventh [352-349 b.c.J, Action and \Therimachos. 
Lysippos lived in the hundred and thirteenth [328-325 B.c.J, in 51 
the days of Alexander the Great ; so also did his brother Lysi- 
stratos, as well as Sthennis, \Euphron, Sophokles, Sostratos, Hon, 



made for the Arkadian Aliphera (pre- 
vious to B.C. 372, see Brunn, K. G. ii, 
p. 295) a bronze Athena, Pans, viii, 26, 
5; Polyb. iv, 78. He must however be 
a distinct personality from the Hypato- 
doros who, with his colleague Aristo- 
geiton, made for a certain Orcho- 
menian the monument of which the 
inscribed basis is still extant (/. G. B. 
loi). The archaic style of the epi- 
graphy (Kirchhoff, Studien, 4th ed., 
p. 142, note l^ compels us to follow 
Robert {Hermes, xxv, 1890, p. 4i2ff., 
and Uall. Winckelmannspr. xviii, 
1895, P- 4^0 ™ referring the artists to 
the early part of the fifth century. To 
this date accordingly we must also refer 
their group set up at Delphoi by the 
Argives, whatever view we may take 
of the date of the Attico-Argive 
victory at Oinoe which the group 
commemorated, or was supposed to 
commemorate Paus. i, 10, 3 (see espe- 
cially Robert, //. cc, and Furtwiingler, 
Masterpieces, p. 41). 

Praxiteles : dated with reference 
to his activity in Mantineia (Paus. 
viii, 9, i), the third year of 01. 104 
(b. C. 462) being the date of the great 
battle (Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 21). 

Kuphranor : although he ap- 
pears here as a sculptor (§ 77), the 
cine to his date is afforded by his 
painting, in the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios 
at Athens (Paus. i. i, 4), of the cavalry 
engagement that preceded the battle 



of Mantineia (equeslre proelium, xxxv, 
129). 

6. Aetion, Ther. : Action being 
only knovm as a painter (xxxv, 78), 
and Therimachos being unknown ex- 
cept for this passage and xxxv, 78, 
it is reasonable to suppose with 
Furtwangler {loc. cit.) that the whole 
passage, centesima . . . Therimachus, 
has been interpolated from xxxv, 78. 

§ 51. 7- Lysippus : his d«;ji7 is 
determined by the central Olympiad 
of the reign of Alexander. (Loewy, 
Uniersuch. p. 64.) 

Lysistratus, xxxv, 153. 

8. Sthenis of Olynthos, inf. § 90. 
From /. G. B. 83 we learn that he 
was a fellow-worker of Leochares; and 
from /. G. B. 103' (cf. on /. G. B. 541, 
p. 370) that he was still active in the 
reign of Lysimachos (B. c. 306-281). 

Sofocles : Loewy's reading is 
made practically certain by BuUe's 
observation {Olympia, Bd. ii, p. 156) 
that the bases from the statues of 
riders by Sophokles at Olympia 
(/. G. B. 123-125) closely resemble, 
in form and profile, the basis (/. G. B. 
103") of Sthennis from the Amphia- 
reion at Oropos. This near connexion 
of the two artists explains the place 
assigned to them in the Plinian chrono- 
logy. 

Sostratus : probably identical with 
the Sostratos, son of Euphranor, 
/. C. B. los. 



4° 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



Silanion — in hoc mirabile quod nullo doctore nobilis fuit, 
ipse discipulum habuit Zeuxiaden — CXXI Eutychides, 
Euthycrates, Laippus, Cephisodotus.Timarchus, Pyromachus. 

52 cessavit deinde ars, ac rursus olympiade CLVI revixit, cum 
fuere longe quidem infra praedictos, probati tamen, Antaeus, 5 
Callistratus, Polycles Athenaeus, Callixenus, Pythocles, 

53 Pythias, Timocles. ita distinctis celeberrimorum aetatibus 
insignes raptim transcurram rehqua multitudine passim 
dispersa. venere autem et in certamen laudatissimi, quam- 
quam diversis aetatibus geniti, quoniam fecerant Amazonas, lo 
quae cum in templo Dianae Ephesiae dicarentur, placuit 
eligi probatissimam ipsorum artificum qui praesentes erant 
iudicio, cum apparuit earn esse quam omnes secundam a sua 
quisque iudicassent. haec est Polycliti, proxima ab ea Phidiae, 

54 tertia Cresilae, quarta Cydonis, quinta Phradmonis. Phidias i5 



1. Silanion : from Pans, vi, 4, 5 
we learn that he made a statue of 
Satyros of Elis, who appears as winner 
of a double victory in a catalogue of 
the Amphiaraia (C /. G. S. 414). 
According to a conjecture of J. Dela- 
marre (Reo. de Phil, xviii, p. 162 sqq^, 
this catalogue belongs to the same 
period as C.I. G.S. 4253 (under arch- 
onship of Niketas B. c. 332-1), and 
C. I. G. S. 4254 (archonship of Kephi- 
sophon B.C. 329-8). It would thus 
appear that the date assigned by Pliny 
to Seilanion is correct. For his works, 
cf below, 581. See Addenda. 

nullo doctore, i. c. his school dia- 
dochy had been lost ; cf. the similar 
case of Lysippos. Introd. p. xlvii £f. 

2. Zeuxiaden: known from one 
of the Mattel inscriptions (/. G. B. 483- 
485) as sculptor of a statue of Hype- 
reides (d. B. c. 322). See Addenda. 

Eutychides : below, § 78 ; xxxv, 
141. The date assigned to him by 
Pliny coincides approximately with 
the restoration of Anliocheia by Se- 
leukos, 01. 1 19, 3 = B. c. 302. For the 
new city E. made an allegorical figure 
of Tyche supported on the river-god 
Orontes — a work of which a copy has 



survived in the exquisite statue in the 
Vatican, Helbig, Class. Ant. 376. 

3. Euthycrates : § dd. Laippus 
{ibid.) = the Daippos of Pans, vi, 12, 
6 ; 16, 5. The name is coiTectly 
given below, § 87. Either Pliny in 
transcribing from the Greek mistook 
A for A, or he is quoting from a Lathi 
author who had already been guilty 
of the blunder. 

Cephisodotus, Timarchus : sons 
of Praxiteles, Vil. X Oral. Lykurg. 
38. The fact that they made a statue 
of Menander (Pans, i, 21, i, /. G. B. 
ioS = C. /. A. ii. 1370), who died 
B.C. 291, shows that they were 
older than the sons of Lysippos. 
After the great masters, their pupils 
are lumped together without any strict 
chronological order (cf. Furtwangler, 
Masterpieces, p. 309). 

Pyromachus : there appear to 
have been several artists of that name, 
see below on § 80, § 84 ; xxxv, 146. 

§ 52. 4. cessavit deinde ars : 
marks the end, not of a period of art, 
but of Pliny's main Greek authority 
(cf. the similar break in the account 
of the Painters, xxxv, 135), Brunn, 
K. G. i, p. 504 f. Between B. c. 296 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 4i 

and Seilanion. It is remarkable that Seilanion owed nothing to 

the instruction of any master ; his own pupil was Zeuxiades. In 

the hundred and twenty-first Olympiad [b. c. 296-293] came 

Eulychides, Euihykrates, Laippos, Kephisodotos, Timarchos, and 

Pyromachos. A period of stagnation followed, and again a revival 52 

in the hundred and fifty-sixth Olympiad [b.c. 156-153], the age of 

fAn/aios, Kallistratos, Polykles of Athens, iKallixenos, \Pythokles, 

^Pythias and Timokles, artists of merit, but still far below those 

already mentioned. 

Having given the dates of the most celebrated artists, I shall ^, . 
, , , J The five 

touch briefly on the great names, and group the others under most 

various heads. The most famous artists, although born at some/''"'''"* 

distance of time from each other, still came into competition, since Amazons 

each had made a statue of an Amazon, to be dedicated in the/'"'.?.'^'""' 

petition. 
temple of Artemis at Ephesos, when it was decided that the prize 

should be awarded to the one which the artists themselves, who 

were on the spot, declared to be the best. This proved to be the 

statue which each artist placed second to his own, namely that of 

Polykleitos ; the statue of Pheidias was second, that of Kresilas 

third, Kydon's fourth, and Phradmon's fifth. 

Besides his Olympian Zeus, a work which has no rival, Pheidias 54 

and the 'revival' in B.C. 156 came types, distinct in conception, but vrith 

the great school of Pergamon, which externalresemblancesoftype and dress 

Pliny omits in his chronological table, have been identified (Fnrtwangler, 

but which he mentions below, § 84. Masterpieces, p. 128 ff.), the story of 

The revixit in B. c. 156 appears con- the competition contains a kernel of 

nected with the family of Polykles, truth. Two of the extant statuary 

father of Timokles and Timarchides types can be traced back to Kresilas 

(below, I 92 ; xxxvi, 35), and grand- and Polykleitos respectively, 
father of Polykles II and of Dionysios, 11. placuit . . . iudicassent : we 

who made the statues for the temples have here in another garb the iden- 

of Juno and Jupiter erected by Q. tical anecdote told by Herodotos, viii, 

Metellus Macedonicns, B.C. 149, cf. 123, Plut. 7%fwzzV^. xvii, of the allot- 

Gyn\\\X,Pausanias,^. 361 ff. ; Loewy, ting of the prize of valour after Salamis. 
I. C.B.^. IIJ. 15. Cresilae . . . Cydonis. In 

6. Callistratus : perhaps iden- three out of the four extant inscriptions 

tical with the artist mentioned, Tatian of his name, Kresilas calls himself 

p. 36, 14, ed. Schwartz (Brunn, K. G. KvSavtiTtjs (7. G. B. it^-'tJ I for the in- 

i> P- 635)- scription recently foimd at Delphoi cf. 

§ 53. 9. quamciuam . . . geniti : Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 116) ; it 

by which Pliny attempts to reconcile is evident that Pliny's Latin author 

his chronology (where Polykleitos is in transcribing from the Greek forged 

placed twenty-eight years after Phei- out of a form TLiZav, the name of a 

dias) with the story of the competition. fifth artist (cf. O. Jahn, Sacks. Bet, 

10, Amazouas : since foarAmazon 1850, p. 37). 



43 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



praeter lovem Olympium quern nemo aemulatur fecit ex 
ebore aeque Minervam Athenis, quae est in Parthenone stans, 
ex acre vero praeter Amazonem supra dictam Minervam 
tarn eximiae pulchritudinis ut formae cognomen acceperit. 
fecit et cliduchum et aliam Minervam quam Romae Paulus s 
Aemilius ad aedem Fortunae Huiusce Diei dicavit, item duo 
signa quae Catulus in eadem aede palliata et alterum 
colossicon nudum, primusque artem toreuticen aperuisse 
55 atque demonstrasse merito iudicatur. Polyclitus Sicy- 
onius Hageladae discipulus diadumenum fecit molliter lo 
iuvenem centum talentis nobilitatum, idem et doryphorum 
viriliter puerum. fecit et quem canona artifices vocant linia- 
menta artis ex eo petentes veluti a lege quadam, solusque 
hominum artem ipsam fecisse artis opere iudicatur. fecit 



554. I. lovem Olympium: 
xxxvi, 18, where the gold-ivory 
Minerva is also described. 

3. Minervam . . . pulchr. : i.e. 
the bronze Athena surnamed the 
' Lemnia,' Pans, i, 38, 2 ; Lucian, 
fiic6vei 4 ; for extant copies of the 
statue, Furtwangler, Masterpieces, pp. 
4 ff. ; see Add. 

5. oliduohum : votive portrait 
statue of a priestess, same subject by 
Euphranor, below § 78. See Add. 

P. Aemilius : probably on the 
occasion of his triumph after Pydna 
(b. c. 168). For the magnificent 
statues and works of art which he 
brought from Makedonia see Liv. 
xlv, 33 ; they filled 250 chariots 
which graced his triumph. Plut. Aem. 
Fault. 32 ; cf. Veil. Pater, i, 9. 

6. Portunae Huiusce Diei : on 
the Palatine where was » Vicus 
huiusce diei (Gilbert, iii, p. 422); 
there was another temple of Forluna 
H. D. in campo (see R. Peter ap. 
Roscher, i, 1514. C. I. L. i, p. 298 f.). 

7. Catulus : i. c. the Elder, who 
on- the day of the battle against the 
Cimbri ev^aro . . , dvaffxojv tols x«joas 
KaOteptjjffciv rffv rvxqv ^fiepas exeivTjs. 
Plut. Marius, 26: Plin. xvii, 2. Whence 
Catulus obtained these Pheidian works 



remains uncertain. Cf. Urlichs, Gr. 
Statuen in Kep. Mom, p. 9 f. 

palliata : i. e. portraits (cf. the pal- 
liati, XXXV, 136), while the colossus 
nudus presumably represented a hero 
or local god; cf. H. L. Urlichs in 
Woch.f. Ktass. Phitol. 1894, 488. 

alterum : the duo palliata are 
to be considered as one group, in 
apposition to alterum, by an extension 
of the construction of xix, 34 ; xxi, 
128 ; XX, 9 ; XXXV, 71. H. L. Urlichs 
loc. cit. See Addenda to p. 38, 5. 

8. primusque aperuisse : this 
criticism forms, together with the 
similar criticisms attached to Myron, 
Polykleitos, Pythagoras and Lysippos, 
a consecutive canon or series of axioms 
intended to link with definite great 
names the successive steps in the 
development of bronze-casting. After 
Pheidias, the reputed discoverer of the 
possibilites of the art, each artist is 
appraised in his relation to symmetry, 
the highest award falling to Lysippos, 
Otto Jahn, Kunsturtheile des Ft. p. 
128 if.; C. Robert, Arch. March. 
p. 28 ff. For the author of the verdicts 
cf below ou § 56. Introd. p. xvi ff. 

toreuticen; a term applied by 
Pliny to the whole of statuary as 
opposed to pictura (cf. xxxv, 77), 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



43 



made in ivory the Athena at Athens, which stands erect in the Artists of 
Parthenon. In bronze, besides the Amazon already mentioned, -^7«S* 
he made an Athena of such passing beauty that she was sur- 
named the Fair. He also made a Key-Bearer, or KXfihovxps, 
another Athena which Aemilius Paullus dedicated at Rome in 
front of the temple of the Fortune of the Day, two draped 
statues dedicated by Catulus in the same temple, and a nude 
colossal statue. He is rightly held to have first revealed the 
capabilities of sculpture and indicated its methods. 

Polykleitos of Sikyon was a pupil of Hagelaidas. He made 55 
an athlete binding the diadem about his head, which was famous ^fsik"on 
for the sum of one hundred talents [£21,000 circ] which it 
realized. This hia&oijievos has been described as 'a man, yet 
a boy': the Sopv(j>6pos or spear-bearer as 'a boy, yet a man.' 
He also made the statue which sculptors call the 'canon,' 
referring to it as to a standard from which they can learn the 
first rules of their art. He is the only man who is held to have 
embodied the principles of his art in a single work. He also made 



while Statuaria ars is, according to 
Latin usage, reserved for bronze statu- 
ary; cf. § 35 ; § 65; XXXV, 156; xxxvi, 
15, 37- 

§ 55. 9. Sioyonius : by Plato 
(JProtag. p. 311 C) Pol. is called 
'A/)7cfor; cf. also I.G.B. 91; Furt- 
wangler. Masterpieces, p. 355 ff. It 
is natural that a confusion as to 
the exact place of his birth should 
have arisen, as his family appear to 
have migrated from Argos to Sikyon 
(/. G. B. 89). 

10. Hag. discipulus : this is chro- 
nologically impossible — the activity 
of Hagelaidas reaching back as far as 
01. 65 = B.C. 530, that of Polykleitos 
as low down as 01. 90 = B. c. 420 
(above, § 49), Robert, Arc/i. Mdrchen, 
p. 92 ff. By a loose juxtaposition the 
greatest Argive master in the fifth 
century is made into the pupil of the 
greatest Argive master in the sixth. 

diadumenum . . . puerum : 
the neat antithesis points to an epi- 
gram as the source of this statement; 
Dilthey, Rhein. Mas. xxvi, p. 290. 



The Doryphoros represented an 
athlete carrying his palaistric javelin. 
Themost complete copy of theDiadou- 
menos is the Vaison statue {Br. Mus. 
Cat. i, 500) ; of the Doryphoros the 
statue in Naples (CoUignon, Sculpture 
Grecque, i, pi. xii). See Addenda. 

11. oentum taleutis; cf. vii, 126, 
where the same price is paid by 
Attalos for a picture by Aristeides of 
Thebes. Introd. p. Ixxxiv. 

12. et quemcanona: the 'canon' 
was, however, identical with the 
Doryphoros (see the passages Schrift- 
quell. 953 ff.). It erroneously appears 
here as a separate statue, the comment 
on the Doryphoros qua canon being, 
as Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 229, 
note 4, detected, taken from a different 
source to what precedes ; cf. Miinzer, 
Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 530, note i. 

14. artem Ipsam fecisse : ap- 
parently an allusion to the treatise 
on art by Polykleitos, called the 
Canon. What Pliny states in 
epigrammatic form is told more 
plainly by Galenos isifX rSiv 'limoKf, 



44 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



et destringentem se et nudum telo incessentem duosque 
pueros item nudos talis ludentes qui vocantur astragali- 
zontes et sunt in Titi imperatoris atrio — hoc opere nullum 

56 absolutius plerique indicant — item Mercurium qui fuit Lysi- 
macheae, Herculem qui Romae, hagetera arma sumentem, 5 
Artemona qui periphoretos appellatus est. hie consummasse 
hanc scientiam iudicatur et toreuticen sic erudisse ut Phidias 
aperuisse. proprium eius est uno crura ut insisterent signa 
excogitasse, quadrata tamen esse ea ait Varro et paene ad 

57 unum exemplum. Myronem Eleutheris natum Hageladae et lo 
ipsum discipulum bucula maxime nobilitavit celebratis ver- 
sibus laudata, quando alieno plerique ingenio magis quam 
suo commendantur. fecit et canem et discobolon et Perseum 

I . telo] Benndoif in Gesammelte Stud, zur Kunstgesch. Festschr. fiir A, 
Springer, 1885,^0^. 260; taXo codd. Deile/sen. 3. z;«</a Addenda. 



Kai nXttT. Soy fjt. 5 : (pyq) rbv \6yov 
6/f/3ejSafa;fff, SrjiMovpyqaas avSpt&VTa 
KarcL rd tou X6yov irpoffrdyfjiaTa Kot 
KoXeaas 5^ Kai avrov rhv avbptdvTa 
KaBa-mp teal rb aiyy pap, jjui, icav6va ; 
cf. XXXV, 74 (Timanthes) pinxit et 
heroa . . . artem ipsani complexus 
viros pingendi. Introd. p. xli. 

1 . destringentem se : i. e. an 

telo incessentem : Furtwangler 
{^Masterpieces, p. 249) compares Ovid, 
Metam. 14, 402 saevisque parant 
incessere telis. See also Woelfflin, 
in ArchivfUr Lat. Lexicogr. ix, 1894, 
p. 119 ff. Addenda. 

2. astragalizontes : [possibly for 
a votive or grave monument, Woch. 

f. Klass. Phil. 1895, 548. For a 
kindred subject on a Roman sarko- 
phagos, see Helbig, Class. Ant. 97. 
— H. L. U.] See Add. to p. 42, 5. 

3. et sunt . . . atrio : this addition 
concerning the Roman locality of the 
astragalizontes is loosely co-ordinated 
to the main account ; cf. Oehmichen, 
Blin.Studien,^. 119. Introd. p. xxxvii. 

§ 56. 4. fuit : before the destruc- 
tion of Lysimachea by the Thracians in 
01. i45,4=B.c. i97(Liv.xxxiii,38,ii). 

Lysimacheae: built B.C. 309 by 



Lysimachos in the Thracian Cher- 
sonnese. Where the statue had pre- 
viously stood is not knovifn. 

5. hagetera : the Doric form 
points to a metrical epigram which 
was doubtless inscribed on the basis 
of the statue ; cf. H. L. Urlichs in 
Woch.f. Klass. Phil. 1894, p. 1299 ff. 

6. Artemona : according to 
Ephoros {ap. Plut Per. 27), A. was an 
engineer who directed the blockading 
works during the siege of Samos by 
Perikles. Ovring to his lameness, he 
was carried about in a litter, whence 
he received the surname Periphoretos. 
Plutarch adds, however, that the story 
was confuted by Herakleides of Pontes, 
who showed from Anakreon (cf. 
Bergk, Poetae Lyr. iii, p. 261, Fr. 
21-46, where see note), that Art. 
Periphoretos lived long before the 
Samian war. It is evident that there 
was contaminatio between the two 
namesakes, the engineer becoming 
credited with the surname of the 
notorious voluptuary, while the story 
of the lameness was invented to ac- 
count for it. Addenda. 

7. hano scientiam : harks back 
to § 54 Phidias . . . primus artem 
toreuticem aperuisse. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 45 

an athlete scraping himself, a nude figure advancing with a weapon, 
and two boys, also nude, playing with knucklebones, who are known 
as the do-T/iayaXt'foiTf £ [dlcc-players], and are now in the Hall of the 
Emperor Titus. Many people think that the faultless execution 
of this work has never been surpassed. Other works of his are 56 
a Hermes, which was at Lysimacheia ; a Herakles at Rome ; 
a captain or iyirrip putting on his armour j and finally a portrait 
of Artemon, known by the name of jrepi(j>6i>T]Tos or ' Man in the 
litter.' He is considered to have brought the scientific knowledge 
of statuary to perfection, and to have systematized the art of 
which Pheidias had revealed the possibilities. It was his peculiar 
characteristic to represent his figures resting their weight on one 
leg ; Varro however says that they are square and almost exactly 
after the same type. 

Myron was born at Eleutherai, and was also a pupil of 57 
Hagelaidas. He is best known by his heifer, thanks to the well- £^^t"frai. 
known verses written upon it, for people very generally owe 
their reputation to the talent of others, rather than their own. 
He also made a dog, and a fiio-xo^oXof, or athlete hurling the 
disk, a Perseus, sawyers, a Satyr gazing with wonder at the 

8. uno crure ut insisterent: ladae: the pupilship can neither be 
implies a shifting of the weight from proved nor disproved ; possibly, how- 
one leg to the other in the act of ever, the tradition only arose from a 
walking, and therefore accurately general likeness between the early 
describes the favourite Polykleitan works of Myron and those of Hage- 
attitude of ' arrested motion.' Had laidas. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, 
the figure been represented at rest p. 196. Introd. p. li, note 6. 

with its whole weight on one leg, the Sleutheris : on the frontier 

expression used must have been uni between Boeotia and Attica (cf. 

cruri insist., MichaeUs, Ann. d. Inst. I. G. B. 417). 

1878, p. 29 (cf. J. Lange, Frem- 11. bucula: the heifer (doubtless 

stilling, p. 466). a votive offering) had originally stood 

9. quadrata ... ait Varro : the in Athens, Cic. Verr. II, iv, 60, § 135. 
mention of Varro shows that the Later it was transferred to Rome, 
criticism of Polykleitos and conse- where Prokopios (5«//. Goth, iv, 21) 
quently the kindred criticisms of the saw it in the Forum Pads. — No less 
remaining four artists were derived than thirty-eight of the epigrams 
from him, though Varro himself was of alluded to are extant (collected in 
course drawing directly or indirectly Overbeck, Schriftquell. 550-588). 
from a Greek author, whom we now 1 3. canem : votive-offering, cf. 
know to have been Xenokrates of Antk.Pal.m, 175; 176. The list of 
Sikyon (§ 83), Introd. p. xvi ff. works down to Delph. pentathlon is 

quadrata = rerpw^oiva, cf. Plato, alphabetic (Petersen, A. Z. xxxviii, 
Protag. 344 a. 1S80, p. 25). 

§ 57. 10. Myronem . . . Hage- disoobolon : the best copy is 



46 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



et pristas et Satyrum admirantem tibias et Minervam, 
Delphicos pentathlos, pancratiastas, Herculem qui est apud 
circum maximum in aede Pompei Magni. fecisse et cicadae 
monumentum ac locustae carminibus suis Erinna significat. 

58 fecit et Apollinem quern ab triumviro Antonio sublatum 5 
restituit Ephesiis divus Augustus admonitus in quiete. 
primus hie multiplicasse veritatem videtur, numerosior in 
arte quam Polyclitus et in symmetria diligentior, et ipse 
tamen corporum tenus curiosus animi sensus non expressisse, 
capillum quoque et pubem non emendatius fecisse quam 10 

59 rudis antiquitas instituisset. vicit eum Pythagoras Re- 
ginus ex Italia pancratiaste Delphis posito ; eodem vicit 
et Leontiscum ; fecit et stadiodromon Astylon qui Olympiae 
ostenditur et Libyn, puerum tenentem tabellam eodem loco 
et mala ferentem nudum, Syracusis autem claudicantem, 15 



14. loco, et Detlefsen. 



in Palazzo Lancellotti (Collignon, 
Sculpture Grecque, i, pi. xi). 

Peraeum : presumably identical 
with the Perseus by Myron on the 
Akropolis (Pans, i, 23, 'j). 

I. pristas : Dalecampius was the 
first to give the true meaning of the 
word ; Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, 
p. 89, note 30, correctly explained 
the curious subject as a votive offering; 
cf. H. L. Urlichs in Woch. f. Klass. 
Phil. 1893, p. 220 f. See Addenda. 
Satyrum . . . et Minervam = 
Pans, i, 24, I ; Collignon, Sculpture 
Grecque, i, p. 465 f. Petersen, loc. 
cit., showed that the two must be 
considered as one group owing to the 
alphabetical enumeration noted above. 
3. in aede Pompei Magni : 
this new temple of H. was presum- 
ably near to the ara maxima in the 
foro boario, the chief centre of the 
hero's worship (Gilbert iii, p. 434 ; 
cf. H. Peter ap. Roscher i, 2918 ; cf. 
above on § 33 ; xxxv, 19). Pompeius 
had probably dedicated it on the 
occasion of his last triumph in B.C. 6t, 
and brought the Herakles from Asia 
Minor (cf. Urlichs, Chrest. p. 139). 



Herculis 



Vitr. 3, 2, 5 : aedes 
Pompeiani. 

4. Srinna: Hardouin (1685) had 
already detected that this ridiculous 
statement arose from a confusion be- 
tween Mvpiiv and the maiden Mvpii, for 
whom the poetess Erinna must have 
written an elegy similar to the ex- 
tant one by Anyte {Ani/t. vii, 190). 
'AitpiSi ra KaT* apovpav aijdovi adt 

SpvoKoira 
TGTTiyi ^whv TvfiPov erev^a Mvpccr, 

§ 58. 5. sublatum restituit : cf. 
Man. Anc. (xxiv) iv, 49-5 1 : /« 
templis omnium civitatium provinciae 
Asiae victor ornanienta reposui. quae 
spoliatis templis is cum quo helium 
gesseram privatimpossederat. Momm- 
sen. Res Gestae, p. 95 f. MUnzer, 
op. cit. p. 545, suspects the Ephesian 
story of being a doublette of Augustus' 
restoration of Myronian works to 
Samos, recounted Strabo xiv, i, 14. 

7.. multiplicasse veritatem : ex- 
plained byBrunn {K. C i, p. 151) to 
mean that Myron ' widened the range 
of representation in art, inasmuch as 
he laid hold on moments disclosed by 
attentive observation of nature, but not 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



47 



pipes and Athena, winners in the five contests at Delphoi, 
pankratiasts, and the Herakles which is near the great Circus 
in the temple of the great Pompeius. A poem by Erinna also tells 
us that he made the monument of a cicada and a locust ; he also 58 
made the Apollo which was taken from the Ephesians by the' 
triumvir Antonius, and restored to them by the god Augustus, in 
obedience to a dream. He was apparently the first to multiply 
truth ; he was more productive than Polykleitos, and a more 
diligent observer of symmetry. Still he too only cared for the 
physical form, and did not express the sensations of the mind, 
and his treatment of the hair of the head and of the pubes con- 
tinued to betray an archaic want of skill. 

Pythagoras of Rhegion in Italy surpassed Myron with the 59 
pankratiast placed at Delphoi ; with the same statue he also sur- Pp^'^'^,"^ 
passed Leontiskos. He further made the statues of the runner 
Astylos and of a Libyan, which are to be seen at Olympia ; for the 
same place he made the boy holding a tablet, and a nude male 
figure bearing apples. At Syracuse is a statue by him of a man 



utilized before.' A striking example 
of course is the Diskobolos, represented 
in the act of hurling the disk. 

nmnerosior : cf. xxxv, 1 30, dili- 
gentior quam numerosior ; ibid. § 138 
numerosaque tabula [numerosus in 
Pliny always of number; cf. vii, 101, 
143; A, 176 numerosiora in fetu; 
XV, 8, and often.— H. L. U.]. 

9. animi sensus : the translation 
given above is from Pater, Greek 
Sttidies, p. 301. 

§ 59. 12. eodem . . . Xisontiscum : 
Leontiskos was a winner both in the 
Pythian and Olympic games, whose 
portrait was made by Pythagoras 
(Pans, vi, 4, 3). He figures here 
as an artist, doubtless through mis- 
understanding of some Greek sen- 
tence such as iviKa koX tovtov iroiwv «ai 
AeovTia/tov, i. e. ' he conquered, both 
when he made the pankratiast and 
when he made the Leontiskos' 
(Urlichs, JiAein. Mus. 1S89, p. 261). 

13. Astylon: Pans, vi, 13, x. 

qui Olympiae ostenditur : 
belongs to Libyn as well as to 



Astylon. In the following sentence, 
likewise, eodem loco belongs to both 
puerum and mala ferentem nudum ; 
cf. the analogous construction in xxxiii, 
5 murrina ex eodem tellure et cry- 
stalina effodimus. (H. L. Urlichs in 
Gorlitz. Verhandl. p. 330.) 

14. Libyn, i. e. Mnaseas of Kyrene. 
Pans, vi, 13,7 ; 18, i. 

puerum . . . tabellam: pro- 
bably an iconic mvaxiov, Reisch, 
Weihgeschenhe, p. 44. The statue 
may be identical with that of the boy 
victor Protolaos, Pans, vi, 6, i ; cf. 
H. L. Urlichs, loc. cit. See Addenda. 

15. mala ferentem : cf. the statue 
of Theognetos, who carried mrvos t^s 
7' ^/j-epov xal /5mSj KapirSv, Pans, vi, 

■ 9, I. Pythagoras's statue of Euthy- 
mos (7. G. B. 29, Pans, vi, 6, 4-6) is 
mentioned in Bk. vii, 152. 

elaudicantem : the identifica- 
tion of this statue with a wounded 
Philoktetes is due to Gronovius (Bliim- 
ner, Comm. to Lessing's Laokoon, 
p. 508 f). The following words 
cuius . . , videntur are evidently epi- 



48 C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

cuius ulceris dolorem sentire etiam spectantes videntur, item 
ApoUinem serpentemque eius sagittis configi, citharoedum, 
qui Dicaeus appellatus est, quod, cum Thebae ab Alexandre 
caperentur, aurum a fugiente conditum sinu eius celatum 
asset, hie primus nervos et venas expressit capillumque 5 

60 diligentius. fuit et alius Pythagoras Samius, initio pictor, 
cuius signa ad aedem Fortunae Huiusce Diei septem 
nuda et senis unum laudata sunt, hie supra dicto facie 
quoque indiscreta similis fuisse traditur, Regini autem 

61 discipulus et filius sororis fuisse Sostratus. Lysippum 10 
Sicyonium Duris negat uUius fuisse discipulum, sed primo 
aerarium fabrum audendi rationem cepisse pictoris Eupompi 
response, eum enim interrogatum, quem sequeretur ante- 
cedentium, dixisse monstrata hominum multitudine naturam 

62 ipsam imitandam esse, non artificem. plurima ex omnibus 15 
signa fecit, ut diximus, fecundissimae artis, inter quae destrin- 
gentem se quem M. Agrippa ante Thermas suas dicavit 
mire gratum Tiberio principi. non quivit temperare sibi in 
eo, quamquam imperiosus sui inter initia principatus, trans- 

grammatic ; Anth. Plan, iv, II3, of § 60. 6. fuit et alius : in Paus. 

a broDze Philoktetes, seems to refer vi, 4, 3, Pythagoras is called ■p?;7ri'os, 

to the work of Pythagoras, the un- and immediately after (vi, 6, 4) he is 

usual omission of the name of the named as the artist of the statue of 

hero portrayed accounting for its Euthymos. Now on the basis of the 

omission by Pliny (cf. Brunn, K. G. i, Euthymos (/. G. B. 23). Pythagoras 

p. 134). signs himself "SAixios; it is clear 

2. configi : for the construction therefore that the Samius and the 

cf. XXXV, 144 (pinxif) ab Oreste ma- Rheginus were one and the same per- 

trem et Aegisthum interfici. son. He was probably among the 

citharoedum ; a Theban poet Samians who migrated to Italy in Ol. 

named Kleon. The inscription on his 71 (Herod, vi, 23) and became subjects 

statue is quoted by Athenaios, i, of Anaxilas of Rhegion (Loewy on 

p. 19 b, who adds the story of the /. G. B. 23). He evidently signed 

gold on the authority of Polemon ; cf. sometimes with the one sometimes 

Preger, Inscripiiones, 140. with the other ethnic, a fact which 

5. hio primus nervos: his rela- misled some art historian into dividing 

tion to symmetry is not given by him into two persons. A critic cor- 

Pliny. It is preserved however, rected this blunder and stated his belief 

by Diogenes Laertios viii, 46 : 01 h\ (hat the two were identical, a remark 

KoJ . . . dvSpiavTOTTOtbv 'Fr;yTvov ye- which would afford the clue to Pliny's 

yovivai <paai livB. irpHiTOV Soicovvra ridiculous statement about the like- 

fivB/iov xal (Tv/JiaeTpias iaroxaaSai. ness. It is noteworthy that Diogenes 

Koi aWov avSpiavTotroibv 'Saiuov (loc. cit.) is likewise guilty of dividing 

(Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 70). the sculptor into two. 



I //. BRONZE STATUARY 49 

limping, the pain of whose ulcer even the spectators seem to feel. 
He also made an Apollo piercing a serpent with his arrows, and 
a man with a cithara, which bears the name of SUaws [the Just], 
because when Thebes was taken by Alexander, a fugitive concealed b.c. 335. 
some money in its bosom, where it remained safely hidden. He 
was the first to make the sinews and veins duly prominent, and 
to bestow greater pains on the hair. A second Pythagoras, 60 
a Samian, was a painter in early life. Near the temple of the 
Fortune of the Day are seven nude figures by him, and an 
old man, which are praised. According to tradition his personal 
resemblance to the other Pythagoras was so strong that the two 
could be mistaken ; it was the Rhegine Pythagoras, however, of 
whom Sostratos was the pupil and nepjiew. ^ „ ^ 

Duris declares that Lysippos of Sikyon was no man's pupil ;'.§i;' 
that he was originally a coppersmith, and was encouraged to ven- gf stkyon. 
ture on a higher path by the words of Eupompos. That painter 
when asked which of the earlier artists he followed, pointed to 
a crowd of people, and replied that nature should be imitated 
and not any artist. Lysippos produced more works than any 62 
other artist, possessing, as I have said, a most prolific genius. 
Among them is the ii^n sMapingJiimself, which Marcus Agrippa 
dedicated in front of his baths. In this statue the Emperor 
Tiberius took a marvellous delight, and though capable of self- ',' 

6. initio piotor: so of Pheidias Sostratus see Munzer, Hermes, 1895, 
XXXV, 54. p. .i;33. 

7. ad aedem Fortunae H. D. : § 61. 11. negatulliusfuissediaoi- 
aboTe § 64 ■; it seems to have con- pulum : In other words the name of 
tained a real Museum; the septem his master was lost, ct Seiknion 
signa need not have formed a group, above § 6') Protogenes in xxxv, loi. 
but were seven athlete statues, col- 12. pietoiis Eupompi : xxxv, 75, 
lected together into one place for the among the aequales et aemuli of 
first time at Rome. To these was Zeuxis. On chronological grounds 
added the portrait of an old man by there is nothing to prevent Eupompos 
the same artist (cf. H. L. Urlichs in as an old man from having known the 
Woch. f. Klass. Phil. 1894, p. 488, young Lysippos. The anecdote, how- 
and Sauer, Anfdnge d. Stat. Grupfe, ever, was probably concocted in order 
p. 20, note 73). to bring into connexion the greatest 

8. facie quoque indisoreta : cf. painter and the greatest sculptor of 
the similar expressions above § 38 ; Sikyon ; cf. Introd. p. xlvii f. 

vii, 53; xxxv, 88 similitudinis in- 14. naturam . . . non artiflcem : a 

discretae, Sfc. hit at the schools which worked accord- 

10. Sostratus: his identity with ing to a fixed cokcw. Introd. p. xlviii. 

Sostratos, sixth in artistic descent §62. 16. utdiximus : above, § 37. 

from Aristokles of Sikyon (Pans, vi, 17. ttermas: at the back of the 

9, 3), is quite doaibtful. On this Pantheon. See Addenda. 

E 



5° 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



tulitque in cubiculum alio signo substitute, cum quidem tanta 
populi Romani contumacia fuit ut theatri clamoribus reponi 
apoxyomenon flagitaverit princepsque quamquam adamr.tum 

63 reposuerit. nobilitatur Lysippus et temulenta tibicina et 
canibus ac venatione, in primis vero quadriga cum Sole 5 
Rhodiorum. fecit et Alexandrum Magnum multis operibus 

a pueritia eius orsus. quam statuam inaurari iussit Nero 
princeps delectatus admodum ilia, dein, cum pretio perisset 
gratia artis, detractum est aurum, pretiosiorque talis existima- 
batur etiam cicatricibus operis atque concisuris in quibus 10 

64 aurum haeserat remanentibus. idem fecit Hephaestionem 
Alexandri Magni amicum, quern quidam Polyclito ad- 
scribunt, cum is centum prope annis ante fuerit, item 
Alexandri venationem quae Delphis sacrata est, Athenis 
Satyrum, turmam Alexandri in qua amicorum eius imagines 15 

A.u.c. 608. summa omnium similitudine expressit — banc Metellus Mace- 
donia subacta transtulit Romam — fecit et quadrigas multo- 

65 rum generum. statuariae arti plurimum traditur contulisse 



§ 63. 4. temulenta tibicitia : a 
votive or grave statue, cf. the anus 
ebria of Myron, xxxvi, 32 ; the fsal- 
tria by the painter Leontiskos, xxxv, 
141, &c. 

5. canibus ao venationo : cf. the 
Alexandri ven. below, § 64. Large 
hunting groups came largely into 
vogue from Alexaniier onwards ; cf. 
Kuhnert, Statue und Ort, p. 331. Ur- 
lichs {Skopas, p. 196) believes that the 
fine fragment of a rider from the 
Mausoleion (Brit. Mus.) had formed 
part of such a group. 

Sole Bhodiorum : for a head of 
Helios with Lysippian characteristics, 
found in Rh odes, cf Hartwig, ' Testa di 
Helios,' Rom. Mitlh. ii, pp. 159-166. 

6. Alexandr. Magnum : the most 
famous was the Alexander with the 
snear (Plut. itipi t^s 'hK. tix^^ ii, 
2) ; the motive seems reproduced in 
the nude bronze portrait in the Terme 
Mus. (Helbig, Class. Ant. 1052 ; 
Ant. Denkm. i, 5; Furt dangler, 
Masterpieces, p. 364, n. :.). For 



portraits of Alexander see Koepp, 
Winckelmannsprogramm, 1892. The 
story told in Bk. vii, 125 (cf. Plut. 
Alex, iv), that Lysippos alone was 
privileged to make bronze statues of 
Alexander, must like the similar stories 
of Apelles (xxxv, 85) and Pyrgoteles 
(xxxvii, 8) be accepted cum grano. 

% 64. 13. cum is centum prope 
annis : Pliny's difficulty arises from his 
only knowing of the Elder and more 
famous Polykleitos, whereas a younger 
P. is known from Pans, vi, 6, 3 (also 
/. G. B. 92). Since the greater artists 
often become credited with the works 
of their less illustrious confreres, it is 
probable that, as Loeschcke {A. Z. 
1878, p. 10 ff.) has already pointed 
out, the Hephaistion really was by the 
younger Polykleitos. So too a number 
of the works by the pupils of Pheidias 
cnme to be reckoned as by the master 
himself. Introd. p. xciii. 

14. venationem . . . Delphis : 
dedicated by Krateros on the occasion 
narrated by Plutarch {Alex. 40), who 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 51 

control in the first years of his reign, he could not refrain from 
having the statue removed into his private chamber, substituting 
another in its place. The populace of Rome resented this so 
deeply that they raised an outcry in the theatre, demanding the 
restitution of the mro^vofievos, to which the emperor was fain to 

yield, in spite of the passion he had conceived for the statue. 

Lysippos has also won fame by his drunken flute-player, his dogs es 
and huntsmen, and above all by the four-horse chariot and the 
figure of the Sun made for the Rhodians. He also made a number 
of portraits of Alexander the Great, beginning with one of him as 
a boy, which the Emperor Nero, who was greatly charmed with the 
statue, ordered to be gilded. Then, as this costly addition spoiled 
the beauty of the work, the gold was removed, and the statue was 
considered more valuable without it, in spite of the scars upon it 
and the incisions for fixing the gold. Further he made a statue 64 
of Hephaistion, the friend of Alexander the Great, which some 
ascribe to Polykleitos, although that artist lived almost a hundred 
years earlier. We have also from his hand an Alexander in 
a hunting group, which is consecrated at Delphoi, a Satyr at 
Athens and a troop of Alexander's bodyguard, in which all his 
friends' portraits are rendered with great fidelity. This group 
was transported to Rome by Metellus after the conquest of 146 b.c. 
Makedonia. By Lysippos also are various four-horse chariots. His 65 
chief- cantrjbutions^ to -the art of sculpture are said to consist 

states that the work was executed which -would serve Lysippos as guide; 

conjointly with Leochares. According cf. the undoubted portraits on the 

to Loeschcke {Jahrh. iii, 1888, p. 'Alexander' sarkophagos from Sidon, 

139!) an echo of this work has sur- where, however, we can hardly suppose 

vived on a relief from Messene in the the persons represented to have given 

Louvre {loc. cit. pi. vii), cf. also Hans the artist sittings. 

Dragendorff, Terra Sigillata, p. 57. 16. Maoedoniasubaota: thegroup 

15. turmam Alexandri: i.e. the had stood in Dion, probably in the 

twenty-five officers who had fallen in temenos of Zens, where were the statues 

the first attack at the Granikos. A of the Makedonian kings (Heuzey, 

statue of Alexander formed the centre Mont Olymfe, p. 1 1 8). Arrian, writing 

of the group. Veil. Paterc. i, II, 3. A.D. 124, mentions it as still at 

amieorum . . . imagines : this Dion, probably because he is quoting 

assertion has been supposed to clash from some life of Alexander written 

with the statement that the dead -H-ere previous to the Roman conquest, 

buried on the battle-field (Arrian i, 17. Bomam: first in the forticus 

16, 6). But seeing how extensively Melelli, which was afterwards ab- 

portraiture was encouraged in the sorbed into i\ieporticus Oclaviae (Veil, 

circle of Alexander, there doubtless Paterc. loc. ai.). The statues were on 

were extant portraits of the officers, the area (cf. Varro «/. Macrob. iii, 

F. 1 



52 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

capillum exprimendo, capita minora faciendo quam antiqui, 
corpora graciliora siccioraque, per quae proceritas signorum 
maior videretur. non habet Latinum nomen symmetria 
quam diligentissime custodit nova intactaque ratione qua- 
dratas veterum staturas permutando, vulgoque dicebat ab 5 
illis factos quales essent homines, a se quales viderentur esse, 
propriae huius videntur esse argutiae operum custoditae in 

66 minimis quoque rebus, filios et discipulos reliquit laudatos 
artifices Laippum, Boedan, sed ante omnes Euthycraten, 
quamquam is constantiam potius imitatus patris quam lo 
elegantiam austere maluit genere quam iucundo placere. 
itaque optime expressit Herculem Delphis et Alexandrum 
Thespis venatorem et Thespiadas, proelium equestre, simu- 
lacrum ipsum Trophonii ad oraculum, quadrigas complures, 

67 equum cum fuscinis, canes venantium. liuius porro 15 
discipulus fuit Tisicrates et ipse Sicyonius, sed Lysippi 
sectae propior, ut vix discernantur compLura signa, ceu 
senex Thebanus et Demetrius rex, Peucestes Alexandri 

13. Thespiadas] om. Bamb., Deiiefsen. 15. fiscinis Bamb., Detlefsen. 

4, 3) in front of the temples — Jupiter 7. argutiae operum : cf. xxxv, 

and Juno (frontem Oedinm speciant 67 Parrhasius . . . dedit primus ar- 

Velleius loc. cit.\ cf. xxxvi, 35, 40. gutias ■aoltus ; Cic. Bruins, 45, 167 

§ 65. 3. symmetria: so in xxxv, and O. Jahn's note. 

67, 128 Pliny retains the Greek word, § 66. 8. filios et discipulos: the 

although, as Otto Jahn has pointed notice of the sons of Lysippos is from 

oat {Kunsiurtheile, p. 131) proportio the same author as the preceding five 

or commensus afforded an adequate appreciations. Introd. p. xxi. 

Latin equivalent. For a like reluc- 9. Laippum: above § 51; cf. 

tance to translate a Greek word which § 87. — Boedan : below § 73- — 

had come to have a precise meaning Euthykraten : § 83. 

cf. xxxv, 98 quae vocant Graeci eihe. 10. quamquam.. . . maluit : points 

6. quales viderentur esse ; Pliny, to a reaction within the Lysippian 

or his authority, is here finding a school to the older and severer Argive 

formula for the conflict between the manner. 

desire to represent things as they are constantiam : cf. Petron. 88 Ly- 

known to be, and that of presenting sippum, stattiae unius Uneamentis 

them as they appear to be. The form inhaerentem, inopia extinxit. 

ofthe aphorism seems influenced by the 12. itaque optime: explanatory, 

jfords Aristotle puts into the mouth of not of the preceding quamquam, but 

Sophokles, Poet. 1 460 b : "Ztx^oxKri^ eiprj of the general excellence of E. (Blilm- 

aiiTos fiiv o'iov^ dtiTTOieiv, EvpiwiSrjv Si ner, Rhein. Mus. xxxii, p. 610). 

ofoi flaiv (cf also in Poet. 1448, ff'. the 13. Thespiadas : a Praxitelean 

judgement passed on Polygnotos, Pau- subject, xxxvi, 39 ; so his father made 

son and Dionysios), Introd. p. Ixiif. for the same Thespiai an Eros, as 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 53 

in his vivid rendering of the hair, in making the heads smaller 
than older artists had done, and the bodies slimmer and with \ 
less flesh, thus increasing the apparent height of his figures. 
There is no word in Latin for the canon of symmetry [uu/ijucTpio] | 
which he was so careful to preserve, bringing innovations which / 
had never been thought of before into the square canon of the / 
older artists, and he often said that the difference between him- / 
self and them was that they represented men as they were, and 
he as they appeared to be. His chief characteristic is extreme 
delicacy of execution even in the smallest details. 

He left artists of high reputation in his sons and pupils, Laippos, 66 
t Boedas, and above all Euthykrates; the latter however imitated '^"^^jl^ 
not so niKch the refinement as the perseverance of his father, 
choosing to win approval by an austere rather than a lighter style 
of execution. In this manner he made for Delphoi an admirable 
statue of Herakles, for Thespiai an Alexander hunting, a group of 
the Thespiades and a combat between horsemen, a statue of 
Trophonios within his oracular cave, several chariots with four 
horses, a horse carrying hunting prongs, and hunting dogs. 

His pupil was Teisikrates, also a native of Sikyon, who 67 
followed more closely the school of Lysippos, so that many of his Teisikrates 
works can hardly be distinguished from those of the master : Euthy- 
witness his portrait of an old man at Thebes, of king Demetrios Urates. 
and of Peukestes, who saved Alexander's life and well deserves 
the honour of a statue. 

Praxiteles before him. It may be Mopsos on the cylix by Glaukytes and 

that the Thespians owed to the bounty Archikles in Munich (Klein, Meister- 

of Alexander (whose allies they had sign. p. 77 = Gerhard, Auserksene 

become in B. C. 335) these Lysippian Vasenbilder, iv, 235). Further, on an 

bronzes, rivals of the celebrated Praxi- archaic cylix from Kameiros (men- 

telean marbles. (So Klein, _/a,4?-*. ix, tioned, A. Z. xxiv, 1866, p. 296), 

1S94, p. 166.) Bellerophon, riding Pegasos, is re- 

proelium equestre : a votive offer- presented with a similar pronged fork ; 

ing like the turmam Alexandri, § 64, also in hands of one of the huntsman 

cf. Kuhnert, Statue u. Ort, p. 331. on two amphoras in Berlin (Furt- 

[From simulacrum to canes yte have wangler, Cat. 1705, 1706), otherwise 

an inverted alphabetical list. — H.L.U.] the pronged fork is known only as 

14. ad oraculum : the actual cave a fishing implement. The horse, the 
as distinct from the temple, which quadrigae just mentioned, and the 
contained a statue of the god by following canes (cf. note on canem 
Daidalos (Paus. ix, 39, 8), and another in § 57) all belong to the usual class 
by Praxiteles (ib. § 4). of votive offerings. 

15. fusoinis : two-pronged spears, J 67. 16. Tisiorates ; § 83. 

such as are used by Meleager and 18. senex Thebartus : not Pindar 



54 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



68 Magni servator, dignus tanta gloria, artifices qui com- 
positis voluminibus condidere haec miris laudibus cele- 
brant Telephanen Phocaeum ignotum alias, quoniam in 
Thessalia habitaverit, et ibi opera eius latuerint, alioqui 
suffragiis ipsorum aequatur Polyclito, Myroni, Pythagorae. 5 
laudant eius Larisam et Spintharum pentathlum et Apol- 
linem. alii non banc ignobilitatis fuisse causam, sed quod 
se regum Xerxis atque Darei officinis dediderit, exfetimant. 

69 Praxiteles quoque marmore felicior, ideb et clarjor fuit. 
fecit tamen et ex aere pulcherrima opera : Pro^erpinae 'o 
raptum, item catagusam, et Liberum patrem, et EbJ-ietatem 
nobilemque una Satyrum quern Graeci periboeton! cogno- 
minant, et signa quae ante Felicitatis aedem fuere, Venerem- 
que quae ipsa aedis incendio cremata est Claudii principatu, 

70 marmoreae illi suae per terras inclutae parem, item stepha- 15 



as some have supposed — or the name 
would almost certainly have been 
preserved, but merely a portrait. Furt- 
wangler, Domauszieher, p. 92. 

Demetrius : i. c. Poliorketes, be- 
came king B.C. 307, died B.C. 283. 

Peuoestes : tribus iaculis con- 
fossus, non se tamen scuto, sed regem, 
tuebatur Q. Curtius ix, ch. 5, 21; 
the episode occurred during a siege in 
the territory of the Oxydrakai, or ac- 
cording to Arrian vi, 10, and Plutarch, 
Alex. Ixiii, in that of the Malloi. 

§ 68. I. artifices qui : i.e. Xeno- 
krates and Antigonos, see Introd. 
p. xxii. haec, i. e. everything men- 
tioned §§ 49-68. 

3. Phocaeum : from the Ionian 
Phokaia, $eu«aros ; cf. Furtwangler, 
Masterpieces, p. 57. It is unnecessary 
to look upon the word as a variant 
for Phocencis. 

6. Iiarisam : it is worth noting in 
this connexion the beautiful head of 
the nymph Larissa on the coin, P. 
Gardner, Types, pi. vii, 1 7 ; Rev. 
hotse and horseman treated in a style 
reminiscent of Parthenon frieze. 

7. alii non : see Introd. loc. cit. 
The names of Xerxes (b. C, 485-465) 



and of Dareios (the First B.C. 521- 
485, the Second B. c. 425-405) are 
apparently only introduced to attach 
the statement to well-known names. 
The dates are plainly irreconcilable. 

§ 69. 10. Proserpinae raptum ; 
the extant representations of the Rape 
of Persephone have been carefully col- 
lected by Fbrster, Raub u. Riickkehr 
d. Perseph. in Philologus, Supplement- 
band iv. A number are reproduced by 
Overbeck, Atlas d. Kunst Myth. Taf. 
17, 18 ; none however can be referred 
with any certainty, or even probability, 
to the group by Praxiteles. Forster 
hesitatingly suggests that the coin of 
Kasa (Overb. K. M. Milnztafel, ix, 12) 
reproduces the group of Praxiteles. 
The subject of the Rape was treated 
by the painter Nikomachos, xxxv, 
108. 

II. item: introduces a new sub- 
ject, catagusa ; the true meaning was 
given as early as by Dalecampius, t^i* 
Karayovaav quae pensa nendo ducet 
unde et xaTayixa ; so independently 
Loeschcke, A. Z. 38 (1880), p. 102 f. 
The meaning of xark-iav is further 
discussed by Fbrster, loc. cit. p. 719 ; 
H. L. Urlichs iJVoch. f. Klass. Phil. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



55 



Those sculptors who have written treatises on the subject give 68 

high praise to Telephanes of Phokaia, who is otherwise unknown, TeUphanes 
,,,.,. of Phokma. 

since, they say, he hved in Thessaly, where his works remained 

unnoticed. These writers however adjudge him a place beside 

Polykleitos, Myron and Pythagoras, praising his statues of Larissa, 

of Spintharos, a winner in the five contests, and of Apollo. 

Others give a different reason for his comparative obscurity, 

saying that he passed into the service of king Xerxes and of 

Dareios. 

Praxiteles also, though more successful and consequently 69 

better known as a worker in marble, created admirable works Praxiteles. 

in bronze : a rape of Persephone, the Koraynvira or Girl Spinning, 

a Dionysos, a figure of Intoxication grouped with an admirable 

Satyr known among the Greeks as the irepi^driTos or Renowned, 

and also the statues which stood in front of the temple of 

Felicity, and an Aphrodite which was also destroyed when the 

temple was burned down in the reign of Claudius, the worthy 

peer of his famous marble Aphrodite. Other works of his are 70 

the (TT((l>avovcra, or woman presenting a wreath, the -^eXioviisvr), or 



1894, p. 227 f.) compares for the 
motive the spinning maiden, Furt- 
wangler, Samml. Sabouroff, PI. xix ; 
and the bronze statue, Munich, Glypth. 
314. I take the Kardyovaa to have 
been a grave statue ; for spinning and 
similar motives on graves, see Weiss- 
hanpl, Gratgedichte der Gr. Anthol. 
p. 77, note 3. 

Liberum patrem : [it is usual to 
understand the Dionysos as forming 
a group with the two following statues, 
but the fact that up to Veneremque 
the enumeration of single works is 
given by et., shows that Pliny, at any 
rate, understood the Dionysos as a 
separate statue, and the figure of In- 
toxication and the Satyr only (their 
close connexion being indicated by 
the use of -que) as forming a group 
together ; the second et is omitted in 
Cod. Bamb., but in cases of omission 
of syllables or even words, little faith 
can be put in this otherwise excellent 
MS. — H. L. U.]. This observation 
disposes of a recent conjecture Liberum 



ebriolatum {Mus. Ital. d. Antic A. 
Class, iii, p. 787) ; not only is it irre- 
concilable with the evidence of the 
MSS., but the use of the word ebrio- 
lare, only known from a fragment 
ofthe.ffi!^««?'«of Laberius(a/.Nonius, 
108, 6), is quite unproved for prose 
writers. 

13. Felicitatis aedem : on the 
Triumphal Street (Dio Cassius 43, 
21) built by L. Lucullus, B.C. 151; 
see note on xxxvi, 39. The signa 
being bronze are of course distinct 
from the marble Thespiades of xxxvi, 
39 ; a number of Praxitelean works had 
been gathered together in the precinct 
of Felicitas, just as the temple of the 
Fortune of The Day contained works 
by Pheidias and Pythagoras (above, 

§§■ 54. 6o)- 

15. marmoreae illi : xxxvi, 20. 

§ 70. stephanusam : probably in 
a group with an athlete, in which 
case the GTi'^avov^ifj. would be the 
personification of the festal city where 
the athletic victory had been won; 



56 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



nusam, pseliumenen, oporan, Harmodium et Aristogitonem 
tyrannicidas, quos a Xerxe Persarum rege captos victa 
Perside Atheniensibus remisit Magnus Alexander, fecit 
et puberem Apollinem subrepenti lacertae comminus sagitta 
insidiantem quern sauroctonon vocant. spectantur et duo S 
signa eius diversos adfectus exprimentia, flentis matronae 
et meretricis gaudentis. hanc putant Phrynen fuisse de- 
prehenduntque in ea amorem artificis et mercedem in vultu 
71 meretricis. habet simulacrum et benignitas eius, Cala- 
midis enim quadrigae aurigam suum inposuit, ne melior in lo 
equorum effigie defecisse in homine crederetur. ipse Calamis 
et alias quadrigas bigasque fecit se impari, equis sine aemulo 
expressis. sed, ne videatur in hominum effigie inferior, 

I. oporan] Rice; operan Voss.; eplioram Bamb.; canephoram Urlichs in 
Chrest., DetUfsen. 12. sem pari equis Bamb., corr. Trazcbe; equis semper 

reliqui, Detlefsen. 



cf. Athen. xii, 534 D : b yXv (sc. 
■triva^ etx^v 'OXvfiTndSa Kal IlvdidSa 
(rT£cf)avovo'as avTov {^Aktci^idSTjv'). For 
the artistic motive cf. the relief in the 
Akrop. Mus., A. Z. 1869, 24 = Friede- 
richs- Wolters, 1188. [From Stephan. 
to Harmod. et Arist. we have an 
inverted alphabetical list (cf. § 66) ; 
this confirms the MS. reading oporan, 
— H. L. U.] 

1 . pseliumenen : for an analogous 
motive see the little bronze, yaA;-i5. ix 
1894, pi. xi; its connexion vrith Prax- 
iteles cannot however be pressed 
further. 

oporan : [for a personification of 
autumn cf. Ar. Etpiivti 523 ff., where 
imiipa is brought in to wed Trygaios ; 
thus the subject, which fits excellently 
into the Praxitelean series, is also 
proved to have been a conception 
familiar in the fifth and fourth cen- 
turies, H. L. U.]. 

2. quos a Xerxe . . . Alexander: 
since this statement is true only of the 
group by Antenor, Pans, i, 8, 5, it 
seems probable that the mention of 
Praxitelean Tyrant-Slayers is due 
to a confusion. Urlichs, A. Z. 1861, 



p. 144, supposes the displacement of a 
heading Antenor, belonging probably 
to the alphabetical list which begins 
in § 72. 

3. Magnus Alexander: so also 
Arrian, Anab. iii, 7, 8 \ Antiochos 
according to Pans. loc. cit. ; Seleukos 
according to Val. Max. ii, 10, ext. i. 

4. subrepenti laoertae : from 
a descriptive epigram ; cf. Martial, 
xiv, 172. 

5. sauroctonon: finest replica in 
Louvre, phot. Giraudon 1200. 

6. flentis . . . gaudentis : epi- 
grammatic antithesis, cf. the molliter 
iuvenis and viriliter pusr of § 55. 
The statues were certainly only jux- 
taposed in the epigram. The Jlens 
mairona, like the similar figures by 
Sthennis (below § 90) was a portrait 
statue for a grave ; Praxiteles is known 
to have made at least two grave 
monuments ; (a) the warrior and his 
horse, Pans, i, 2, 3 ; {b) the monu- 
ment to which C, I. G. 1604 belonged J 
cf Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, p. 91 , 
note 43 ; above note on catagusa. ¥ox 
the artistic motive see the fine statue 
in the Louvre, phot, Giraudon 1 1 74. 



II. BRONZE STATUARY 



57 



woman clasping a bracelet on her arm, oircipa or Autumn, and 
statues of Harmodios and Aristogeiton, the Slayers of the Tyrant. 
These were carried off by Xerxes, king of the Persians, and i 
restored to Athens by Alexander the Great after his conquest of : 
Persia. He also made a young Apollo with an arrow watching 
a lizard as it creeps up with intent to slay it close at hand ; this 
is known as the a-avpoKToms or Lizard-slayer. There are two 
statues by him expressing contrary emotions, a mourning matron 
and a rejoicing courtesan.. The latter is believed to be Phryne. , 
The sculptor's love may be read in the whole statue, and 
Phryne's satisfaction is depicted on her face. 

There is also a statue which testifies to the kindness of 71 ' 
Praxiteles, for he made a charioteer for a four-horse chariot by ^"^^^"<>f 
Kalamis, not wishing it to be thought that Kalamis failed in the towards 
man after succeeding in the horses. Kalamis made other four ■^"^'^wmj. 
and two-horse chariot-groups with varying success, though un- 
rivalled in his horses. And yet, for it must not be thought that 



7. putaut Phrynen : doubtless 
correctly ; it should be noted,, however, 
that Pliny mentions neither of the 
celebrated statues of Phryne at Thes- 
piai and at Delphoi, Furtwangler, loc. 
cit. 

8. mercedein : the meaning is not 
altogether clear ; the words may 
contain an allusion to the yafffiiJs given 
by Praxiteles to Phryne, in the shape 
of the Eros which she dedicated at 
Thespiai, Anth. Plan. 204 (cf. Benn- 
dorf, Efigr. p. 53). Again the merces 
may refer to Phryne's reward in the 
artist's love; or — in the lower sense 
of payment — it maycontain an allusion 
to her venality as meretrix. 

% 71. 10. aurigam suum im- 
posuit : since Kalamis (above § 47 ; 
xxxiii, 156; xxxvi, 36) flourished in the 
early part of the fifth century, the auriga 
must have been by the Elder Praxiteles 
(Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitth. 1879, p. 8 ; 
Benndorf, CuUusbild der Athena Nike, 
p. 47 ; Furtwangler, Masterpieces, 
p. 102 ff., &c.). A division of labour 
in the case of important monuments 
was quite common, e. g. for Hieron, 



Onatas makes the chariot, while 
Kalamis makes the «eA.7/Tes iVttoi at 
either side, Paus. vi, 12, i. [In the 
case of the Younger (?) Praxiteles it 
is expressly mentioned as noteworthy, 
that for a grave monument he made 
both the horse and the horseman : Koi 
T^v LTrnov Kai rbv arpaTLdn-Tjv Paus. i, 
2, 3, — H. L. U.] The inscription on 
the bathron of the chariot gave the 
names of both artists, and the juxta- 
position was sufficient to give rise to 
the story of the benignitas. The 
chariot was of course a votive offering, 
a viib^r\}i.a t^s v'mris (cf. in this book 
§§ 64, 86, 88 ; XXXV, 27, 99, 108, 
141, &c). Introd. p. Ixv. 

1 2, se imparl, equis sine aemulo 
expressis ; the reading, while derived 
straight from Cod. Bamb., further 
brings out an epigrammatic antithesis; 
the full meaning is as follows : ' This 
same K. failed through his inability 
to do the human figure, in other 
chariot-groups as a whole, albeit the 
horses taken alone were unrivalled ' ; 
cf. Prop, iii, 9, 10 exactis Calamis 
se mihi iactat equis. Introd. p. Ixix. 



58 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



72 Alcman poeta nullius est nobilior. Alcamenes Phidiae 
discipulus et marmorea fecit et aereum pentathlum qui 
vocatur encrinomenos, at Polycliti discipulus Aristides 
quadrigas bigasque. Amphicrates Leaena laudatur. scortum 
haec lyrae cantu familiaris Harmodio et Aristogitoni con- 1 
silia eorum de tyrannicidio usque in mortem excruciata 
a tyrannis non prodidit, quamobrem Athenienses, et honorem 
habere ei volentes nee tamen scortum celebrasse, animal 
nominis eius fecere atque, ut intellegeretur causa honoris, 

73 in opere linguam addi ab artifice vetuerunt. Bryaxis 
Aesculapium et Seleucum fecit, Boedas adorantem, Baton 
Apollinem et lunonem qui sunt Romae in Concordiae 

74 templo, Cresilas volneratum deficientem in quo possit 

1. Alcman poeta] E. Sellers ; alcamen et Bamb. (alcame et e corr.) ; 
alchimena reliqui ; Alcmena Dethfsen. 



I. Alcman poeta; it was pointed 
out by Benndorf {op. cit. p. 47) that 
the original reading had been cor- 
rupted by the neighbouring^/^a/«f m^^. 
The readings Alcmena or Almmena 
are unsatisfactory, since the subject 
could hardly be reckoned among homi- 
num effigies. The reading Alcman 
poeta now proposed meets this difh- 
culty, while the subject falls within 
the range of Kalamis. He is known 
to have worked for Sparta from Paus. 
X, 16, 4 (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitih. 
1881, p. 84), and might well be called 
upon to execute a statue of its greatest 
poet. For a statue of Alkman cf. 
Anth. Pal. vii, 709, an epigram which 
W'eisshaupl {Grabgedichte der Gr. 
Anth. p. 45) suggests may have be- 
longed to a statue of the poet at 
Sparta, cf. also Anth. Pal. vii, 18, 
19. Nobilior — cf. nobilis applied 
below to the portrait of Perikles by 
Kresilas. 

§ 72. Alcamenes : above § 49, 
xxxvi, 16. 

3. encrinomenos : encrinomenos 
vocatur i qui atkletis ad?iumeratur, id 
est qui in eoi'uvi nuviero recipitur, 
so Turnebus {Advers. p. 486, cf. the 
note of Dalecampius) explains the 



term with reference to the eyiepiait 
clOKtitSiv. Modem commentators, how- 
ever, generally refer the epithet to the 
statue, and explain it as approved, 
chosen^ classical or canonical ('class- 
isch ' ' mustergiltig,' Urlichs in Chrest. 
p. 325 ; cf. O. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, 
p. 125; H. L. Urlichs, Blatter f. d. 
bayr. Gymnasialsch. 1894, pp. 609- 
61 jl. But the iyxpiais d9\. (Lucian, 
virip Tav flxov. 1 1 ; cf. Xen. Hell, iv, I, 
I o), lit. the 'examination' of the athletes 
(probatio Cic. Off. i, 144) was too well 
known as an athletic term for the 
epithet kyKpivofievos as applied to the 
portrait of an athlete to be understood 
in any other sense than the one given 
to it above. The present participle, 
instead of the more usual kyxpiSeis (cf. 
the inscr. Ross. Griech. Konigsreisen, 
i, p. 96) shows that the athlete was 
represented in the act of submitting 
to the eyKptffis. The occurrence of 
the epithet Encrinomenus as a Roman 
proper name (C /. Z. v, 1, 4429), by 
proving its familiarity, suffices to dis- 
credit the old emendation of Bar- 
barus encriomenos, which had lately 
come again into favour. The proposed 
identification of the encrinomenos 
with the statue of an athlete holding 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



59 



he was inferior to others in representing the human figure, no 
artist has better portrayed the poet Alkman. 

Alkamenes, a pupil of Pheidias, produced works in marble as 72 
well as a winner in the five contests in bronze, called the 
iyKpivofifvns [undergoing the test]. A pupil of Polykleitos, Aris- 
teides, made chariots with four horses and with two. ■\Amphikrates Monument 
is famous for his \iaiva or Lioness : this Leaina was a courtesan, °j ^''■'■''"'■■ 
intimate through her playing on the lyre with Harmodios and 
Aristogeiton, whose plot of assassination she refused to betray, 
although tortured to death by the tyrants. The Athenians were 
anxious to pay her honour, and yet unwilling to commemorate i 
a courtesan by a statue ; they accordingly made a figure of the ' 
animal whose name she bore, and to indicate their reason for 
honouring her, they forbade the artist to give it a tongue. 
Bryaxis made an Asklepios and a Seleukos ; \Boedas a praying 73 
figure, Baton the Apollo and Hera which are in the temple 
of Concord at Rome, Kresilas, a wounded man at the point 74 



the disc preparatory to the throw (Brit. 
Mus. and Vatican ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 
331, where see literature) is, to say 
the least, open to doubt. 

Aristides : possibly identical with 
the painter, master of Euphranor, xxxv, 
75 ; Kroker, Gleichnamige Kunstler, 
p. 25. 

4. Xjeaena : vii, 87 ; the story, told 
also Plut. de Garrul. 8 ; Pans, i, 23, 
1 ; Polyainos, XTparrj-piii. viii, 45 ; cf. 
Cicero, Glor. ii,fr. 12 (all without men- 
tion of artist's name), is an obvious 
invention. Had the ' Lioness ' been 
originally connected with the Tyrant- 
Slayers her monument must have stood 
by theirs kv Kepa/ieiKw (Arrian, Anal). 
iii, 16, 8), instead of at the entrance 
to the Akropolis (Pans. he. cit.). 
Further, since the oldest authorities, 
Herodotos and Thulcydides, in their 
account of the murder of the Tyrants, 
know nothing of this Leaina, it is 
probable that she was an ordinary 
votive-offering; the fact that the 
artist had failed to give the animal 
a tongue, or that in the course of time 
the tongue had got broken away, 
having given rise to the anecdote 



(cf. also Athen. xiii, 596 f.) Introd. 
p. Ixxvi, note 3. 

§ 73. 10. Bryaxis : above § 42 ; 
xxxvi, 30. 

11. Aesoulapium : for Megara he 
made an Asklepios grouped with 
Hygieia, Paus. i, 40, 6. 

Seleuoum: i.e. Nikator, reigned 
B. c. 312-280 ; cf. below § 86; for his 
portraits see Wolters, Hiim. Mitth. iv, 
1889, pp. 32-40. 

Boedas : above % 66. 

adorantem : in the scheme doubt- 
less of the ' Praying Boy' (Berlin, Cat. 
2), ci.Jahrb. i, 1886, p. i ff. (Conze) ; 
for the type of the adorans on coins 
Jahrb. iii, 1886, p. 286 ff. (Imhoof- 
Blumer), on a gem ib. I. p. 217 (Furt- 
wangler). 

Baton : below § 91 ; known from 
/. G. .5. 61, as a native of Herakleia. 

12. Coneordiae tempi : at the 
base of the Capitol, vowed B. C. 367 
by Camillus, and built afler his death 
by the State; restored by Tiberius 
(ded. A. D. 9). It was the most usual 
meeting place of the Senate. 

§ 74. 13. Cresilas: above § 53. 
vulneratum : apparently identical 



6o 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



intellegi quantum restet animae et Olympium Periclen 
dignum cognomine, mirumque in hac arte est quod nobiles 
viros nobiliores fecit. Cephisodorus Minervam mirabilem 
in portu Atheniensium et aram ad templum lovis Servatoris 
75 in eodem portu, cui pauca comparantur, Canachus ApoUinem 5 
nudum qui Philesius cognominatur in Didymaeo Aeginetica 
aeris temperatura, cervumque una ita vestigiis suspendit ut 
*linum* subter pedes trahatur alterno morsu calce digitisque 
retinentibus solum, ita vertebrate dente utrisque in partibus 
ut a repulsu per vices resiliat. idem et celetizontas pueros, 10 
Chaereas Alexandrum Magnum et Philippum patrem eius 



3. Cephisodorus] Bamb. ; 



Cephissidorus reliqui. 
trahantur Bamb. 



8. inlitum Bamb. 



with the statue of Dieitrephes 
pierced by arrows, Paus. i, 23, 3 
(where the artist is not named) ; the 
extant inscription ('Epit6\vicos Aieirpe- 
<pos dvapxev Kpiai\as lircSccrec /. G. B, 
46) should place this beyond a doubt, 
were it not that the epigraphy is too 
early for the date of Dieitrephes, who 
according to Fausanias was identical 
with the Athenian general mentioned 
Thuc. vii, 29 (b. c. 414) ; cf. Kirchhoff 
on C. I. A. i, 402. Furtwangler 
{^Masterpieces, p. 122) accordingly 
proposes to identify the Dieitrephes 
of the statue with an older name- 
sake, father of the Nikostratos,'who 
was a general at the commencement 
of the Peloponnesian war (Thuc. iii, 
75 ; 'V. 119, 129). For possible re- 
productions of the statue see Furt- 
wangler, op. cit. figs. 48, 49, 50 
(against his views cf. C. Robert, Hall. 
Winckelmannspr. 1895, p. 21 f.). 

I. Periolen : for the portrait 
(without name of artist), cf. Paus. i, 
25, I. Its inscribed basis was dis- 
covered in 1888, see AiXriov, 1889, 
p. 36 ff. (Lolling). A terminal por- 
tr^t of Perikles, extant in several 
replicas (Br. Mus. Cat. i, 549 ; Helbig, 
Class. Ant. 281, where see literature) 
has been identified as a copy of the 
Kresilaian portrait. Addenda. 



3. Minervam mirabilem . . . et 
aram : cf Paus. i, i, 3 : flt'as %\ a^iov 
Twv iv UeipatH pidXiara 'AOtjvcls kffrt 
Kai Atos Tf/jievos' x^^*^**^ f^^^ ajj^poTipa 
rd ^70X^x0, ex^* ^^ ^ P-^^ anTjTTTpoi/ 
Kal viKTiv, ij 5e *ABrivas S6pv. The 
Tiftfvos has been shown to be probably 
contemporary with the restoration of 
the Peiraios by the architect Hippo- 
damos of Miletos (Arist. Bol. ii, 8, i), 
under Perikles (so Wachsmuth, Stadt 
AtAen, ii, p. 141 f.). Thus, if the 
monuments mentioned by Pliny and 
Pausanias are, as seems reasonable to 
suppose, identical, Kephisodoros would 
be an artist of the Periklean age. — 
I see no reason for following Furt- 
wangler {Masterpieces, p. 145 f.) in 
assuming a displacement of Pliny's 
notes, and giving the works mentioned 
to Kresilas (cf. B. Keil in Hermes, xxxi, 
1895, p. 225). Introd. p. Ixxv ; Add. 

§ 75, 5. ApoUinem : it was the 
exact replica of the same artist's Apollo 
at Thebes, except that the latter was 
of wood, cf. Paus. ix, 10, 2 ; ii, 10, 4; 
the type is reproduced both on the 
autonomous and Imperial coinage of 
Miletos, A. Z. 18, ix, pi. vii, and page 
90 (= CoUignon, Sculpt. Grecque, 
%• 153) and in the 'Payne-Knight 
bronze ' (Br. Mus.) ; cf Furtwangler, 
ap. Roscher i, 451 : the god, nude, 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



6i 



of death, whose face betrays how fast his life is ebbing, and 
also an Olympian Perikles, worthy of the epithet. The marvel Perikles. 
of his art is that it made famous men yet more famous. /L- 
^Kephisodoros made a wondrous Athena in the harbour of Athens, ' 
and in the same city, in the temple of Zeus the Saviour, an altar 
to which few are comparable. Kanachos made the nude Apollo, 75 
which is named the Lover and is in the temple at Didyma, of 
Aeginetan bronze, and with it a stag so poised upon its feet, Apollo and 
that a thread can be drawn beneath them while the heel and toe ''^' 
alternately catch the ground, both parts working with a jointed 
mechanism in such a way that the impact suffices to make them 
spring backwards and forwards. He also made boys on race- 
horses, t Chaireas made an Alexander the Great and his father 



stands erect, holding a small stag on 
the palm of his R. hand, and the bow 
in his L. The work was executed 
previous to 01. 71, 3 ( = B. c. 494), in 
which year Dateios (Herod, vi, 19 ; 
Pans, viii, 46, 3, erroneously says 
Xerxes) sacked Miletos and took away 
the statue. The Apollo was restored 
by Seleukos Nikator, Pans. loc. cit. 
and i, 16, 3. 

' 6. Philesius : aitiology sought to 
explain the epithet by allusion to 
Apollo's love for Branches (Strabo, 
xiv, p. 634), so Varro, p. schol. to 
Statins, Thebais, viii, 198 (ed. Lin- 
denbrog, p. 282 f.) ; Macrobius {Sat. 
i, 17, 2) gives a symbolic explanation. 
Aeginetioa temp. : above § 8. 
7. suspendit : for the meaning 
given above cf. xxxvi, 117 iheafra 
iuxta due fecit amtlissima ligno, 
cardinum singulorum versatili sus- 
pensa libramento. From the word 
solum it is evident that Pliny conceived 
the stag to have its feet on the ground, 
an arrangement however which is in 
irreconcilable contradiction to the 
testimony of the coins, which show 
the stag resting on the god's hand. 
We must suppose, therefore, that the 
exact place of the stag was not 
described in the original account, 
and that Pliny, unacquainted with 
the statue, assumed, naturally enough, 



either that the animal was on the 
ground, or, according to a scheme 
familiar from statues of Artemis (also 
for Apollo in the gem Cades, Impronte, 
iv, 19, 20) that its hind feet were on 
the ground while its front ieet were 
held in the hand of the god. It is 
evident that in the inlitum of cod. 
Banib. we have a corruption, while 
the linum of the later codices is a 
mere Interpolation intended to g£t an 
ordinary Latin word out of the corrupt 
reading ; the original word must have 
given the instrument provided with 
the dens vertebratus. Whether the 
stag was in reality provided with some 
curious mechanism, or whether the 
fact that it had been cast separate and 
did not accurately fit on to the god's 
palm had given rise to an explanation 
which has a flavour of concoction, it 
is now impossible to tell (cf. however 
the ingenious article of Petersen, A. Z. 
xxxviii, 1880, pp. 22, 192). 

10. repulsu: ai. -a., \^j^ pare eodem 
praegnas veneno impresso dentium 
repulsu virus fundit in morsus 
(Petersen) . 

oeletizontas pueros : cf. on the 
Akropolis the bronze statue of Iso- 
krates as irafs KiXryrL^w. Lives of 
Ten Orators, Isokr. 42 ; at Olympia 
Aisypos, son of Timon, Pans, vi, i, 8 ; 
cf. id. vi, 12, I. A Kikr(TL^t>>v on the 



62 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



76 fecit, Ctesilaus doryphoron et Amazonem volneratam, 
Demetrius Lysimachen quae sacerdos Minervae fuit LXIIII 
annis, idem et Minervam quae *musica* appellatur, quoniam 
dracones in Gorgone eius ad ictus citharae tinnitu resonant, 
idem equitem Simonem qui primus de equitatu scripsit. 5 
Daedalus et ipse inter fictores laudatus pueros duos destrin- 
gentes se fecit, Dinomenes Protesilaum et Pythodemum 

77 luctatorem. Euphranoris Alexander Paris est, in quo 
laudatur quod omnia simul intellegantur, iudex dearum, 
amator Helenae et tamen Achillis interfector. huius est 10 
Minerva Romae quae dicitur Catuliana, infra Capitolium 

A.u.c. 6j5. a Q. Lutatio dicata, et simulacrum Boni Eventus, dextra 
pateram, sinistra spicam ac papa vera tenens, item Latona 

I. Ctesilaus] Sillig, Detlefsen ; G. tesilaus Bamb. ; desilaus reliqui. 
3. myetica Bamb. 



coin of Tarentum, Head, Guide, pi. 
24, 7. Addenda. 

§ 76. I. Ctesilaus : the name, 
though uncommon, is a good Greek 
formation (cf. the formations ending 
-Xeois, -Xaos in Fick, Gr. Personen- 
namen, pp. 186 ff.), so that I see no 
grounds for altering the reading to 
Kresilas as proposed by Bergk 
{Zeitschr. d. Alterth. Wissensch. 1845, 
p. 962), who is followed by most 
archaeologists. The argument derived 
from the Amazon (§ 53), though 
strong, is scarcely sufficient. 

2. Demetrius : the famous a,v- 
6pajircyjroi6sj Lucian, T/te Liars, l8. 

Lysimaclien = Paus. i, 27, 4: w/xis 
S^ vam Tw T^s 'A6T]vas, the follow- 
ing information is derived from the 
inscription on the basis of the statue, 
Tbpffer, Ait. Geneal. 128 ; for a 
similar inscr. from the Akropolis (but 
belonging to a larger statue) of a 
priestess who had served (?) \i^r{\KovTa 
8' Itt; [k]o! rkaaaf\_a\, see /. G. B. 64 ; 
Hitgig and Bliimner, Paus. p. 295. 

3. musica : the reading is an 
obvious interpolation, to make sense 
out of the corrupt myetica; the epithet 
is not found of Athena or any other 



god. Frbhner in Rhein. Mus. 1892, 
p. 292, proposes to read mystica for 
myetica, adding that ' the mysterious 
resonance of the aegis recalled the 
music of the Eleusinian mysteries 
when the Hierophant struck the 
^X"'"'.' Dr. Traube suggests that the 
reading might possibly be mycetica, i.e. 
' the Roarer ' — fmKrjriKlis as an epithet 
of Poseidon occurs ap. Comutos, Nat. 
Dear. ch. 22, p. 42, Lang — it is quite 
possible that an aitiological explana- 
tion, derived from the resonance of the 
bronze aegis, had been found for an 
epithet of which the original meaning 
had been forgotten. 

5. de equitatu: iiepi limiicrjs Xen. 
de Re Eg. i, 3. 

6. Daedalus : son of Patrokles 
(/. G. B. 88, 89 ; Paus. vi, 3, 9, cf. 
above § 50). D. signs "XiKviuvLos 
{I. G. B. 89) and seems to be the first 
member of the family who migrated 
to Sikyon ; cf. Furtwangler, Master- 
pieces, p. 225. 

et ipse : marks Pliny's astonish- 
ment at the appearance of Daidalos 
among the bronze-workers (rightly ex- 
plained by Oehmichen, Plin. Studien, 
p. 192), perhaps because the only 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



63 



Philip. t Ktesilaos made a Sopvtfiopos, or Spear-bearer, and 76 
a wounded Amazon ; Demetrios a statue of Lysimache, who was 
priestess of Athena for sixty-four years. He also made the 
Athena called the Musical because the snakes of her Gorgon 
resound to the notes of the cithara, and an equestrian statue of 
Simon, the first writer on horsemanship. Daidaios, who appears 
here among the famous statuaries, made two boys scraping them- 
selves, Deinomenes a Protesilaos and a portrait of Pythodemos 
the wrestler. A statue of Alexander Paris by Euphranor is 77 
said to display every phase of the Trojan's character: he is Jf'^'"^ ."-^ 
at once the judge of the goddesses, the lover of Helen, and yet his triple 
the slayer of Achilles. The Athena at Rome known as the '^^P"^^- 
Minerva of Catulus, which was dedicated below the Capitol by ■■ 
Quintus Lutatius, is by Euphranor ; so is the statue of Good b,c. 7S. 
Luck holding in the right hand a bowl, and in the left an ear 
of corn and a poppy. He also made a Leto with the new- 



personage of the name with whom he 

is familiar is the mythical Daidaios 

(vii, 198, 209 ; xxxvi, 85, cf. vii, 205). 

destringentes se : for the motive 

cf. §§ 5S. 62- 

7. Dinomenes . above § 50 ; 
distinct from the artist of the first 
century who made the statues of lo 
and Kallisto (Paus. i. 25, J\ I. C, B. 
233), cf. Gurlitt, Pausanias, p. 267 ff. 

§ 77. 8. Euphranoris : above 
§ 50; XXXV, 128. His activity ranges 
from B.C. 375-330- 

Alexander Paris : the second name 
is added to distinguish him from the 
king. The statue has not yet been 
identified among our copies, Furt- 
wangler, Masterpieces, p. 357 ff. and 
Robert, Hall. Winckelmannspragr. 
xix, 1895, p. 20 ff. arrive at sur- 
prisingly different results. Addenda. 

11. infra Capitolium : Urlichs 
{Griechische Staiuen im Rep. Rom, 
p. 11), suggests on the open space 
afterwards occupied by the temple of 
Vespasian. 

12. Q,. Lutatio, i. e. Catulo: after 
the fire of B.C. 85, the restoration of 
the Capitoline temple and adjacent 
buildings was entrusted to him; cf. 



Tacit. Hist, iii, 72 ; Plutarch, Popl. 
15 ; above xxxiii, 57, &c. It is not 
known whence he obtained Greek 
works of art ; possibly from the inex- 
haustible booty of Aemilius Paulus ; 
cf. Urlichs, loc. cit. 

Bonl Eventus : from the de- 
scription it is evident that the statue 
originally represented the Greek Trip- 
tolemos (Urlichs, Chresiom. p. 326), 
and was re-christened as a Roman 
agrarian divinity. Frbhner (.^Mid. de 
VEmpire Romain, p. 35) was the 
first to recognize the type on the 
obverse of a bronze medal of Hadrian : 
youth, holding in one hand two ears 
of corn and two poppies, and in the 
other a libation cup, is sacrificing at 
an altar. For a still better reproduc- 
tion on a gem (5r. Mus. Cat. 929) cf. 
Furtwangler, op. cit. p. 350, where 
the gem is made the starting-point for 
a suggestive reconstruction of the 
works of Euphranor. 

13. Latona . . . sustinens : the 
work is still unknown ; cf. E. Reisch, 
' Ein vermeintliches Werk des Eu- 
phranor' in Fesigruss aus Innsbruck 
an die Phil. Versamml. in Wien, 
1893. 



64 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



puerpera Apollinem et Dianam infantis sustinens in aede 

78 Concordiae. fecit et quadrigas bigasque et cliduchon eximia 
forma, et Virtutem et Graeciam, utrasque colossaeas, muli- 
erem admirantem et adorantem, item Alexandrum et 
Philippum in quadrigis, Eutychides Eurotam, in quo artem 5 
ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi dixere. Hegiae Minerva 
Pyrrhusque rex laudatur, et celetizontes pueri, et Castor ac 
Pollux ante aedem lovis tonantis, Hagesiae in Pario colonia 

79 Hercules, Isodoti buthytes. Lycius Myronis discipulus fuit, 
qui fecit dignum praeceptore puerum sufflantem languidos 'o 
ignes et Argonautas, Leochares aquilam sentientem quid 
rapiat in Ganymede et cui ferat parcentemque unguibu^ 
etiam per vestem puero, Autolycum pancrati victorem propter 
quern Xenophon symposium scripsit, lovemque ilium to- 
nantem in Capitolio ante cuncta laudabilem, item Apollinem '5 
diadematum, Lyciscum mangonem, puerum subdolae ac 

2. cliduchon] Barbanis ; cliticon Bamb., Detlefsen ; cliticum reliqui. 
l6. Inciscns langonem reliqui. 



I. aede Concordiae : above § 73. 
§ 78. 2. oliduolion : a subject also 
treated by Pheidias, § 54. 

4. admirantem et adorantem = 
a-no^Kinouaav 'looking up with awe 
at the image of the divinity,' Furt- 
wangler, Plinius, p. 46, cf. Dornaus- 
zieher, p. 87, note 19. 

Alexandrum et Philippum : a 
suitable occasion for these statues 
would be the battle of Chaironeia, 
where Al. had distinguished himself 
by the side of Philip. 

5. Eutychides : above §51; dis- 
tinct from his two later namesakes 
{a) I.G.B. 143; {b) I.G.B. 244-249, 
and recently HomoUe in Bull. Corr. 
Hell. 1894, p. 336 f. To the pupil 
of Lysippos, Studniczka {Jahrb. ix, 
1894, p. 2ii) inclines to attribute the 
superb sarkophagos ' of Alexander ' 
from Sidon. 

BuTOtam : cf. the Orontes that 
supports the city of Antioch by the 
same artist; above note on § 51. 

6. plurimi ; i. e. the writers of 
epigrams, Benndorf, Epigr. p. 54 ; cf. 



Anth. Pai. ix, 709 (Introd. p. Ixx). 

Hegiae : for an older namesake, 
master of Pheidias, see § 49 ; for a 
Hegias in the reign of Claudius see 
/. G. B. 332. 

7. Pyrrhusque rex ; for portraits 
of this king (bom B. C- 319, died 
2721, see Six, Pom. Mitth.yi, p. 279; 
Helbig in Melanges d'Arch. et cTHist. 
xiii, 1893, pi. i, ii, pp. 377 ff. 
The addition of rex gives such pre- 
cision to Pliny's statement that it is 
unnecessary to suppose that we have 
in the words Hegiae . . . laudatur a 
confused repetition of the Pyrrhus 
Hygiam et Minervam of § 80 (cf. 
Wolters, Alh. Mitth. Kvi, 1891, p. 
155, note 2). 

8. lovia tonantis : above § 10 ; 
below § 79. 

Hagesiae : 'Hyrjaias instead of 
the more familiar diminutive 'H7iar, 
so Ziv^miros for ZeS^ij Plat. Prat. 
318 B (cf. Fick, Gr. Penimennamen, 

P- 35)- 

Pario colonia: v, 141, founded 
by the Parians, Milesians, and Ery- 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 6$ 

born Apollo and Artemis in her arms, now in the temple of 
Concord, and chariots with four and two horses, a KKfihovxos or 78 
Key-bearer, of great beauty, a statue of Valour, and one of 
Hellas, both of colossal size, a woman in wonder praying, and 
Alexander and Philip in four-horse chariots. Eutychides made 
an image of the Eurotas of which many have said that the 
artist's skill is clearer than the stream itself. 

The Athena and the king Pyrrhos by Hegias are praised, so 
are his boys riding on racehorses, the Kastor and Polydeukes which 
stand in front of the temple of Jupiter the Thunderer, and also 
the Herakles of Hegesias in the colony of Parion, and the ^ovSirris, 
or Slayer of the Ox, by Isodotos. Lykios was a pupil of Myron ; in 79 
the boy blowing a dying fire he created a work worthy of his 
master ; he also made statues of the Argonauts. The eagle of Eagle 
Leochares appears to know how precious a burden it is ravishing ^™^"£ 
in Ganymede and to what master it bears him, and its talons 
hold the boy tenderly though his dress protects him. He 
also made a statue of Autolykos, who was victorious in the pan- 
kration and in whose honour Xenophon wrote the Banquet ; the 
celebrated Zeus with the thunderbolt in the Capitol, a work of 
supreme excellence ; an Apollo wearing the diadem ; the slave- 
dealer Lykiskos and a boy, on whose face may be read the wily 

thraians, Strabo, xiii, p. 588, 14 ; it of this work has been recognized in 

was made into a Roman colony by the statuette, Helbig, Class. Ant. 400. 
Augustus {Calonia Pariana Julia 13. Autolyoum: winner in the 

Augusta). Pankration at the greater Panathenaia 

§79. 9. Lyoius Myronis : §50. 01.8g, 3 = B.c.422 (the fictitious date 

10. puerum sufBantem: same sub- of the 'Banquet,' Athen. v, p. 216 d), 
ject treated by the painter Antiphilos murdered B. c. 404 by the Thirty 
XXXV, 138. The work is of course dis- Tyrants. Since Leochares lived into 
tinctfrom Hat fuersiiffitorhAorfijTccA the reign of Alexander, there can be 
from the boy, also by Lykios, holding no question of his having made a por- 
the holy water basin on the Akropolis, trait of Autolykos, but the latter was 
Paus.l,23,7,bntthekinshipofthesub- sufficiently celebrated to have — like 
jects shows where the artistic strength Miltiades and other heroes of Athenian 
of Lykios lay (cf. Wolters, Ath. history — statues raised to him after 
Mitth. xvi, 189T, p. 153 ff. and Mayer, death (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mittheil. 
Arch. Jahrb. viii, 1893, p. 2i8f.). vii, 1883, p. 72). 

11. Leocliares : § 50. [His works 14. lovemque ilium tonaiLteni : 
are enumerated in two alphabetical the motive of the statue may be re- 
groups : from aquilam to lovem, and covered from coins ; Cohen, MMailles 
after item from Apollinem to puerum. Impiriales, 2nd ed. i, p. 88 ; Roscher, 
— H. L. U.] ii, 748. Above § 10. 

aquilam . . . Ganymede : a copy 16. Lyoisomn mangonem : Ur- 



66 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



80 fucatae vernilitatis, Lycius et ipse puerum suffitorem. Me- 
naechmi vitulus genu premitur replicata cervice. ipse 
Menaechmus scripsit de sua arte. Naucydes Mercurio et 
discobolo et immolante arietem censetur, Naucerus lucta- 
tore anhelante, Niceratus Aesculapium et Hygiam . . . qui 5 
sunt in Concordiae templo Romae. Pyromachi quadriga 
ab Alcibiade regitur. Polycles Hermaphroditum nobilem 
fecit, Pyrrhus Hygiam et Minervam, Phanis Lysippi 

81 discipulus epithyusan. Styppax Cyprius uno celebratur 
signo, splanchnopte — Periclis Olympii vernula hie fuit exta 10 
torrens ignemque oris pleni spiritu accendens — Silanion 
Apollodorum fudit, fictorem et ipsum, sed inter cunctos 
diligentissimum artis et iniquom sui iudicem, crebro perfecta 

5. Hygiam] Hygiam fecit Detlefsen. 



lichs {Chrestom. p. 328) refers the 
subject to the influence of the Middle 
Comedy. Avxtaicos, as title of a play 
by Alexis, is preserved by Athen. xiii, 
p. 595 d; the /K«?- must have formed 
a group with the mango ; but Pliny, 
who is here giving an asyndetic 
enumeration of single works, seems 
to have understood them to be sepa- 
rate statues, cf. Furtwangler, Dorn- 
auszieher, p. 91, note 44 (against 
the reading Lyciscus langonem, which 
has lately again come into favour, see 
Friedlander's note to Martial, ix, 50). 

I. sufatorem: presumably holding 
a censer suspended by chains; cf. 
Mayer, op. cit. p. 322. 

§ 80. 2. replicata cervice : i. e. 
in the scheme known from the Nike 
sacrificing an ox on the balustrade of 
the Temple of Athena Nike, cf. Cecil 
Smith \nj. H. S. vii, 1886, pp. 375 fif. 

3. scripsit de sua arte : Introd. 
p. xl. 

Waucydes : above § 50. His im- 
molans arietem has been identified, 
but on purely fanciful reasons, with 
the Phrixos burning the thigh of a ram 
on the Akropolis, Paus. 1, 24, 2 (cf. 
Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 231). 

4. luctatore anhelante : epigram- 



matic, cf. XXXV, 71, lit ankelare senti- 
atur ; Reisch, Weihgeschenke, p. 45. 

5. STiceratus : Nim/paros EJktiJ- 
/joyos 'A6r]vaios, Frankel, Jnschr. aus 
Perg. 132; also /. G. B. 147, 496; 
works conjointly with Phyromachos, 
ib. 118 (from Delos). 

Aesculapium et H. : Frankel (Joe. 
cit.) suggests that the group was ori- 
ginally made for the Asklepieion at 
Pergamon, in which case it was pre- 
sumably transferred to Rome when 
the Romans inherited the Pergamene 
treasures by the will of Attalos II, 133 
B.C. 

6. Pyromachi : note on Niceratus 
above ; for an older namesake cf. 

§51- 

quadriga: possibly as a pendant to 
the group by Nikeratos of Alkibiades 
and his mother sacrificing, § 88 
(Frankel, loc. cit.). 

7. Polycles : not identical with 
the artist of | 50, while his identity 
with the Polykles of § 52 ( = xxxvi, 35) 
is uncertain. Nothing is known of his 
Hermaphrodite ; it cannot of course 
have been the marble recumbent figure, 
extant in so many replicas ; it should 
perhaps be sought for among the 
standing types of the Hermaphrodite 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



67 



craft of the servile character. Lykios too made a boy burning 
perfumes. 

By Menaichmos we have a calf on which a man is setting so 
his knee as he bends its neck back; Menaichmos also wrote 
a book on his art. The fame of Naukydes rests on his Hermes, 
his Sio-Ko^oXoi or Disk-thrower, and his man sacrificing a ram ; 
that of \Naukeros on his panting wrestler. Nikeratos (made) the 
Asklepios and Hygieia now in the temple of Concord at Rome. 
By Pyromachos we have a four-horse chariot driven by Alkibiades. 
Polykks made a famous Hermaphrodite, Pyrrhos a Hygieia and 
an Athena, ■\Phanis, the pupil of Lysippos, an iniBuovaa, or woman 
sacrificing. 

\Styppax of Cyprus is known by one statue only, the air\a-^x"(m- si 
Tijf, or Roaster of Entrails. This was a slave of Perikles the ff ^ j- 

' ' * Roaster of 

Olympian ; he is roasting entrails and blowing hard on the fire to Entrails: 
kindle it till his cheeks swell. Seilanion cast a portrait of ApoUo- 
doros, who was also a statuary, and among the most painstaking, 
a severe critic of his own work, who often broke up a finished 



(e. g. Berlin Cat. 193 ; see Herrmann 
ap. Roscher, i, pp. 23245?.). Addenda. 

8. Hygiam et Minervam : from 
the extant inscription ('ASiyroToi Tjj 
'ABijvaia rg "tyieia || IIvppos Ittoiijo'ci' 
'ASi^iaros /. G. B. 53) it appears that 
Pliny made one work into two. 
The statue is mentioned Pans, i, 23, 
4 (without name of artist), Plutarch, 
Per. 13, who says it was dedicated 
by Perikles to commemorate the 
miraculous cure of a favourite work- 
man employed on the Propylaia (see 
note on vernula below). Wolters, 
however, has shown on technical 
evidence {Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, p. 
153 £f.) that the statue must have been 
dedicated at a period subsequent to the 
commencement of the Peloponnesian 
war, and that Plutarch's narrative must 
consequently be a mere invention. 

I 81. 9. Styppax Cyprius : I see 
no reason for the doubts with regard 
to this name expressed by Loewy 
Untersuch. p. 30, against which see 
also Wolters, Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, 
p. 156, note I. 



10. splanchnopte : the motive of 
the statue and a probable copy are 
fully discussed by M. Mayer, Jahrb. 
viii, 1893, p. 224 and pi. iv. 

Periolis Ol. vernula : the story is 
told fully, xxii, 44; in spite of dis- 
crepancies it is apparently identical 
with the one narrated by Plutarch of 
the Athena Hygieia. The cause for 
the dedication of a statue by so im- 
portant a personage as Perikles would 
naturally be eagerly sought for ; the 
vicinity of the splanchnoptes to that of 
Athena in her character of ' Healer ' 
suggested a connexion between the 
two, and accounts for the legends told 
by Pliny and Plutarch. Cf. Wol- 
ters, loc. cit. ; Kuhnerdt, Stat. u. Ort, 
p. 274. 

12. Apollodorum: the date proved 
for Seilanion (§ 51) makes it impossible 
to identify the ApoUodoros either with 
the Sokratic philosopher (fl. b. c. 430- 
360) or with the artist of /. G. B. 55 
(in Pre-Eukleidan characters). /. G. B. 
218 records a third of the name. For 
the painter A. see xxxv, 60. 



F a 



68 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



signa frangentem, dum satiari cupiditate artis non quit, 

82 ideoque insanum cognominatum ; hoc in eo expressit, nee 
hominem ex aere fecit, sed iracundiam, et Achillem nobilem, 
item epistaten exercentem athletas, Strongylion Amazonem 
quam ab excellentia crurum eucnemon appellant, ob id in 5 
comitatu Neronis principis circumlatam. idem fecit puerum 
quern amando Brutus Philippensis cognomine suo inlustravit. 

83 Theodorus, qui labyrinthum fecit Sami, ipse se ex aere 
fudit, praeter similitudinis mirabilem famam magna sup- 
tilitate celebratus. dextra limam tenet, laeva tribus digitis lo 
quadrigulam tenuit translatam Praeneste, tantae parvitatis 
ut — mirum dictu — earn currumque et aurigam integeret alis 
simul facta musca. Xenocrates Tisicratis discipulus, ut alii 
Euthycratis, vicit utrosque copia signorum. et de sua 

8. fecit Sami, ipse] editores ante Sillig; fecit, Sami ipse Detlefsen. 12. 

mirum dictu] coni. Traube ; miraculo pictam Bamb. ; totam reliqui, DetUfsen. 



§ 82. 2. nee hominem . . . sed 
irao. : O. Jahn {KunsturtheiU, p. 
113) detected in these words a latent 
epigram; the phraseology, however, 
which was originally confined to col- 
loquial language and used as a rule 
in a disparaging sense, had become 
universal in Pliny's day; of. Quinct. 
X, I, 112 non iam hominis nomen sed 
eloquentiae habeatur ; H. S. Jones, 
Class. Rev. 1893, p. 224, cf. Baehrens, 
Catullus, p. 608. See Addenda. 

4. epistaten . . . athletas : votive 
statue, put up presumably by the 
athletes of a gymnasium ; thus the 
gymnasiarchs Menas and Metodoros 
at Sestos and Pergamon receive statues 
for honourable discharge of their 
duties, likewise the Koo-^T/ri^s Nym- 
phodotos at Athens receives a statue 
in the palaistra C. I. A. iii, 1104, see 
Kuhnerdt, Statue u. Ort, p. 308 [the 
words exercentem athletas were prob- 
ably taken from the descriptive 
epigram on the statue. — H. L. U.] 

Strongylion: /. G.B. 52 gives the 
inscr. belonging to his Sovpios ittttos 
(Pans, i, 23, 8), which from the allu- 
sion in Aiisloph.'OpviSis, 1128, must 



have been erected shortly before that 
play was produced in B. c. 414. 

Amazonem : we possibly have its 
copy in the charming equestrian sta- 
tuette in Naples (Friederichs-Wolters, 
1781 ; the opinion first expressed by 
Hoffman in Overbeck's Flastik, ed. 4, 
i, p. 506, note 14). By representing 
the Amazon on horseback, S. could 
not only display her legs, but likewise 
find scope for his talent as a sculptor 
of animals (Pans, ix, 30, t). 

6. oiroumlatam : above 1 48 ; we 
may conclude from this fact that the 
Amazon was a statuette. 

7- cognomine suo : Bruti puer. 
Martial, ii, 77 ; ix, 50; xiv, 171. 

§ 83. 8. Theodoras : his date 
may be approximately determined by 
the fact that he worked for Kroisos 
(B.C. 560-546), Herod, i, 51, and 
for Polykrates, Herod, iii, 41 (b. c. 
532?-52i), cf. xxxvii, 3. That there 
was only one artist of the name has 
now been admitted even by Overbeck 
{Flastik, 4th ed. 1893, p. 78). 

labyrinthum . . . Sami : i. c. the 
Heraion, of which his father Rhoikos 
(Herod, iii, 60) was the first archi- 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



6g 



statue, being unable to reach the ideal he aimed at; from this ,' 
he was called 'the madman.' This characteristic Seilanion ren- 82 
dered, and made his bronze not a portrait of an individual, but 
a figure of "Vexation itself. He also made a famous Achilles, 
and a trainer exercising his athletes. Strongylion made the Ama- 
zon surnamed the evKi/rjfins from the beauty of her legs ; it was 
because of this special feature that the Emperor Nero carried 
the statue about in his train. He also made the boy which 
Brutus of Philippi loved, and made illustrious by his name. 
Theodoras, the maker of the labyrinth at Samos, also cast a portrait 83 
of himself in bronze, famed as a wondrous likeness, and also 
celebrated for the extreme delicacy of the workmanship. The 
right hand holds a file, while three fingers of the left hand 
support a tiny team of four horses, which is now at Praeneste, Tiny 

so small that the team, marvellous to relate, with chariot sxiA '^""-"^ ""^ 

team by 
charioteer could be covered by the wings of a fly which the artist Theodoras. 

made to accompany it. Xenokrates was a pupil of Teisikrates, or, 

according to some authorities, of Euthykrates ; he outdid both in 



tect ; cf. xxxvi, 90, where the purely 
mythical labyrinthus Lemnius is a 
mist.ake of Pliny for lab. Samius 
(Urlichs, Anfange, 1871, p. 3, cf. 
Klein in Arch. Ep. Mitth. ix, 1885, 
p. 184) ; of Rhoikos and Theodores 
at least we know that they were itp- 
digenae not of Lemros bat of Samos 
i^aiiiot. Pans, viii, 14, 8 ; 'Por«os 
fmx<iipios, sc. of Samos, Herod, loc. cit. 

ipse se : cf. the portrait of the 
Kretan Cheirisophos, presumably by 
himself, ne.xt to his gilt statue of 
Apollo at Tegea, Paus. viii, 53, 7. 

10. laeva . . . quadrigulam : it 
is generally supposed that the little 
chariot was engraved on the base of 
a scarab (see e. g. the scarab, Brit. 
Mus. Cat. of Gems, pi. D, 254); 
Benndorf, Zts.fUr Oesterr. Gymnasien, 
1873, p. 406. Theodores was a 
famous gem-graver; yet the extant 
marvels of iuicpoTfx>'ia. accomplished 
in the goldsmith's art show that the exe- 
cution in the round of a microscopic 
chariot was no technical impossibility ; 
see note on Mymercides, xxxvi, 43. 



11. Praeneste : where the cele- 
brated temple oiForiuna Primigenia, 
like so many of the temples in Rome 
(cf. Friedlander, Darstellmtgen, ii, 
pp. 154 ff.), must have contained all 
sorts of curiosities (see R. Peter ap. 
Roscher, i, 1545). 

12. mirum dlotu: xviii, 160, so 
facile diciu, xxviii, 20 ; rarum 

didu, xiv, 132 ; incredibile diciu, 
XXXV, 88. 

earn : i. e. the team proper as dis- 
tinct from the currus and the auriga, 
likewise in xxxvi, 36 quadriga cur- 
rusque. 

13. Xenocrates : his identity with 
the Xenokrates of Athens, son of 
Ergophilos of /. G. B. 135 a and b 
(from Oropos), of /. G. ^. 135 c (from 
Elateia), and oi 'E(j>i]fi. &px<ii-oK. 1892, 
52 (from Oropos), though usually 
accepted, is nothing less than proven. 
See Introd. p. xx, note 3. 

Tisioratis : /. G. B. 120, from 
Oropos. 

14. Euthyoratis : above § 67 
[from the fact that this and the two 



70 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

84 arte composuit volumina. plures artifices fecere Attali et 
Eumenis adversus Gallos proelia, Isigonus, Pyromachus, 
Stratonicus, Antigonus qui volumina condidit de sua arte. 
Boethi, quamquam argento melioris, infans amplexando 
anserem strangulat. atque ex omnibus quae rettuli clarissima 5 
quaeque iam sunt dicata a Vespasiano principe in templo 
Pacis aliisque eius operibus, violentia Neronis in urbem con- 

85 vecta et in sellariis domus aureae disposita. praeterea sunt 
aequalitate celebrati artifices, sed nullis operum suorum 
praecipui, Ariston qui et argentum caelare solitus est, Cal- 10 
lides, Ctesias, Cantharus Sicyonius, Dionysodorus Critiae 
discipulus, Deliades, Euphorion, Eunicus et Hecataeus 
argenti caelatores, Lesbocles, Prodorus, Pythodicus, Poly- 
gnotus idem pictor e nobilissimis, item e caelatoribus 

86 Stratonicus, Scymnus Critiae discipulus. nunc percensebo 15 

4. amplexando] Trauhe; sex anno Bamh. (sex annis e «?■?-.) ; eximiae Voss. ; 
eximie Rice, Detlefsen ; annosum coni. Bvecheler in Herondas, p. 35 ; 
vi annosnm coni. R. Meister in Mimiamben des Herondas, p. 708. 1 1 . Diony- 
sius, Diodorus Detlefsen ; Diodorus Bamb. ; dionysiodorus Rice, Voss. 

preceding names contain the common Pyromaclius : above § 80. 

element -KpaTrjs it would appear that 3. volumina ; Introd. p. xxxvi. 

the bearers all belonged to the same 4. Boethi ; of Chalkedon (Paus. 

family, cf. Fick, Griech. Personen- v, 17, 4, where Schnbart, however, 

namen, p. xi. — H. L. U.]. reads Kapx';^''''"") ; identical with the 

1. volumina : Introd. p. xvi. silver-chaser of xxxiii, 155. In the 
I 84. Attali : i. e. Attalos I, B. C. Heraion of Olympia Pausanias saw 

241-197. the gilt statue of a boy by him. 

2. Eumenis:!. e. II, B.C. 197-159. quamquam elliptical, i. e. 'although 
Gallos : Atialus cos rex saepefiAdit more renowned as a silver chaser, yet 

fugavitque, Liv. xxxviii, 17, 15, the I may mention . . .' The artist of 

dates however are obscure (see Loewy the portrait of Antiochos Epiphanes 

on /. G. B. 154, pp. 117 f.); the (/. G. B. 210) belongs to a later 

other victories commemorated in the period, while a third Boethos, belong- 

Pergamene inscriptions are those of ing to the first quarter of the first 

Attalos I over Antiochos Hierax in century B.C., is known from Bull. d. 

228 B. c. Corr. Hell, xi, p. 263. 

Isigonus : neither his name nor infans : preserved in a number of 

those of Stratonikos (below § 90) or replicas, Munich, Glypt. 140 ; Capi- 

Antigonos, have turned up among tol, Helbig, Class. Ant. 518. The 

the Fergamene inscriptions ; Michaelis same subject (without the artist's 

(yiiAri.viii, 1893, p. 131) accordingly name) is mentioned Herond. iv, 31 

proposes to alter the Isigonus of Pliny t\v xrpiaXiivtKo. ws to vatSiov irviyet | 

to Efigonus, but on grounds which rpd -rSiv troZSiv fovv tt ri nij XiSos 

are insufficient. roipyoy | epus AoX^ffec (ed. O. Cru- 



//. BRONZE STATUARY ^^ 

the number of statues that he produced, and he also wrote books 
on his art. 

The battles of Attalos and Eumenes against the Gauls were 84 
represented by several artists, ^Isimnos, Pyromachos, Stratonikos '''"'''^ 
and Antigonos who also wrote books on his art. rating the 

Bo'ethos, though greater as a worker in silver, made a child '"Iff,*" "^j 
hugging a goose till he throttles it. Eumenes. 

The best of all the works I have mentioned have now been ■*'"■''^''^■ 
dedicated at Rome by the emperor Vespasian in the temple of 
Peace and in his other galleries, Nero having first brought them 
by the strong hand to Rome, and placed them in the apartments 
of the Golden House. 

I add a list of artists whose works are of equal excellence, 85 
though no single one is of supreme merit. Such are Ariston, who !^^"j "■' 
also worked in silver, ^Kallides, \Ktesias, Kantharos of Sikyon, rank. 
Dionysodoros the pupil of Kritios, \Deliades, ■\Euphorion, Eunikos 
and Hekataios, the silver chasers ; \Lesbokles, iFrodoros, ^Pytho- 
dikos, and Polygnotos, who was also among the most famous 
painters. Others who were also silver chasers were Stratonikos 
and \Skymnos the pupil of Kritios. 

sins, who suggests the basis alone to 7. violentia Iferonis ; for hatred 

have been of marble — cf. Anth.Pal. of Nero, ef. above § 45, xxxv, 51, 

ix, 719 — and accordingly assumes 120. Introd. p. xcii. 

identity with the Plinian group, cf. §85. 9. aequalitate : i.e. of merit, 

Untersuchungen zur Mimiamhen des Fnrtwangler, Plinius, p. 11. 

Herondas 1892, p. 82). Identity 10. Ariston: xxxiii, 156; a painter 

likewise assumed by Buecheler and of the name, xxxv, iio-lii; cf. on 

Meister (above text notes). The /. G. B. 275 a. 

action of the child, who is really Callides : a painter of the name 

squeezing the goose in his embrace, in Lucian, Dial. Meretr. viii, 3, cf. 

is exactly described by the word am- Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 311. 

flexando, as now restored from the 11. Cantharus : son of Alexis, 

reading of Cod. Bamb. Addenda. pupil of Eutychides (above § 78), 

5. ex omnibus . . . clarissima : Pans, vi, 3, 6; 17, 7. 

rhetorical ilattery intended to please Dionysodoros : an artist of the 

Pliny's patron Vespasian, cf. xxxvi^ name, /. G. B. 243 (from Delos, B. C. 

102 ; so too Josephus, Bell.Jud. vii, no) ; a painter, xxxv, 146. 

5, 7 (Niese, vol. vi, p. 591) says: Critiae: perhaps identical with the 

■ulana . . . €is iKiivav rbv viib (sc. Kritios in § 49. 

Tempi. Pac) avv/ixBl "al KartriB-q, Si' 12. Eunious et Heo. : xxxiii, 156. 

Siv rtjv 6iav dvOpanrot Trp6Tepoi/ irepl 13. Polygnotus: xxxv, 58; known 

iraaav tir\avSivTo rtjv oiicov^ivriv. The as a sculptor only from Pliny. 

templum Pads was ded. A. D. 75, after 15. Stratonicus : presumably iden- 

the conquest of Judaea; fall literature tical with the Str. of § 84 and of 

Gilbert, Pom. iii, p. 135, note 3. § 90. 



72 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



eos qui eiusdem generis opera fecerunt, ut Apollodorus, 
Androbulus, Asclepiodorus, Aleuas philosophos, Apellas 
et adornantes se feminas, Antignotus et luctatores, perixyo- 
menum tyrannicidasque supra dictos, Antimachus, Athe- 
nodorus feminas nobiles, Aristodemus et luctatores bigasque 5 
cum auriga, philosophos, anus, Seleucum regem. habet 
87 gratiam suam huius quoque doryphorus. Cephisodoti 
duo fuere : prioris est Mercurius Liberum patrem in infantia 
nutriens, fecit et contionantem manu elata, persona in 
incerto est. sequens philosophos fecit. Colotes qui cum 10 
Phidia lovem Olympium fecerat philosophos, item Cleon et 
Cenchramis et Callicles et Cepis, Chalcosthenes et comoedos 
et athletas, Daippus perixyomenon, Daiphron et Damo- 



§ 86. I. qui eiusdem generis : 
for the practice of classifying works 
of art according to the artistic mo- 
tive cf. Furtwangler, Dornauszieher, 
pp. 20 f. 

Apollodorus: above § 81. 

2. Asclepiodorus : a painter of the 
name, xxxv, 107. 

philosophos : Furtwangler, /?«?-»- 
auszieher, pp. 24 f., has pointed ont 
that under this rubric must be under- 
stood not only philosophers in a re- 
stricted sense, but in general portraits 
of distinguished personages. 

Apellas : son of Kallikles, makes 
for Olympia the chariot of Kyniska 
(/. G. B. 99 = Pans, vi, i, 6), sister of 
Agesilaos (died B. c. j6o) of Sparta. 
Cf. note on Callicles in § 87. Add. 

3. adornantes se ; cf. the pseli- 
umene in § 70. 

Antignotus : an artist of the name, 
/. G. B. 314-316 (Augustan). 

4. supra dictos : descriptive of 
the actual personages portrayed ; un- 
necessary difficulty has been caused 
(cf. Loewy on /. G. B. 314) by as- 
suming that they referred to the group 
mentioned in § 70. 

Athenodorus : xxxvi, 37. 

5. Aristodemus : according to Ta- 
tian, p. 36, 9 (ed. Schwartz), makes a 
statue of Aisop, i.e. a work which 



would fall under the heading of 
philosopki. 

6. anus : votive portraits of priest- 
esses, such as that of Lysimache, above 
§ 76. Yxat-m'ixi^tt, Dornauszieher, p.26. 

Seleucum regem: above § 73. 

7. quoque : [i. e. as well as the 
more celebrated Doryphoros of Poly- 
kleitos in § 55. — H. L. U.]. 

I 87. Cephisodoti duo: (a) the 
artist of the Eirene, Pans, ix, 16, 
1, possibly father or brother of the 
great Praxiteles (cf. note on § 50) ; ifi) 
a son of Praxiteles, xxxvi, 24. 

8. Mercurius . . . nutriens : the 
motive is identical with that of the 
Praxitelean Hermes. Addenda. 

9. manu elata : the raised hand 
not being an action of Greek oratory 
(where even to allow the hand to 
protrude much from the cloak was 
thought unseemly, Aischines c. Tim. 
25), it is probable that the statue be- 
longed to the class adorantes, and 
that its gesture was misinterpreted by 
a Roman writer as being the familiar 
manus elata of the Roman orators 
(Milchhbffer, Arch. Studien H. Brunn 
dargeb. 1892, p. 39). A recent con- 
jecture manu velata as the equivalent 
of the ivTbs TTjv x^V*^ ex^^ of Aisch. 
loc. cit. has met with little favour, c£ 
S. Reinach in Chron. d' Orient, 1893, 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



73 



I will now enumerate those who made statues of the same 86 
class, as ApoUodoros, \Androboulos, Askkpiodoros and t^/i?«fl^, who u"'^^. 
made philosophers ; Apellas, who also made women adorning statues of 
themselves, Anttgnotos, who also made wrestlers, a nepi^vonevos or " ™'"^ 
athlete scraping himself, and statues of the tyrant-slayers whom 
I have mentioned, and ■\Antimachos and Atkenodoros, who made 
statues of renowned women. Aristodemos also made wrestlers, two- 
horse chariots with charioteer, and figures of philosophers, of old 
women, and of king Seleukos ; his Spear-bearer too has a charm 
of its own. There were two artists of the name of Kephisodotos ; 87 
by the first we have a Hermes nursing the infant Dionysos. He 
also made a statue of a man haranguing with uplifted hand; 
the person represented is not known. The younger Kephisodotos 
made statues of philosophers, and so did Kolotes, who had 
worked with Pheidias on his Olympian Zeus, Kkon, Kenchramos, 
Kallikles, and '\ Kepis ; Chalkosthenes also made statues of comic 
actors and athletes. Daippos made a iref)t^v6fievos or athlete scraping 
himself, \ Daiphron, Damokritos, and -[Daimon philosophers 
W. Gurlitt in Berl. Phil. Woch. of the lovely bronze head of the boy- 



p-9; 

1895, p. 1230. 

persona in ineerto : \\. e. the in- 
scription was effaced, or no longer 
extant. — H. L. U.] So Pausanias, vi, 
15, 7, speaks of the statue of an un- 
known individual as av^p otrris 5^. 

10. Colotes: xxxv, 54. 

11. Cleon : of Sikyon, pupil of 
Antiphanes, himself pupil of Poly- 
kleitos, Pans, v, 1 7, 4, where a bronze 
Aphrodite by him is mentioned ; ib. 
21,3 (two bronze Zanes, /. G. B. 95, 
96) ; the remaining four statues by 
him (vi, 1,5; 3, 10 ; 8, 5 ; 9, 2 ; 10, 
9) all belong to the class athletae. 
For his school cf. Furtwangler, Master- 
pieces, p. 278. 

12. Cenohramis: /. G. B. 70, 71 
(both from Athens), where he is named 
with Pdlymnestos (/. G.B. 72). Add. 

Callioles : son of Theokosmos of 
Megara, Paus. vi, 7, I (where his 
statue of the illustrious TTepioSovixTjs 
Diagoras of Rhodes is mentioned) ; 
father of Apellas (above § 86). F. 
Hauser {Horn. Mittheil. x, 1895, pp. 
97-119) would see in him the artist 



pugilist, Munich, Glypt. 302, and of the 
original of the basalt statue of an- 
other pugilist in the Terme Mus. {ib. 
pi. I). 

Chalcostlienes : apparently an 
error for Chaecosthenes (Ka'iKoffdivrjs), 
brother of Dies and son of ApoUonides, 
/. G.B. 113-117, 220, see note on 
xxxv, 155. In connexion with the 
votive-statues of comoedi mentioned 
here, it is interesting to note that 
/. G. B. 220 is from the theatre of 
Dionysos at Athens ; cf. A^Kriov, 
1891, p. 84, 1. Like Epigonos (| 88) 
he is known only from Pliny and the 
inscriptions. 

13. Daippus : above § 51 ; for 
athlete statues by him cf. Paus. vi, 12, 
6; 16, 5. 

Damoeritus : From Paus. vi, 3, 5 
we learn that he was a Sikyonian, 
a pupil of Pison of Kalaureia (Paus. 
X, 9, 8), and fifth in school descent 
from the Attic artist Kritios. His 
identity with the ArjiiSicpiTos oil. G.B. 
484 and Diogenes Laertios, ix, 49 is 
doubtful. 



74 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



88 critus et Daemon philosophos. Epigonus omnia fere prae- 
dicta imitatus praecessit in tubicine et matri interfectae 
infante miserabiliter blandiente. Eubuli mulier admirans 
laudatur, Eubulidis digitis computans. Micon athletis specta- 
tur, Menogenes quadrigis. nee minus Niceratus omnia quae 5 
ceteri adgressus repraesentavit Alcibiaden lampadumque 

89 accensu matrem eius Demaraten sacrificantem. Tisicratis 
bigae Piston mulierem inposuit, idem fecit Martem et Mer- 
curium qui sunt in Concordiae templo Romae. Perillum 
nemo laudet saeviorem Phalaride tyranno, cui taurum fecit lo 
mugitus hominis poUicitus igni subdito, et primus expertus 
cruciatum eum iustiore saevitia. hue a simulaeris deorum 

II. et] Bamb. ; ex reliqui ; exprimere Deilefsen. 



§ 88. I. Epigonus : known from 
a series of Pergamene inscriptions. 
Frankel, Inschriften aus Pergamon, 
12; 21-28; 29; 31 ( = /. G.B. 157); 
32 (= /. G. B. 157 a). The great 
bathron to which 21-28 belongs com- 
memorates the close of the war in B. c. 
228, against Antiochos and the Galatai. 

omnia fere : rhetorical; cf. cla- 
rissima quaeque in § 84 ; omnibus fere 
quae fecit, xxxvi, 13. 

2. tubicine : since Epigonos 
worked for the Pergamene kings, it 
has been suggested that his tubicen 
represented a Gaul with his war 
trumpet such as the famous 'dying 
Gaul ' of the Capitol (Helbig, Class. 
Ant. p. 398, where see literature). 
[The statue, however, may, as Winckel- 
mann suggested, have been simply the 
votive-portrait of the winner in the 
contest of heralds, such as that of 
Archias of Hybla at Delphoi, cf. Pol- 
lux, iv, 92, Preger, Inscr. 143, or that 
of Phorystas at Olympia, /. G. B. 
J 19. For it tubicen by the painter 
Antidotes see xxxv, 130.— H. L. U.] 
Add. 

matri interfectae : for the mo- 
tive cf. xxxv, 98; S. Reinach {Rev. 
des £tudes Grecques, 1894, p. 41 ff.) 
suggests that the group was of a 



Gaulish mother and her child, and 
belonged to the same series as the 
' Dying Gaul ' and the so-called 
'Arrius and Pacta' of the Villa Ludo- 
visi, Helbig, Class. Ant. 884. Add. 

3. Hubuli : his name has been 
suggested in /. G. B. 235. For his 
mulier admirans cf. above § 78. 

4. Eubulidis : his name alter- 
nates with that of Eucheiros (below 
§ 91) on a series of inscriptions 
(/. G. B. 223-229, 544) belonging 
apparently to one family of artists; 
dates uncertain. 

digitija computans : [the gesture 
which is expressive of pondering or 
meditation might be given to any 
number of portraits oi fhilosophi ; cf. 
Lucian, Timon, 122, avveaTrafcibs robs 
SaKTv\ovs irpos rb eOos rwv \oyifffjL&y ; 
Plin. £:p. ii, 20, 3 : composuit vultum, 
intendit oculos, movet labra, agitat 
digitos, computat. This observation, 
coupled with the fact that, had the 
digitis computans been the portrait of 
a celebrated man, the name would 
not have been forgotten, disposes of 
Milchhoffer's theory {Arch. Studien 
H. Brunn dargebr. pp. 37 ff.) that 
the personage represented was Chrys- 
ippos. — H. L. U.] 

Micon : identical with the painter, 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



75 



Epigonos produced examples of almost all the subjects I have 88 
mentioned, and surpassed them in his trumpeter and his infant J^'^^ ^„^ 
piteously caressing its dead mother. ■\Euboulos is praised for child by 
his woman in amazement, and Euboulides for his man reckoning ^P^S""^'- 
on his fingers. Mikon's athletes are admired, and the four-horse 
chariots of Menogenes. Nikeratos too attempted the same sub- 
jects as these artists, and also made statues of Alkibiades and 
his mother Demarate sacrificing by torchlight. Piston made a 89 
woman, to be placed in a two-horse chariot by Teisikrates, also 
the statues of Ares and of Hermes which stand in the temple of 
Concord at Rome. Perillos it is impossible to praise : he showed Bull of 
a cruelty greater than that of the tyrant Phalaris, for whom he ■ 
made a bull, promising that if a fire were lighted under it the 
cries of the man inside would sound like the animal's bellowing, 
a torture which cruelty for once righteous made him the first to 
suffer. From representations of gods' and men he had dragged 



Phalaris. 



XXXV, 59. The fact that he made 
statues of athletes has beau confirmed 
by /. G. B. 41, from the statue of 
the TreptoSoviitris Kallias (Ol. 77 = 
B. c. 472) ; and /. G. B. 42. 

5. Uioeratus : above § 80, where 
see note on his Alkibiades. 

6. lampadum acoensu : i. e. she 
held a torch, possibly in each hand ; 
the word accensu, however, makes 
me suspect a latent epigram, Introd. 
p. xliv, note 2. 

7. Demaraten ; her name was 
however AeivoiiixV' Plat. ^Ic. 105, 
d, &c. [The name Demarate may 
have crept into Pliny's authority 
through an error in transcribing the 
inscription on the group. — H. L. U.] 

§ 89. Tisioratis : above § 83 ; 
malierem inposuit, cf. § 71 on 
Xalamis and the Elder Praxiteles ; 
the mulier vifas possibly a Nike. 

9. Perilliim : the Latin form. He 
also appears as Perilaos in Lucian, 
according to whom {Phal. i, 11) he 
was a native of Akragas ; for the late 
notion that he was an Athenian, see 
Freeman, Bist. of Sicily, ii, p. 75, 
note 2. 

10. FhaJaride : vli, 200; B.C. 570- 



564 is now generally accepted as the 
date of his Tupavm, Bentley, Diss, on 
the Epistles of Phalaris (ed. 1699), 
pp. 2 7 ff. ; Freeman, Sicily, ii, pp. 
458 f. 

taurum fecit : the earliest men- 
tion of the brazen bull is by Pindar, 
Pyth. i, 184 ; its mechanism is fully 
described by Polybios, xii, 25. The 
bull was reputed to have been taken 
to Carthage on the sack of Akra- 
gas by the Carthaginians, B. c. 403 ; 
it was brought back and restored 
to the Carthaginians by the Younger 
Scipio, Cic. Verr. II, iv, 34, § 73. 
See Freeman, op. cit. Appendix, 
vii, where the story of the bull is 
fully discussed. It early became 
a locus communis of rhetoric (cf. 
Kalkmann in Rhein. Mus. xlii, 
1887, pp. 513 ff.), which accounts 
for the high colonring of Pliny's 
language. Introd. p. xciii. 

II. mugitus hominis : Mugiet, 
et veri vox erit ilia boms, Ovid, Trist. 
iii, II, 48. 

primus expertus : cf. Diodoros, 
ix, 19; Ovid, loc. cit.; and Ars Amat. 
i, 653 ; Lucian, Phalaris, i, 12. 



76 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



hominumque devocaverat humanissimam artem. ideo tot 
conditores eius laboraverant ut ex ea tormenta fierent! 
itaque una de causa servantur opera eius, ut quisquis ilia 

90 videat oderit manus. Sthennis Cererem, lovem, Minervam 
fecit, qui sunt Romae in Concordiae templo, idem flentes 5 
matronas et adorantes sacrificantesque. Simon canem et 
sagittarium fecit, Stratonicus caelator ille philosophos, 

91 Scopas *uterque*, athletas 3.utem et armatos et venatores 
sacrificantesque Baton, Euchir, Glaucides, Heliodorus, 
Hicanus, *Iophon* Lyson, Leon, Menodorus,Myagrus,Poly- 10 
crates, Polyidus, Pythocritus, Protogenes idem pictor e 
clarissimis, ut dicemus, Patrocles, Pollis, Posidonius qui 
et argentum caelavit nobiliter, natione Ephesius, Pericly- 
menus, Philon, Symenus, Timotheus, Theomnestus, Ti- 
marchides, Timon, Tisias, Thrason. ex omnibus autem 15 



8. scopas] codd. ; copas Gerhard, Detlefsen. 
Chresi. p. 91 ; olophon Bamb. ; lophon reliqui. 



10. lophon] Urlichs in 



§ 90. 4. Sthennis : above §51. 

5. flentes matronas : grave por- 
trait statues, cf. above on § 70. 

6. adorantes sacrificantesque : 
<^f' §§ 73> 78. On these rubrics see 
the remarks of Furtwangler, Dom- 
auszieher, pp. 22 ff. 

Simon : his identity with the Aigi- 
netan artist of the name (Paus. v, 
27, 2), employed with Dionysios of 
Argos on the Olympic votive-offer- 
ings of Phormis of Mainalos, is 
uncertain. 

canem et sagittarium : i. e. a 
votive-portrait of a Kretan or Scythian 
bowman with his dog ; cf Furtwangler, 
op. cit., p. 93. 

7. Stratonicus: xxxiii, 156; above 
§§ 84, 85. 

8. Scopas uterque : although the 
MSS. are unanimous, no satisfactory 
sense can be got out of the reading. 
Skopas, as the name of the artist, is 
q^te in place in the alphabetical 
enumeration, but we cannot follow 
Klein {Arch. Ep. Mitth. iv, p. 22 ff.) 
in assuming a lacuna after uterque, or 
in seeing in the uterque a confirma- 



tion of his double Skopas (above note 
on§49, 1. 13). My own view is that the 
uterque is a very ancient corruption, 
and conceals the name of the work of 
art made by Skopas. It has also been 
suggested that scopas is the ace. pi. 
either of <r/nu^ (Satyric dancers, see 
Urlichs's note in Chrest. p. 331) or 
ff/tcJiras (Satyr on the • look-out), in 
which case the uterque would refer 
back to Simon and Stratonikos. 
SKOrA* is inscribed above a Satyr 
on a vase with the Apotheosis of 
Herakles (Munich, Jahn Cat. 384 = 
Mon.d. Inst, iv, pi. 41, Ann. xi, Tav. 
d'Agg. O); but the fact that the 
next Satyr is inscribed TBPI2 shows 
that we have here no generic term, 
but merely an epithet applied to one 
particular Satyr (cf. the diroaKowevax' 
of Antiphilos in xxxv, 138). Finally 
besides the copas ( = castanet dancers), 
of Gerhard, Urlichs in Pergamen. 
Inschriften, p. 23, has suggested 
scyphos. See Addenda. 

§ 91. athletas : for this and the 
following rubrics cf. adorantes sacri- 
ficantesque above. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 



77 



down the most humanizing of arts to this level, and the early 
masters had only laboured to the end that instruments of torture 
should be created by its means. The works of Perillos, in con- 
sequence, are preserved only that whoever sees them may loathe 
the hand that made them. Sthennis made statues of Demeter, 90 
Zeus and Athena, which are at Rome in the temple of Concord ; 
also matrons weeping, praying, or sacrificing. Simon made a dog 
and an archer, Stratonikos, known also as a silver chaser, made 
statues of philosophers, and Skopas . . . 

We have statues of athletes, armed men, hunters, and men 91 
sacrificing, by Baton, Eucheir, iGlaukides, Heliodoros, \Hikanos, ^^'"^^j 
■\Iophon, Lyson, Leon, Menodoros, Myagros, Polykrates, ^Polyeidos, statues of 
Pythokritos, Protogenes, who was also, as will be said later on, "■tfi-l^*"- 
a painter of the highest renown, Patrokks, •\Pollis, Poseidonios, an 
Ephesian by nationality, who is also famous for his silver chasing, 
Periklymenos, Phi/on, Symenos, Timotheos, Ttieomnestos, Timar- 
chides, Timon, iTeisias, and Thrason. 



Baton : above § 73. 
EuoUr : note on Eubulidis above 
§ 88. 
Heliodorus : xxxvi, 35. 

10. lophon: Vatolophonal Bamh. 
points to it longer name. Loewy, 
Untersuch. p. 39, note 31 suggests 
Herophon (/. G. B. 380, from a 
basis found at Olympial. 

Iiyson : he made a statue of De- 
mos whicli stood in the Bouleuterion 
at Athens, Pans, i, 3, 5. 

Iieou: perhaps =/. G. B. 148, 

Menodoros : an artist of the name 
made a copy of the Eros of Praxiteles 
at Thespiai, Paus. ix, 27, 4. 

Myagrus : of Phokaia, Vitrav. iii, 
Praef. 2. 

Polycrates : for a doubtful in- 
scription with this name cf. /. G. B* 
482. 

1 1. Pythooritus : son of Timo- 
charis of Rhodes, /. G. B. 174-176, 
Ath. Mitth. xvi, 1891, pp. 120 f. = 
Jahrb. ix, 1 894, p. 41 . It is interesting 
to note that /. G. B. 1 74 belonged to 
the statue of a priest, i. e. to the class 
sacrificantes (Brunn, K. G. i, p. 461); 



while /. G. B. 176, from the statue ol 
an Olympic winner, belongs to the 
class athletae. 

1 2. Patrooles : above § 50. 
Posidonius ; xxxiii, 156. 

13. Periolymenus : Tatian, p. 35, 
28 (ed. Schvrartz), ti /ioi Sid toj/ 
XitfuicKvfiivov -jivawv (Eutychis Plin. 
vii, 34), Q-rnp kfcvrjffe rpidKovra irdida?, 
cbs 0aVftaffT&v ^etaOe t5 Karavoeiy 
TToiijfia ; Brunn, JC G. i, p. 473. 

14. Philon : Tatian, p. 36, 17 
(ed. Schwartz), mentions a statue of 
Hephaistion (cf. above § 64) by 
him ; he vfould thus belong to the age 
of Alexander. 

Symenus : /. G. B. 84 (latter half 
of sixth century). 

Timotheus : xxxvi, 35. 

Theomnestus : a painter of the 
name, xxxv, 107. 

Tiraarchides : xxxvi, 35. 

15. Timon: probably = /. G. B. 
234 (from Athens). 

Thrason : a figure of Hekate and 
a fountain, a Penelope and Eurykleia 
(in a group ?) are mentioned, Strabo, 
xiv, p. 641 ; cf. Brunn, Jv. G.i, p. 421. 



78 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXIV 



92 maxime cognomine insignis est Callimachus semper calum- 
niator sui, nee finem habentis diligentiae,ob id catatexitechnus 
appellatus, memorabili exemplo adhibendi et curae modum. 
huius sunt saltantes Lacaenae, emendatum opus sed in quo 
gratiam omnem diligentia abstulerit. hunc quidem et s 
pictorem fuisse tradunt. non aere captus, nee arte, unam 

A.tT.c. 698. tantum Zenonis statuam Cypria expeditione non vendidit 
Cato, sed quia philosophi erat, ut obiter hoc quoque noscatur 

93 tarn inane exemplum. in mentione statuarum est et 
una non praetereunda, quamquam auctoris incerti, iuxta 10 
rostra, Herculis tunicati, sola eo habitu Romae, torva facie, 
sentiensque suprema tunicae. in hac tres sunt tituli : L. 

A.u.c. 691. LucuUi imperatoris de manubiis, alter: pupillum Luculli 
filium ex S. C. dedicasse, tertius : T. Septimium Sabinum 
aed. cur. ex privato in publicum restituisse. tot certaminum 15 
tantaeque dignationis simulacrum id fuit. 

12. sentientique re/«y«8. tnnica r«/8^««. 



§ 92. I. CaUimachus : his date 
can be approximately fixed at the 
close of the fifth century, from the fact 
that he is credited (Vitr. iv, i, 10) 
with the ' invention,' i. e. introduction 
into Greece, of the Corinthian capital, 
which Skopas (Paus. viii, 45, 5) em- 
ployed in the temple at Tegea (Ol. 
96 = 3.0.396). Addenda. 

calumniator sui : cf. Quinct. x, 
I, 115 : invent qui Calvum prae- 
ferrent omnibus, inveni qui Ciceroni 
crederent, eum nimia contra se ca- 
lumnia verutn sanguinem perdidisse. 

2. catatexitechnus : Fans, i, 26, 
7 ; Vitmv. ioc. cit. ; Call, qui propter 
elegantiam ac subtilitatem artis 
tnarfnoreae ab Atheniensibus catatexi- 
technus fuerat nominatus ; Brunn, 
K. G. i, p. 254 aptly compares the 
use of KaTaT-fjiceLV in Dionys. JI. de vi 
Dem. 51 : Ou 7a/> 5^ rot, irXao-rat y^v 
KoX ypatp€ts iv iKr^ <p6apT^ xeipwv fit- 
GTOvias ivZcitcvv p.ivot roaovTov^ elff- 
<[)€povTai iTovoiis, uffre koX (p\4l3ta Kal 
iTTiKa mt x^'ous tcai rd tovtois Sftoia 
els anpov t^epya^eaSai «al HaraTrjKHv 
cis ravra ras tcxvols. 



4. saltantes Xiacaenae : Furt- 
wangler {Afasterpieces, p. 438 ; id. fig. 
179) inclines to recognize the type in 
the dancing girls wearing the Kala- 
thiskos so common on later reliefs 
and gems. 

5. gratiam . . . abstulerit : this 
judgement flatly contradicts the words 
ofVitruviusquotedabove(cf. also Paus. 
loc.cit.) ; aninterestingevidenceofdiver- 
gence of opinion among ancient critics. 

et pictorem fuisse : cf. of Pytha- 
goras, § 60 ; of Fheidias, xxxv, 54. 

7. Zenonis : he was boin at Kition. 
His features are known from the bust 
at Naples, Schuster, Ueier die erhal- 
tenen Porirdts der Gr. Philosophen, 
pi. iv, I, I a. 

Cypria expeditione : vii, 113, 
when Cato went to Cyprus as Quaestor 
cum iure practorio to confiscate the 
property of Ptolemy, which was put 
up to auction. 

§93. 10. auctoris incerti : this 
suffices to discredit the proposed 
identification of this statue with the 
Herakles of Polykles, mentioned Cic. 
ad Alt. vi, I, 17. 



//. BRONZE STATUARY 79 

Of all artists, however, Kallimachos has received the most dis- 02 
tinctive name. He was always too severe a critic of himself, and -^a^'^^*- 
incessantly laborious; from this he received the surname oi'^mggkr' 
KaTa-nj^iTexvos, Or the Niggler — a noteworthy warning that even 
diligence has its limits. By him we have a group of Spartan 
girls dancing, a work of faultless technique, which has, however, 
lost all charm through over elaboration. Some authorities say 
that Kallimachos was also a painter. 

The statue of Zeno was the only one which Cato did not sell 56 b. c. 
when commissioner in Cyprus ; this, however, was not because 
he valued the bronze or the workmanship, but because the statue 
was that of a philosopher, a trivial incident, yet not unworthy of 
passing notice. 

In speaking of statues there is one which ought not to be 93 
omitted, although the artist is unknown. It stands close to the -^'"'«*''«^ 

. wearing 

K.ostra, and represents Herakles wearmg the tunic ; it is the only the tunic. 
one of him in Rome in that dress: the wild expression of the >,^; 
face shows that he is feeling the last agonies of the tunic. There J^' 
are three inscriptions upon it : one states that it is part of the 
plunder taken by Lucius Lucullus, the second that the son of 63 b. c. 
LucuUus, while still a minor, dedicated it in pursuance of a de- 
cree of the Senate, the third that Titus Septimius Sabinus when 
curule aedile made it once more a public monument. These 
inscriptions show the rivalry occasioned by the statue, and the 
value set on it. 



II. torva facie: the description 12. tres sunt tituli : showing that 

shows clearly to what school the the statue had changed place three 

Herakles belonged ; the hero trjdng times ; where it stood on its first 

to extricate himself from the burning dedication is unknown. The son of 

robe irresistibly recalls the Laokoon Lucullus re-dedicated it near the (old) 

tearing away the snakes. That the Rostra. Then, owing to the numerous 

tunica was the fatal robe sent by changes which took place in the Fornm 

Deianeira is a suggestion first made it was removed and fell into private 

by Tumebus, Advers. lib. xvi, 487. hands; the restoration by T. Sep- 

Though the reading sentiensque timius Sab. was in virtue of his office 

supremo, tuniccie is not absolutely as aedile, by which he had charge of 

beyond suspicion, I see no reason for public buildings and statues. 
following Peter [ap. Roscher, i, 2941) 13. de manubiis : on the occasion 

in denying (cf. Urlichs in Chrest. of his triumph B. c. 63. 
p. 333) the allusion to the poisoned pupiUum : he was the ward of 

tunic. The subject seems to have been Cato {Cic.deFin. iii, 2) and Cicero 

represented in painting by Aristeides {Att. xiii, 6). 
(Polybios, ap. Strabo, viii, p. 381). 



8o C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXIV 

14,0 Aristonidas artifex cum exprimere vellet Athamantis 
furorem Learcho filio praecipitato residentem paenitentia, 
aes ferrumque miscuit ut robigine eius per nitorem aeris 
relucente exprimeretur verecundiae rubor, hoc signum 

141 exstat hodie Rhodi. est in eadem urbe et ferreus Hercules, 5 
quern fecit Alcon laborum dei patientia inductus. vide- 
mus et Romae scyphos e ferro dicatos in templo Martis 
Ultoris. 

I. Aristonidas : xxxv, 146, where Athamantis furorem : recalls snch 

his son Mnasitimos is mentioned subjects as Herakles grieving for his 

among the painters KOK j]j»z»3z7«j / cf. madness, xxxv, 141. The Athamas 

/. G. B. 197 (inscr. more completely was perhaps inspired by the Ino of 

given by Hiller von Gaertringen, Euripides, where the murder of Lear- 

/. G. Ins. i, 855), which shows that M. chos occurred, 

was also a sculptor like his father. 4. verecundiae rubor : cf. Plu- 



II. BRONZE STATUARY 8i 

The artist Aristonidas in a statue representing Athamas after 14,0 
the murder of his son sought to depict fury giving place to Yronin 
repentance, and mixed copper and iron, that the rust might show statms. 
through the metallic lustre of the copper and express the blush of 
shame ; this statue exists to this day at Rhodes, where also is 141 
a Herakles which Alkon bethought himself to cast in iron, in 
allusion to the fortitude of the god under his labours. We can 
also see cups of iron at Rome, dedicated in the temple of Mars 
the Avenger. 

tarch's description of the lokasta of perhaps identical with the chaser 

Seilanion, Su/iTT. V, I, 2, cf. ttSj ScitSi/ Alkon, Athen. xi, p. 469 A, the 

viovuoirj/i. a«. iii, 30 . Pseudo - Virgil, Culex, 66 ; Ovid, 

6. Alcon : according to Brunn, Metam. xiii, 683 ff. 
K. G. ii, p. 402 (cf i, p. 466) he is 7. Martis ultoris : above § 48. 



C. PLINII SECUNDI 
NATURALIS HISTORIAE 

LIBER XXXV, §§ 15-29; 50-149; 151-158 
(PICTURA ET PLASTICS) 



G 3 



Lib. 
XXXV, 



/. PICTURA. 



15 De picturae initiis incerta nee instituti operis quaestio est. 
Aegyptii sex milibus annorum apud ipsos inventam prius- 
quam in Graeciam transiret adfirmant vana praedicatione, 
ut palam est, Graeci autem alii Sicyone alii apud Corinthios 
repertam, omnes umbra hominis lineis circumducta, itaque S 
primam talem, secundam singulis coloribus et monochro- 
maton dictam postquam operosior inventa erat, duratque 

16 talis etiam nunc, inventam liniarem a Philocle Aegyptio 
vel Cleanthe Corinthio primi exercuere Aridices Corinthius 
et Telephanes Sicyonius, sine uUo etiamnum hi colore, iam '° 
tamen spargentes linias intus. ideo et quos pingerent ad- 



§ 15. 1. incerta: invii, 205 Pliny had 
already given two different versions. 

2. Aegjrptii ; their contention was 
obviously a true one ; the vana prae- 
dicatione is drawn from a Greek 
writer anxious to claim the invention 
of painting for Greece. 

4. Sioyone : for its claims to 
artistic preeminence cf. below, 5 75, 
xxxvi, 9, and note on xxxiv, 55 ; it is 
probable that Corinth was the earlier 
artistic centre, and that priority was 
claimed for Sikyon, when, in the latter 
half of the fifth century, it began to 
assume the leadership of the Pelo- 
ponnesian schools. The allusion to 
Sikyon, and the theoretical character 
of the following genesis of painting 



(Introd. p. xxviii f.) point to Xeno- 
krates as authority. 

5. umbra . . . circumducta: this 
theory is purely arbitrary ; it rests on 
the conventional supposition that the 
simpler method necessarily precedes 
the more complex — that pictures in 
outline precede pictures where the 
contours are filled in, and mono- 
chrome painting polychrome. The 
historical study of the monuments, 
1. e. of early painted fictile wares, has 
shown, however, that the operation 
was rever^ed in both cases ; cf. 
Robert, Arch. Marchen, p. 121 ff. 
Studniczka {Jahrb. ii, 1887, p. 148 
ff.) has made a vigorous attempt to 
reconcile fact with the Plinian tra- 



I. PAINTING. 

Book 
XXXV. 
The origin of painting is obscure, and hardly falls within the 15 

scope of this work. The claim of the Egyptians to have dis- ^//(""f.f. 

covered the art six thousand years before it reached Greece is gin. 

obviously an idle boast, while among the Greeks some say that it 

was first discovered at Sikyon, others at Corinth. All, however, 

agree that painting began with the outlining of a man's shadow ; 

this was the first stage, in the second a single colour was employed, 

and after the discovery of more elaborate methods this style, which 

is still in vogue, received the name of monochrome. 

The invention of linear drawing is attributed to t Philokles of 16 

Egypt, or to Kleanthes of Corinth. The first to practise it were gf^iyll 

t Arideikes of Corinth, and t Telephanes of Sikyon, who still used Kleanthes 

no colour, though they had begun to give the inner markings, and %rideikes' 

from this went on to add the names of the personages ih&y of Corinth. 

Telephanes 
of Sikyon. 

dition ; see also Hollwerda in Jahrb. Philoole Aegyptio : harks back 

V, 1890, p. 256 f. and C. Smith, art. to the Egyptian tradition ; Miinzer, 

PlCTUEAinSmith'sZ'zV/.^«^.p.40of., Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 512, note i. 

■who gives a lucid analysis of the 9. Cleanthe : known from Strabo, 

question. viii, p. 343, as the painter of (3) 

§ 16. 8. inventam liniarem : the an Ilionpersis, iV) a Birth of Athena 

use of invenio like that ol primus (cf. (cf. Athen. viii, 346 C) ; for the 

note on xxxiv, 54) must not be probable style of these paintings cf. 

pressed; it arises from the determina- Studniczka, op. cit. p. 153. 

tion, already noted in the case of the 1 1 . adsoribere institutum ; the 

bronze statuaries, to connect each names of the personages portrayed 

stage of a progress virith one definite were used ornamentally to fill up 

name. space, as often on black-figured vases. 



86 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

scribere institutum. primus invenit eas colore testae, ut 
ferunt, tritae, Ecphantus Corinthius. hunc eodem nomine 
alium fuisse quam quem tradit Cornelius Nepos secutum 
in Italiam Damaratum Tarquinii Prisci regis Romani patrem 
fugientem a Corintho tyranni iniurias Cypseli mox docebi- 5 
mus. 

17 lam enim absoluta erat pictura etiam in Italia, exstant 
certe hodieque antiquiores urbe picturae Ardeae in aedibus 
sacris, quibus ego quidem nullas aeque miror, tarn longo 
aevo durantis in orbitate tecti veluti recentis. similiter 10 
Lanivi, ubi Atalante et Helena comminus pictae sunt nudae 
ab eodem artifice, utraque excellentissima forma, sed altera 

18 ut virgo, ne ruinis quidem templi concussae. Gains princeps 
tollere eas conatus est libidine accensus, si tectori natura 
permisisset. durant et Caere antiquiores et ipsae. fate- 15 
biturque quisquis eas diligenter aestimaverit nullam artium 
celerius consummatam, cum Iliacis temporibus non fuisse 
eam appareat. 

I. invenit] codd. ; inlevit Haupt, Detlefsen. 

I. invenit: the manuscript read- 4. Damaratus: below § 152 ; Tac. 

ing is defended by Holwerda [pp. cit. Ann. xi, 14; Dionysios H. iii, 46 ff., 

p. 259, note 64) who pouits ont that Strabo v, p. 219, viii, p. 378, &c. 

invenire eam colore testae tritae can^- 5. mox dooebimus ; Furtwangler 

spends to picturam invenire singulis {Plinius, p. 25 f. ; of. Robert, /4?-cA. 

coloribus above. '? at primus invenit Mdrchen, p. 123) has shown that the 

cf. below, §§ 151, 152. proof follows immediately: iam 

testae tritae : the process, which enim . . . 

is known only from this passage, § 17. 8. Ardeae : iii, 56 ; for the 

probably died out early, Bliimner, paintings by M. Plautius in its temple 

Technol. iv, p. 478 f. of Juno, below, § 115 ; for paintings 

•z. Eephantus : the name is that in temple of Castor and Pollux see 

of a painter inscribed on the columna Servius on Aen. i, 44 (Thilo i, p. 31) ; 

Naniana [I. G. B. 5) ; the identity nam Ardeae in templo Castoris et 

suggested by Studniczka {pp. cit. p. Pollucis in laeva intrantibus (cf. 

151) is quite uncertain. below, § ic,^ post forem Capaneos 

3. alium fuisse quam : attempts pictus estfulmen per utraque tempora 

to reconcile two variant traditions — traiectus. 

namely the attribution of the invention 11. Lanivi: iii, 64; viii, 221. 

of painting proper to Ekphantos, and 12. altera ut virgo: for the 

thf Italian tradition that painting was ellipse of the first altera cf. below, ' 

perfect in Italy long before the arrival § 71 hoplites in certamine ita 

of the Greeks. Cf. § 152, where the decurrens ut sudare videatur, alter 

fictores who followed Damaratos into arma deponens ut . . . and see note on 

Italy are mentioned. xxxiv, 54, 1. 7. 



/. PAINTING 87 

painted. The invention of painting with colour made, it is 
said, from powdered potsherds, is due to \Ekphantos of Corinth. Ekphantos 
I shall show presently that this Ekphantos is distinct from that "f^""""'" 
namesake of his who, according to Cornelius Nepos, followed 
Damaratos, the father of Tarquin the Ancient, in his flight to 
Italy from Corinth to escape the insults of the tyrant Kypselos, 
for by that time painting in Italy also had already reached high 17 
perfection. To this day we may see in the temples of Ardea ^J'Jaintin" 
paintings older than the city of Rome, which I admire beyond in Italy. 
any others, for though unprotected by a roof they remain fresh at^Ardfa 
after all these years. At Lanuvium again are two nude figures by jn^lanta 
the same artist, of Atalanta and Helen, painted side by side, and Helen 
Both are of great beauty, and the one is painted as a virgin ; they '^'- ■^'^""" 
have sustained no injury though the temple is in ruins. The 18 
Emperor Caligula, who was fired by a passion for these figures, 
would undoubtedly have removed them if the composition of the 
stucco had allowed of it. Caere possesses some still more ancient Paintings 
paintings. No one can examine these carefully without confess- '^^ ^'^"■ 
ing that painting reached its full development more rapidly than Rafid de- 
any other art, since it seems clear that it was not yet in existence ^f/%T^t 
in Trojan times. 

13. ne ruinis ctuidem oonoussae : baturque rursum pugna, ni Mara- 
one may conjecture that the Atalanta boduus castra subduxisset. 
and Helena had once formed part of 15. Caere, iii, 51 ; an interesting 
a larger composition which was series of paintings from Caere 
partially destroyed in Pliny's time. (Cervetri) now in the Brit. Mus. has 
Engelmann {ap. Roscher, i, p. 1964) been published by A. S. Murray, 
conjectures that the painting had origi- J-H. S. x, 1889, pi. vii, pp. 243-252, 
nally represented a mortal counter- who justly points out their dependence 
part of the ' Judgement of Paris ' — on Greek models. In asserting the 
on the analogy of a bronze Etruscan independent development of painting 
cista at Berlin (Friederichs, Bronzen, in Italy, Pliny has evidently been 
542, cf Arch. Am. 1889, p. 42), where misled by his patriotism. A similar, 
Paris appears in conversation with but somewhat later, series of paint- 
three nude women Felena (Helen), ings from Caere in the Louvre, Mon. 
Ateleta (Atalanta) and Alsir (?). Inst, vi, vii, pi. 30. 
Helen was a favourite subject of the 17. Iliaois temporibus : the state- 
Etruscan artists ; cf. Gerhard, Etr. ment is based on the Homeric poems, 
Spiegel, iv, 373-382. where, with the exception of the p^ej 

§ 18. 14. libidine aeeensus : for luKToiraprioi, and the 'lirnov irapfiiov 

similar stories cf below, § 70 ; xxxiv, (//. iv, 141) which 'a woman of 

62. Paionia or Maionia dyes with purple,' 

teotori natura : below, § 173. there are no allusions to painting; 

For the elliptical construction of si see O. MUUer, Handbuch, p. 5 r . 
permisissetci.Tsic.Ann.n, 46 ; spera- 



88 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

19 Apud Romanes quoque honos mature huic arti contigit, 
siquidem cognomina ex ea Pictorum traxerunt Fabii claris- 
simae gentis, princepsque eius cognominis ipse aedem Salutis 
pinxit anno urbis conditae CCCCL, quae pictura duravit 
ad nostram memoriam aede ea Claudi principatu exusta. 5 
proxime celebrata est in foro boario aede Herculis Pacuvi 
poetae pictura; Enni sorore genitus hie fuit, clarioremque 

20 artem earn Romae fecit gloria scaenae. postea non est 
spectata honestis manibus, nisi forte quis Turpilium equitem 
Romanum e Venetia nostrae aetatis velit referre pulchris 10 
eius operibus hodieque Veronae exstantibus. laeva is manu 
pinxit, quod de nuUo ante memoratur. parvis gloriabatur 
tabellis extinctus nuper in longa senecta Titedius Labeo 
praetorius, etiam p roconsulatu provinciae Narbonensis functus, 

21 sed ea re in risu etiam contumeliae erat fuit et principum 15 
virorum non omittendum de pictura celebre consilium. 

A.u.c. 709. cum Q. Pedius nepos Q. Pedii consularis triumphalisque et 
a Caesare dictatore coheredis Augusto dati natura mutus 
asset, in eo Messala orator, ex cuius familia pueri avia 
fuerat, picturam docendum censuit, idque etiam divus 20 
Augustus comprobavit, puer magni profectus in ea arte 

22 obiit. dignatio autem praecipua Romae increvit, ut existimo, 

§ 19. 2. Fabii clariss. gentis : An of these wall-paintings. (Against the 

censemus, siFabio, nohilissimo homini, proposed identification of a wall paint- 

laudi datum esset quod pingeret, non ing from the Esquiline, Bull. Comm. 

multos afud nos futuros Polyclitos et 1889, pi. xi, xii, as ' riproduzione in 

Parrhasios fuisse ? Cic. Tusc. Disput. piccol6 ' of the pictures in the temple 

i, 2, 4. The first Pictor is of course of Salus, see Hiilsen, Rom. Mitth. 

distinct from the historian (b. about 1891, p. ill.) 

B.C. 254; Teuffel, 116). 6. foro boario aeda Herculis: 

3. aedem Salutis : since the this temple, which was called aedes 

temple was dedicated by C. Junius Aemiliana (according to Scaliger's 

Bubulcus, a hero of the second emendation of Festus, p. 243) was 

Samnite war, B.C. 311, and consecra- either founded or restored with great 

ted by him as Dictator, B.C. 302 splendour by Aemilius PauUus the 

(Liv. ix, 43, 25), the pictures probably conqueror of Pydna ; of. H. Peter, ap. 

related to his exploits in Apulia Roscher, i, p. 2909 f. It was natural, 

(Urlichs, Malerei in Rom, p. 7). From as Uilichs (Malerei, p. 1 7) points out, 

Valerius Max. viii, 14, 6 it appears that he should employ to decorate it 

that they were extensive compositions, Pacuvius, who had written in his 

covering perhaps the two long walls of hono\iit)i&PraetextaPaulus{Kibhsck, 

thecella. Dionysios, xvi, 6, praises the Rom. Trag. 326), and whose inti- 

fine drawing, and sharp clean contours macy with Laelius, the bosom friend 



/. PAINTING 89 

Among the Romans too this art was early had in honour, see- 19 
ing indeed that so distinguished a family as the Fabii drew from ;^^^^"f 
it the name of Pictor [Painter] ; and the first of the name actually Fabius 
painted the temple of Safety, in the year of Rome 450 [304 b.c.]. "^ '^' 
These paintings lasted until my day, when the temple was burned 
down in the reign of Claudius. Soon afterwards the poet Facu- Pacuvius. 
vius won great renown through his paintings in the temple of 
Hercules in the Cattle Market. The mother of Pacuvius was 
a sister of Ennius, whence it came about that the drama lent 
a new lustre to the art of painting at Rome. Since that time. 20 
however, the profession of painter has received no honour at the 
hands of men of good birth, unless we except in our own time 
Turpilius, a Roman knight from Venetia, whose excellent pictures Turpilius. 
are still to be seen at Verona. He painted with his left hand, 
a peculiarity noted of no artist before him. Titedius Labeo, who Titedius 
died not long ago in extreme old age, was proud of the little 
pictures that he painted : he was of praetorian rank and had even 
been governor of Narbonensis, yet his art only brought upon him 
ridicule and even scorn. Nor must I omit the famous decision 21 
with regard to painting arrived at by eminent statesmen. Quintus Qumtus 
Pedius (grandson of that Quintus Pedius who had been consul, 
had enjoyed a triumph and was named by the dictator Caesar as 45 ^.c. 
co-heir with Augustus) having been dumb from his birth, it so 
befell that Messala, the orator, to whose family the boy's grand- 
mother belonged, advised that he should be taught to paint. The 
god Augustus approved of the idea, and the boy had made great 
progress in the art when he died. The esteem which the Romans 22 

of Aemilius' son Scipio, is known to was the grandson of Caesar's elder 

us from Cicero {Laelius, 7, 24). sister; he triumphed Dec. 13,8.0.45, 

§ 20. 9. honestis manibus : of. after his Spanish campaign (Appian, 

Cic. Tusc. Disf. loc. cit., and the Bell. Civ. iii, 22, 23, 94-96), was 

ironical words applied to Fabius consul with Augustus in B.C. 43, in 

Pictor by Val. Max. viii, 14, 6. which year he died. 

Turpilium ; possibly a descen- 18. coheredis dati : Suet. Julius, 

dant of the Turpilius who wrote come- 83. 

dies, and was a contemporary of 19. Messala orator : B.C.64-A.D. 

Terence CRibbeck, Com. 2nd ed. 85). 8 (Teuffel, 222), quoted in the indices 

II. Veronae : probably Pliny's to Blis. ix, xxxiii, xxxv ; restores the 

birthplace, since in Praef. i he speaks ancient Sibyls, xxxiv, 22. Cf. also 

of Catullus as his conterraneus. vii, 90, and above, § 8. 

13. Titedius Iiabeo : Tac. Ann. avia: i.e. the wife of Q. Pedius, 

ii, 85. the legatee of Caesar. 

§ 21. 17. Q. Pedii oonsularis ; he § 22. 22. dignatio . . . inorevit : 



go C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

a M'. Valerio Maximo Messala, qui princeps tabulatn pictam 
proelii quo Carthaginienses et Hieronem in Sicilia vicerat, 
proposuit in latere curiae Hostiliae anno ab urbe condita 
CCCCLXXXX. fecit hoc idem et L. Scipio, tabulamque 
A.u.c. 565. victoriae suae Asiaticae in Capitolio posuit, idque aegre 5 
tulisse fratrem Africanum tradunt haut inmerito, quando 

23 filius eius illo proelio captus fuerat. non dissimilem 
ofFensionem et Aemiliani subiit L. Hostilius Mancinus qui 
primus Carthaginem inruperat situm eius oppugnationesque 
depictas proponendo in foro et ipse adsistens populo spectanti 10 
singula enarrando, qua comitate proximis comitiis con- 

A.u.c. 609. sulatum adeptus est. habuit et scaena ludis Claudii Pulchri 
magnam admirationem picturae, cum ad tegularum simili- 
tudinem corvi decepti imaginem advolarent. 

24 Tabulis autem externis auctoritatem Romae publice fecit 15 
primus omnium L. Mummius cui cognomen Achaici victoria 

A.u.c. 608. dedit. namque cum in praeda vendenda rex Attains 
XrVI] emisset tabulam Aristidis, Liberum patrem, pretium 
miratus suspicatusque aliquid in ea virtutis quod ipse 

onRoman triumphal picturesgenerally which of the two occasions he exhi- 

see the excellent remarks of Raoul- bited the picture of his exploits (cf. 

Rochette, Peint. Ant. p. 303 f., and Urlichs, op. cit. p. 14). 
recently Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, 5. aegre tulisse : the injury felt 

p. 30 f. was far-fetched ; from Val. Max. ii, 10 

I. M'. Valerio Maximo Messala: 2, we learn that Antiochos treated 

COS. B.C. 263; cf vii, 214. the sou with marked courtesy, and 

3. in latere curiae Host. : see- sent him back celeriter. 
ing the numerous changes undergone § 23. 8. Aemiliani : the offence 

by the Curia between the date of presumably consisted in the omission 

Messala and that of Cicero, the iden- from the picture of any allusion to 

tity of the picture with the tabula the timely help of Scipio, Appian, 

Valeria {Cicero mVat.<j, 21; ad Fam. AiP. 113 ff.; cf. iiiii. 134, where a 

xiv, 2, 2) is improbable (it seems ac- graphic account is given of the en- 

cepted by Becker, J?Sm. Top. p. 326, thnsiasm with which the Romans 

note 99, and recently by Gilbert, Ce- received the news of the fall of 

schichte u. Top. iii, p. 165, note 2 ; Carthage. 

Urlichs, Malerei, p. 9, suggests that 12. scaena : i. e. 'she. scaenae frons 

the exhibition was only temporary). or wall of the stage-buildings, upon 

The date usually assigned to Messala's which the scenic decorations were 

victory is A. u. c. 491 =B.c. 263. hung, cf § 65. 

%. Ii. Scipio : he triumphed on Claudii Pulchri : aedlle B. c. 99 ; 

the last day of the intercalary month on his games see viii, 19 ; Val. 

of B.C. 188, but his splendid games Max. ii, 4, 6 C. Pulcher scenam va- 

were not celebrated till B.C. 186 (cf rieiate colorum adumbravitvacuis ante 

xxxiii, 138). It is not known on pictura tabulis extentam. 



I. PAINTING 91 

gave to painting was greatly increased (so it seems to me) by the 
action of Manius Valerius Maximus Messala. He first caused M\ Val. 
his victory over the Carthaginians and Hiero in Sicily to be ^f''- ^"' 

J Till ^"■''^ '"'"■' 

pamted on wood, and exhibited the picture at the side of the memorates 
Curia Hostilia in the year of Rome 490 [264 b c.]. Following ^" '""^."''y 
his example Lucius Scipio exhibited in the Capitol a picture repre- tun. 
senting his Asiatic victory, a step which not unnaturally displeased ^ f"?'" 
his brother ' the African,' whose son had been taken prisoner in 189 b.c. 
the battle. In the same way Lucius Hostilius Mancinus, who 23 
had been the first to enter Carthage, incurred the anger of Scipio ^: ^°i'^' 
Aemilianus by exhibiting in the forum pictures of the site oi dnus. 
Carthage and the various attempts to storm it, while he himself 
stood by, telling the whole story to the crowd of spectators with 
a geniality which at the next elections won him the consulship. 145 e.g. 
At the games given by Claudius Pulcher, the painting of the 99 ^■^' 
scenery excited great wonder, the very crows being deceived by 
the painted tiles and iiying down to settle on them. 

Foreign pictures, however, were first publicly brought into 24 
vogue at Rome by Lucius Mummius, surnamed the Achaean from 'Mummius 
his victories. At the auction of the spoils. King Attalos had bid ^fj^^f'^"^ 
for a picture of Dionysos by Aristeides the sum of 600,000 denarii /«V/««j. 
[_;^2 1,000 circ], whereupon Mummius, surprised at the price ^"^ ' 
offered, and suspecting some merit in the picture which escaped 

14. corvi deoepti; cf. below, §§ 65, rex Attains: see vii, 126. As 

66, and 155. a fact Attalos himself was not present 

§ 24. 16. Ii. Mummius: in xxxiii, at Corinth (Pans, vii, 16, i); he had 

i49,however,theintroductionofforeign only sent an auxiliary force to the 

pictures into Rome is attributed to Romans, under the command of Philo- 

Scipio's Asiatic victories ; while Liv. poimen. There is a further inaccuracy 

XXV, 40, states that the first enthusiasm in the account of the purchase : ac- 

for Greek pictures at Rome was a cording to Polybios (a/«(/Strabo, viii, 

result of the capture of Syracuse by p. 381), who was an eye-witness, the 

Marcellus : ceterum inde frimum Roman soldiers were already using the 

initium mirandi Graecarum artium ; pictures as dice-boards, when Philo- 

cf. also Cato's speech as given Liv. poimen offered a hundred talents to 

xxxiv, 4 (below note on § 157)1 and Mummius in case he should feel dis- 

Plut. Marcell. xxi. posed to assign the picture to Attalos' 

17. in praeda vendenda : the share of the booty. For the paintings 

notion of an auction is inaccurate : collected by Attalos, see Frankel, 

according to Paus. vii, 16, S, Mum- _ya,4>-i.vi (i89i),pp. 49-60,'Gemalde- 

mius had taken to Rome the most Sammlungen u. Gemalde-Forschung 

valuable works of art, and handed in Pergamon.' 

over to Philopoimen (see next note) 18. Aristidis : below, §§ 98-100. 

the less important objects. Liberum patrem ; below, § 99. 



93 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

nesciret, revocavit tabulam Attalo multum querente et in 
Cereris delubro posuit, quam primam arbitror picturam 

25 externam Romae publicatam. deinde video et in foro 
positas volgo. hinc enim ille Crassi oratoris lepos agentis 
sub Veteribus, cum testis compellatus instarct : die ergo, 5 
Crasse, qualem me noris ? talem, inquit, ostendens in tabula 
pictum inficetissime Galium exerentem linguam. in foro 
fuit et ilia pastoris senis cum baculo, de qua Teutonorum 
legatus respondit interrogatus, quantine eum aestimaret, 
donari sibi nolle talem vivom verumque. 10 

26 Sed praecipuam auctoritatem publice tabulis fecit Caesar 
dictator Aiace et Media ante Veneris Genetricis aedem 
dicatis, post eum M. Agrippa vir rusticitati propior quam 
deliciis. exstat certe eius oratio magnifica et maximo 
civium digna de tabulis omnibus signisque publicandis, 15 
quod fieri satius fuisset quam in villarum exilia pelli. verum 
eadem ilia torvitas tabulas duas Aiacis et Veneris mercata 
est a Cyzicenis HS. [XII]. in thermarum quoque cali- 
dissima parte marmoribus incluserat parvas tabellas paulo 
ante, cum reficerentur, sublatas. 20 

I. in Cereris delubro : xxxiv, Mariano scuto Cimbrico. The pro- 

15; below, §§ 99, 154. Strabo, loc. trading tongue was probably apotro- 

cit. rdv di Aiivvaov [sc. 'ApiffxeiSou] paic (cf.Urlichsin CA^rfoOT., p. 343) ; 

avaKilufvov hv Ta) A7]iJ.rjTpeiij} rS ev being misunderstood it gave occasion 

'PiifiTi KaKKiarov epyow iaipSifiiv kpi- to the witticisms recorded by Pliny, 

irprjffdevTQS h^ tov veOj ffvvrjcpaviaOTj ical Cicero and others with Quinctilian, 

^ ipaip^i veaffTi. perhaps also to the remark in Liv. 

§ 25. 4. Crassi oratoris : Cicero vii, 10, 5 : (Galium) linguam eiiam 

{de Orat. ii, 66, 266 ; cf. Quinct. vi, 3, ab irrisu exserentem. 

38, where see Spalding's note) attri- § 26. 12. Aiace et Media: vii, 

butes the witticism to the orator, C. i26=App. I; below, §§ 136, 145. 

JuliusCaesarStrabo (Teuffel,i53, 3). ante V. G. aedem: whereas 

5. sub veteribus : sc. tabernis, in § 136 the same pictures are said to 
cf. § 113; these shops, with a colon- be in V. G. aede ; the latter seems 
nade in front of them, stood facing the the likeliest ; the first variant is prob- 
Sacra Via, on the site afterwards oc- ably due to Pliny's carelessness ; cf. 
cupied by the Basilica Julia. The Miinzer, 'oJ>. cii. p. 542. The temple 
tribunal, where the scene is imagined, was vowed by Caesar at Pharsalos 
may, have stood close to the Hegia ; (b.c. 48), ded. with the Forum, Sept. 
cf. Jordan, Tofi. 1, -i, p. 382, note 92. 24 or 25, B.C. 46 (but see Mon. Ancyr. 
Cicero, loc. cit. , has sub novis, i. <;. on iv, 1 2 ; Mommsen, Res Gestae, p. 84 f.) . 
N. side of the Forum. 13. M.Agrippa: B.C. 63-A.D. 12 ; 

6. in tabula : Cic. loc. cit. in Teuffel, 220, jo-14. 



/. PAINTING 93 

his own eyes, withdrew it, in spite of the protests of Attalos, and 
afterwards dedicated it in the temple of Ceres. This was, 
I believe, the first foreign picture publicly dedicated at Rome. 
Later on I see that they were constantly put up even in the 25 
Forum, a custom which gave the orator Crassus an opening for 
a witticism. He was pleading a case close to the Old Shops, 
when a witness under examination said to him, 'Pray what do 
you take me for, Crassus ? ' ' Just such a man as that,' answered 
Crassus, pointing to a coarse picture of a Gaul with his tongue 
out. In the Forum too was the picture of an old shepherd with 
his staff, of which the envoy of the Teutons said, when asked what 
he thought it was worth, that he would not take such a man at 
a gift, even if he were alive and real. 

But the highest public tribute to painting was paid by the 26 
dictator Caesar when he dedicated the Aias and the Medeia in patrona<re 
front of the temple of Venus the Mother, and after him by Marcus Aias and 
Agrippa, whose natural tastes inclined to rustic simplicity rather , ^ "^ 
than to the refinements of luxury ; a magnificent speech of his 
at least is extant, fully worthy of the first citizen in the state, 
urging that all pictures and statues should be made public pro- 
perty — certainly a wiser plan than to consign them to exile in our 
country houses. Yet the rude Agrippa bought two pictures — an Aias and 
Aias and an Aphrodite — from the people of Kyzikos for 1,200,000 f^^^'jA,! 
sesterces [;^i 0,500 circ.J, and further, in the hottest chamber oi ^ikos. 
his baths were some small pictures, let into the marble, which 
were removed not long ago in the course of a restoration. 

17. Aiacis et Veneris: nothing inE.c. 33, or to adorn the buildings 

fnrther is known of either picture ; the which several years later were carried 

grounds for identifying either or both out under his direction (the Septa 

with the Ajax and Medea purchased Julia in B. c. 26 ; the Thermae and 

by Caesar (Welcker, Helbig, Urlichs, the Porticus Neptunia in the follow- 

&c.) are purely fanciful. From the ing year ; cf. Brandstatter, loc. cit^. 

pDsteum-we may assume that Agrip- 18. thermarum : immediately be- 

pa's purchases were later than Caesar's, hind the Pantheon: the calidissima 

and the price paid for the pictures pars must be identical with the cal- 

was not the same (cf. § 136 where darium. 

the price paid by Caesar is given). 19. incluserat : according to a 
The question is fully discussed by custom general in Roman times ; cf. 
F. Brandslatter, Timomachos, p. 16 if. below the pictures in the Curia Julia 
The occasion for Agrippa's. pur- (§ 27). The six celebrated mono- 
chases, and the spot where he exhi- chrome pictures in red on white 
bited them, are unknown. He may marble slabs (Naples) had been let 
have bought the pictures as aedile into the wall in a similar manner ; cf. 



94 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

27 Super omnis divus Augustus in foro suo celeberrima in 
parte posuit tabulas duas quae Belli faciem pictam habent 
et Triumphum, item Castores ac Victoriam. posuit et quas 
dicemus sub artificum mentione in templo Caesaris patris. 

A.u.c. 725. idem in curia quoque quam in comitio consecrabat duas 5 
tabulas inpressit parieti. Nemean sedentem supra leonem 
palmigeram ipsam adstante cum baculo sene cuius supra 
caput tabella bigae dependet, Nicias scripsit se inussisse, 

28 tali enim usus est verbo. alterius tabulae admiratio est 
puberem filium seni patri similem esse aetatis salva differentia 10 
supervolante aquila draconem complexa. Philochares hoc 
suum opus esse testatus est. inmensam, vel unam si tantum 
banc tabulam aliquis aestimet, potentiam artis, cum propter 
Philocharen ignobilissimos alioqui Glaucionem filiumque 
eius Aristippum senatus populi Romani tot saeculis spectet. 15 
posuit et Tiberius Caesar minime comis imperator in templo 
ipsius Augusti quas mox indicabimus. 

29 Hactenus dictum sit de dignitate artis morientis. quibus 
coloribus singulis primi pinxissent diximus, cum de his pig- 
mentis traderemus in metallis : monochromata ea genera 20 
picturae vocantur. qui deinde et quae invenerint et quibus 
temporibus, dicemus in mentione artificum, quoniam indicare 
naturas colorum prior causa operis instituti est. tandem 

6. impressit parieti, Nemean usque ad bigae (bige Voss., bigere Bamb., 
palmigere Bamb. e corr.) dependet. Nicias Detlefsen; interpunctionem corr. 
Traube. 20. metallis: monochromata . . . vocantur] Littri; metallis. qui 

monochromata — ea genera picturae vocantur — Detlefsen, vid. errata, vol. v 
peg. 25°- 

Robert, Hall. Winckelm. frogr. xix, Augustus B.C. 29: it had been be- 

1895, P- 6 f. ; Raoul-Rochette, Pein- gun by Caesar to replace the Curia 

tures, p. 162 ; Wickhoff, Wiener Gene- of Sulla. 

sis, p. 70. 6. inpressit parieti : cf. note on 

§ 27. I. in foro . . . parte : below, incluserat in § 26. 

\ ^■^,mfori sui celeherrimis fariihus. Nemean . . . Uicias : 5§ 130, 

2. Bellifaoiem . . . et Triumphum 131. The Nemea was the personifi- 
= below, § 93 Belli imaginem re- cation of the festal city; the senex 
strictis ad terga manibus, Alexandra with the staff one of the judges in the 
in curru triumphante ; ib. Castorem games ; the tablet with the chariot 
et Pollucem cum Victoria. indicated the particular contest of 

3. quas dicemus : i. e. the Anadyo- which the picture was the memorial 
mene of Apelles in § 91. (Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 194) ; cf. in Pans. 

5. in curia : sc. Julia, ded. by i, 22, 7 the picture commemorating 



I. PAINTING 95 

Above all the god Augustus placed in the most frequented part 27 
of the Forum which bears his name, two pictures, the one containing ^i^^l"l^ 
figures of War and of Triumph, the other Kastor and his twin, Ms forum. 
with Victory. He also dedicated in the temple of his father Caesar /« temple 
certain pictures which I shall mention when I enumerate the artists. °f (^"'""■''■ 
Furthermore he let into the wall of the Council Chamber which in Curia. 
he consecrated in the Comitium two pictures. On the one, which ^9 ^f- 

^ I. Nemea 

represents the nymph Nemea holding a palm and seated on a by Nikias. 

lion, while an old man with a staff stands by, above whose head 

is suspended a tablet with a two-horse chariot, Nikias has written 

that he burned in the painting, using that very word \ivUaiv\. In 28 

the other picture we admire the marked resemblance between ?• ^'J^'"''^ 
'^ by Philo- 

a young man and his aged father, although the difference of age chares of 

is not lost : an eagle with a snake in its talons is flying over their Glaukwn 
' o JO ^„^ Arts- 

heads. Philochares lays claim to the painting as his work, tippos. 
Marvellous is the power of art, judged by this work alone, since 
Philochares could turn the eyes of the Senate of the Roman 
people for so many years upon Glaukion and his son Aristippos, 
persons otherwise quite obscure. Tiberius Caesar too, rude Tiberius. 
prince though he was, dedicated in the temple of Augustus 
pictures which I shall name later on. 

I have said enough concerning the dignity of a decaying art. 29 
When treating of pigments in my account of metals I named the 
colours used singly by the early painters ; paintings in that style 
are called monochromes. Subsequent innovators, together with 
the character and date of their inventions, I shall treat of in my 
account of the artists, since the scheme of my work obliges me 
first to describe the composition of the pigments employed. 

the victory of Alkibiades in the Ne- to the picture of Philochares, Wun- 

mean games : 'iiritav de ot vixrjs Ti7s tv derer {Manubiae Alex:andrinae,y. 23) 

Nef^ea karl arj/ieTa kv ttj ypatpy ; also suggests that it belonged to Augus- 

the pinax wtih biga on the ' Ikaorios ' tus's Egyptian spoils. 

relief (Br. MuB. = Friederichs-Wolters, 11. PMloeliares : perhaps identi- 

1844). cal with the vase-painter, brother of 

8. inussisse i.e. eveieaev : cf. 132. the orator Aischines, mentioned 

§ 28. 9. alterius tabulae : since derisively {d.\a0aaTo6fiKas ypi<pm>) by 

placed in the open air, presumably Demosthenes, J^a/s. Leg. p. 415, 237 

likewise in encaustic. The eagle and (01.109,2 = 8.0.343). 

snake, like the tabella bigae, must 17. luox indicabimus : in § 131. 

have referred to the event com- § 29. 19. diximus : in xxxiii, 

memorated by the picture. How the 117. 

work of Nikias came into the hands 20. monochroinata : ibid. ; cf. 

of Augustus is unknown (§ 131); as above, § 15; below, § 56. 



96 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



sears ipsa distinxit et invenit lumen atque umbras, differentia 
colorum alterna vice sese excitante. postea deinde adiectus 
est splendor, alius hie quam lumen, quod inter haec et 
umbras esset appellarunt tonon, commissuras vero colorum 
et transitus harmogen. 5 



50 



Quattuor coloribus solis immortalia ilia opera fecere — ex 
albis Melino, e silaciis Attico, ex rubris Sinopide Pontica, 
ex nigris atramento — Apelles, Action, Melanthius, Nico- 
machus, clarissimi pictores, cum tabulae eorum singulae 
oppidorum venirent opibus. nunc et purpuris in parietes lo 
migrantibus et India conferente fluminum suorum limum, 
draconum elephantorumque saniem nulla nobilis pictura est. 
omnia ergo meliora tunc fuere, cum minor copia. ita est, 
quoniam, ut supra diximus, rerum, non animi pretiis ex- 
cubatur. 15 

51 Et nostrae aetatis insaniam in pictura non omittam. Nero 
princeps iusserat colosseum se pingi CXX pedum linteo, 
incognitum ad hoc tempus. ea pictura cum peracta esset 



1. lumen atque umbras : cf. 
xxxiii, 160; below, § 131. 

2. alterna vice sese excitante : 
this passage should be studied in 
connexion with Aristotle's doctrine, in 
the third book of the Meteorologica, 
of the juxtaposition of colours ; 
cf. with relation to the Plinian 
words : fieXav irapci fxiXav Trout rh 
Tipijia \€vK&v iravreT^ws ^aiviaOoL 
XivKov Meteor, p. 375 a, 20. .See on 
the whole subject, Bertrand, £iudes, 
pp. 150-160. 

3. splendor : the meaning sug- 
gested for this word by Bliimner, 
Technol. iv, p. 438 is 'reflexion ' (for 
reflected lights cf. § 138). But re- 
flexion comes simply under the same 
heading as treatment of light, whereas 
the words of Pliny, alius hie quam 
lumtn, expressly show that splendor 
was a totally different factor to light. 
In truth it was neither more nor less 
than the ' glow ' which — as distinct 
from any treatment of light and shade 



— is so marked a quality of certain 
Renascence and modem artists (e.g. 
Titian, Turner). Kiilb rightly trans- 
lates ' Glanz.' Introd. p. xxxiv. 

4. tonon : what the modern French 
would call ' values,' i. e. the passages 
from the more lit up parts in a picture 
to the less, the ' value ' being the 
quantity of light in a given colour. 

commissuras . . . colorum : 
the arrangement of colours, resulting 
in apfio'fT), or what the modems 
would call the general ' tone ' of a 
picture. 

§ 50. 6. ftuattuor coloribus : 
cf Cic. Brutus 18, 70 similis in 
pictura ratio est, in qua Zeuxin et 
Polygnotum et Timanthem et eorum 
qui non sunt usi plus quam quatttior 
coloribus, formas et lineamenta lau^ 
damus ; at in Aetione, Nicomacho, 
Protogene, Apelle iam perfecta sunt 
omnia. These words do not necessarily 
contradict the statement of Pliny or 
prove that the later painters used more 



/. PAINTING 97 

Art at last differentiated itself and discovered light and shade, 
the several hues being so employed as to enhance one another 
by contrast. Later on glow— a different thing to light — was 
introduced. The transition between light and shade they called 
Tovos, but the arrangement of hues and the transition from one 
colour to another harmonization or apiioyfj. 

Four colours only— white from Melos, Attic yellow, red from 50 
Sinope on the Black Sea, and the black called 'atramentum'— ^'','"' 

, colours 

were used by Apelles, Action, Melanthios and Nikomachos in used by 

their immortal works : illustrious artists, a single one of whose ^'^''^ 

pictures, the wealth of a city could hardly suffice to buy, while 

now that even purple clothes our walls, and India contributes 

the ooze of her rivers and the blood of dragons and of elephants, 

no famous picture is painted. We must believe that when the 

painter's equipment was less complete, the results were in every 

respect better, for as I have already said, we are alive only to the 

worth of the material and not to the genius of the artist. 

In our own days too painting has known an extravagance which 51 

must not be forgotten : the Emperor Nero ordered a colossal por- £*,J^^^-^ 

trait of himself, 120 feet in length, to be painted on canvas, a thing of Nero 

on canvas. 

than four colours. The perfecta omnia 8. Apelles: below, § 92 legentes 
need mean no more than that they metninerint omnia ea (sc. openi) 
had learnt endless combinations of the quattuor coloribus facta. 
four colours, whereas the older painters 1 1 . India . . . limmn ; i. e. indigo, 
used them pure or knew but of few cf. xxxiii, 163 ; above, §§ 46, 49. 
combinations. The colour effects 12. draconum elephantorumque 
produced by Apelles and his con- saniem : also called cinnabaris^ 
temporaries being far more elaborate ' dragon's blood ' ; in viii, 34, Pliny 
than anything attempted in the period gives a wonderful account of its pro- 
of Polygnotos, it is natural that the duction; cf xxxiii, 116. 
employment of only four colours 14. ut supra diximus : xxxv, 4 : 
should, in their case, be dwelt upon honoremnon nisi in pretio ducentes ; 
with special admiration. As an ex- cf. the similar rhetorical complaint 
ample of what can be accomplished in xxxiv, 5. 

with only four colours, the student § 51. 17. oolosseum: a counter- 
will remember the ' Christ crowned part to the colossal statue by Zeno- 
with thorns ' by Titian in the Munich doros in xxxiv, 45. 
Pinakothek ( 1 1 14) ; cf Morelli, Gal- 1 8. incognitum : if still unknovm 
leries of Munich and Dresden, p. 58 in Pliny's day, the practice of painting 
(Transl. C. J. Ffoulkes). The ' four on canvas soon became general, as is 
colours ' are elaborately discussed by witnessed by the portraits from the 
Bertrand,.£^«^dJ, pp. 132-144. [The Fayoum ; cf. Cecil Smith, Pictura, 
names Apelles — Nicomachus are in p. 329; Berger, Beitrdge, ii, p. 52 f. 
alphabetical order. H. L. U.] 

H 



98 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

in Maianis hortis, accensa fulmine cum optima hortorum 

52 parte conflagravit. libertus eius cum daret Anti munus 
gladiatorum, publicas porticus occupavit pictura, ut constat, 
gladiatorum ministrorumque omnium veris imaginibus red- 
ditis. hie multis iam saecuHs summus animus in pictura, 5 
pingi autem gladiatoria munera atque in publico exponi 
coepta a C. Terentio Lucano. is avo suo a quo adoptatus 
fuerat triginta paria in foro per triduum dedit tabulamque 
pictam in nemore Dianae posuit. 

53 Nunc celebres in ea arte quam maxima brevitate per- 10 
curram, neque enim instituti operis est talis executio, itaque 
quosdam vel in transcursu et in aliorum mentione obiter 
nominasse satis erit, exceptis operum claritatibus quae et 

54 ipsa conveniet attingi sive exstant sive intercidere. non 
constat sibi in hac parte Graecorum diligentia multas post '5 
olympiadas celebrando pictores quam statuaries ac toreutas, 
primumque olympiade LXXXX, cum et Phidian ipsum 
initio pictorem fuisse tradatur clipeumque Athenis ab eo 
pictum, praeterea in confesso sit LXXX tertia fuisse fratrem 
eius Panaenum, qui clipeum intus pinxit Elide Minervae 20 

I. Maianis hortis: C. I. L. vi, grove of Nemi; cf. xvi, 242 and 

6152, 8668, where they are mentioned Strabo, v, p. 239. 
along with the horti Lainiuni, § 53. 10. Nunc celebres . . . per- 

which as we learn from Phil. Jud. eurram : cf xxxiv, 53. 
ir€pj dpfT. Koi irpiaP, 2, p. 597, ed. 13. claritatibus: fxxviii, 87 in 

Mangey (cf. Becker, .A*ow. 7(J^. p. 542, ceteris claritates ani7nalium aut 

note 1 142), were close to the gardens operum seqtiemur = iox the rest, I 

of Maecenas on the Esqniline. shall note remarkable animals . . . 

§ 52. 2. Anti : iii, 57 ; it was the H. L. U.] 
birthplace of Nero (Suet. Nero 6). § 54. 14. non constat sibi . . . 

4. gladiatorum . . . imaginibus : adiutor : the supposed proofs of 

numberless representations of gladia- Greek inaccuracy are skilfully cumu- 

tors have come dovm to us in \2i\.t&, {a) non constat sibi ...{!>)% c^ft 

mosaics ; such as the mosaic from quid quod in confesso • • ■ (^) § 57 

Treves (Baumeister, Denkm. pi. xci) ; quod si recipi necesse est ... , the 

cf. the great mosaic with portraits of argriment culminating in § 58 in the 

athletes in the Lateran (Helbig, words chronicorum errore non dubio. 

Class. Ant. 704'). after which the case of Polygnotos is 

7. C. Terentio Lucano : possibly thrown in as a kind of postscript, 

identical, according to Mommsen, The complaint was, however, unjust 

with the Terentius Lucamis on the and originally based on a misunder- 

coin Rom. Miinziv. p. 554, 164 (and standing, see Introd. p. xxx. 
note 278). 17. olympiade LXXXX : below, 

9. in nemore Dianae : i. e. the § 60. 



/. PAINTING 99 

previously unheard of. When the picture was finished, it was 
struck by lightning in the gardens of Maius, and burned together 
with the greater part of the gardens. A freedman of this emperor 52 
gave a gladiatorial show at Antium, at which the public colonnades 
were adorned by a picture of all the gladiators and attendants, Portraits of 
portrayed from the life. Realistic portraiture indeed has fQ^Sl'^^^'^t'"- 
many generations been the highest ambition of art ; Gaius Teren- 
tius Lucanus, however, was the first to have a picture of a gladia- 
torial show painted and to exhibit it in public. He showed thirty 
pairs of gladiators in the Forum for three days, in honour of his 
grandfather, who had adopted him : moreover he dedicated 
a picture of them in the grove of Diana. 

I now propose to mention the most famous painters as briefly 53 

as may be, for a detailed account would be inconsistent with the ^"'"P "^ 
■' ' painters. 

scheme of my work. It will therefore be enough if I give some 
artists only a passing notice, or name them in connexion with 
others ; though I must still make a separate mention of the 
most renowned paintings, whether they be still in existence or 
whether they have perished. On this point the Greeks have 54 
made a mistake in placing the painters many years later than the chronology 
bronze workers and metal chasers, and in giving the ninetieth of the 
Olympiad [420-417 B.C.] as the date of the earliest painter, over- ''" ^' 
looking the tradition that Pheidias himself was originally a painter, Pheidias. 
and painted a shield at Athens. It is further acknowledged that 
Panainos brother of Pheidias, who lived in the eighty-third Panainos. 

iS. initio pietorem : cf. xxxiv, 60 opposed to in confesso sit, i. c. hearsay 

Pythagoras Samius initio fictor and to ascertained fact. 

Introd. p. li. 19. LXXX tertia : the date is 

olipeum : the shield introduced loosely assumed for Panainos, as 

without any further definition has being that of his brother Pheidias, 

an apocryphal air (cf. Miinzer, op. xxxiv, 49 ; Robert, op. cit. p. 25 ; 

cit. p. 563, and Introd. loc. cit.). It Furtwanglex, op. cit. p. 40 f. 

cannot of course be that of the Athena 20. Panaenum : Panainos is again 

Parthenos as Urlichs {Chrest. p. 346), mentioned below, in his proper order 

RoheTt{Jrch.March.ip.2^),andFmt- in the history of the development 

wangler (Masterpieces, p. 45), would of painting, without any reference to 

have it, for so important a fact would this first notice, which is from a 

have been noted ; besides, we have the different source, cf. Introd. p. xxviii f. 

express statement in xxxvi, 18 that and p. 11 f. Pratrem, so also Pa.us. v, 

the inner side of the shield of the 11, 6: dScA(^i5oBs Strabo viii, p. 354. 

Parthenos was carved in relief, H. L. intus piuxit : with the device 

Urlichs, Woch. f. klass. Phil. 1895, of a cock (Paus. vi, 26, 3, where 

p. 548. the Athena is simply attributed to 

tradatur : H. L. Urlichs (foe. cit^ Pheidias). Introd. p. liv, note i . 

points out that the expression is Elide: from xxxvi, 1^7 ( = App. 

H 3 



loo C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

quam fecerat Colotes discipulus Phidiae et ei in faciendo 

55 love Olympio adiutor. quid quod in confesso perinde est 
Bularchi pictoris tabulam, in qua erat Magnetum proelium, 
a Candaule rege Lydiae Heraclidarum novissimo, qui et 
Myrsilus vocitatus est, repensam auro ? tanta iam dignatio 5 
picturae erat. circa Romuli id aetatem accident necesse 
est, etenim duodevicensima olympiade interiit Candaules 

A.u.c. 37. aut, ut quidam tradunt, eodem anno quo Romulus, nisi 
fallor, manifesta iam tunc claritate artis, adeo absolutione. 

56 quod si recipi necesse est, simul apparet multo vetustiora 10 
principia eosque qui monochromatis pinxerint, quorum 
aetas non traditur, aliquanto ante fuisse, Hygiaenontem, 
Dinian, Charmadan et qui primus in pictura marem 

a femina discreverit Eumarum Atheniensem figuras omnis 
imitari ausum, quique inventa eius excoluerit Cimonem 15 
Cleonaeum. hie catagrapha invenit, hoc est obliquas 
imagines, et varie formare voltus, respicientes suspicientesve 
vel despicientes. articulis membra distinxit, venas protulit. 



VIII) it appears that Panainos also 
decorated with paintings the walls of 
the temple of Athena. 

I. Colotes : xxxiv, 87. love Olym- 
fio : xxxiv, 54; xxxvi, 18. 

§ 55. 3. Magnetum proelium : 
according to vii, 126, a defeat 
[excidiuni), but the precise event is 
unknown. S. Reinach {Rev. des £t. 
Grecques, 1895, p. 175 ff.), justly 
comments on the strangeness of the 
tradition that a Greek painter im- 
mortalized a Greek defeat, and tries to 
prove the excidiujn to have crept into 
Pliny's account by confusion with the 
celebrated defeat— or rather exter- 
mination — of the Magnetes by the 
Treres in B. c. 651 (Strabo xiv, p. 
647), which gave rise to the pro- 
verbial TO ^orpi-qTSiv KaKa. R. wishes 
to refer the picture to some one of 
the Magnete victories alluded to by 
Strabo (Joe. cit.) on the testimony of 
Kallinos (cf also Wilamowitz in 
Hermes, xxx (1895), p. 177 ff.). But 
where so much is uncertain, we shall 



hesitate before throwing overboard our 
only piece of positive information — the 
excidium of vii, 126 ( = App. I). 

6. circa Homuli aetatem: the 
synchronism is based on Herod, i, 12, 
who gives the death year of Kan- 
daules = accession of Gyges =Jloruii 
of Archilochos, and must be con- 
nected with Cicero {Tusc. Disp. i, 
13), who places Archilochos regnante 
Romulo ; cf. Miinzer, op. cit. p. 542 ; 
cf. Introd. p. Ixxxiv. 

§ 56. II. mouoohromatis : above, 
§§ 15. 29- 

14. discreverit : as in black-figured 
vases, by painting the flesh parts of 
the women white (Introd. p. xxix). 
Indeed a conventional difference be- 
tween the colouring of the sexes seems 
to have been observed dov/n to the 
latest time. Thus albeit Alexander was 
remarkable for his fair skin, Apelles 
in his portrait of the king ovk e/u- 
[i'f](7aT0 7^v XP^<^^, aWoi (pcuSrepov Kai 
imnvaJiiivov etrolTjffev Plut. .At. iv, 120. 

Eumarum : the name is still known 



/. PAINTING loi 

Olympiad [448-445 B.C.], painted at Elis the inner surface of the 
shield belonging to an Athena by Kolotes, a pupil of Pheidias and 
his assistant in executing the Olympian Zeus. Again, is it not 
an undisputed fact that a picture of the defeat of the Magnetes 
by the painter Boularchos was bought by Kandaules, also called Soular- 
Myrsilos, the last Lydian king of the line of the Heraklids, for its '^^''•'■ 
weight in gold, a proof of the honour already paid to painting ? 
This must have taken place in the days of Romulus, for Kandaules 
died in the eighteenth Olympiad [708-705 b.c], or, according to 
some authorities, in the same year as Romulus, and already then, b.c 717. 
unless I am mistaken, the art had attained to greatness, even to 
perfection. And if we must accept this, it follows that its first origin 58 
is much older, and that the early painters in monochrome, whose Painters 
dates have not been handed down to us, lived some time before, ^^^^f' 
Such, for example, were i Hygiatnon, \Deimas, ^ Charmadas, 
■\Eumaros of Athens, who was the first to mark the difference Eumaros 
between man and woman in painting, and who ventured to "/■^t"''"- 
imitate every sort of figure, and Kimon of Kleonai, who developed Kimon of 
the inventions of Eumaros. He devised Kariypa^a, or profile ^"'>"'^'- 
drawings, and represented the features in different postures, look- 
ing backwards or upwards or downwards. He marked the 
attachments of the limbs, gave prominence to the veins, and also 

only from Pliny, for the reading 16. catagrapha ; the word is sus- 
Eu/^apo9 on the basis from the Akro- ceptible of meaning ' foreshortening ' 
polis, bearing the signature of An tenor (Tilo\vierA.a, Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 258; 
{Jahrb. ii, 1887, p. 135 f.) is quite Hartwig, Meisterschakn, p. 156 f., 
uncertain (cf. Hartwig, Meisterschakn, Lange, Fremstilling, pp. 429,464), and 
p. 154). Further, the conjecture of this was possibly the meaning intended 
ViiichSjSumari {Holz. Pferd, p. J 4 n. by the Greek author, for profile figures, 
i2),for the corrupt^«'ff2«ff«in Varro, which had existed from the earliest 
Ling. Lat. ix, 6, 12, is impossible; times, could on no theory, however con- 
see Spengel's critical apparatus, p. 198. ventional, be interpreted as audacious 

figviras = 'position' by a slight inventions. It is clear however that 

extension of one meaning given to the Pliny or his Latin author understood 

wordby Cicero,f«r?-«jII,i, 21, 57,?;«» catagrapha as simply = profile, since 

solum numerum signorum, sed etiam this is the meaning he gives to the 

uniuscuiusque magnitudinem, figu- Greek equivalent obliqua imago in 

ram, statum litteris definiri vidcs, § 90, where see note, 
upon which see Pseudo-Asconius, 17. [respieientes suspioientesve 

p. 1 74, 7 (ed. Orelli) figura est circa vel despicientes : sudden change 

gestum situmque membrorum (Blum- from asyndeton to disjunctive particle, 

ner, Rhein. Mus. 26, p. 353). cf. xxviii, 63 contra renum aut lum- 

15. Cimon: cf. the improvements borum, vesicae cruciatus, J. Miiller, 

attributed to him by Ailian, iroi«. lar. Stil, p. 69. H. L. U.] 
viii, 8. 



18. membra . . . protulit: cfL on 



I02 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST XXXV 

57 praeterque in vestibus rugas et sinus invenit, Panaenus 
quidem frater Phidiae etiam proelium Atheniensium ad- 

A.u.c. 264. versus Persas apud Marathona factum pinxit. adeo iam 
colorum usus increbruerat, adeoque ars perfecta erat ut in 
eo proelio iconicos duces pinxisse tradatur, Atheniensium s 
Miltiaden, Callimachum, Cynaegirum, barbarorum Datim, 
Artaphernen. 

58 Quin immo certamen etiam picturae florente eo in- 
A.u.c. 306. stitutum est Corinthi ac Delphis, primusque omnium certavit 

cum Timagora Chalcidense, superatus ab eo Pythiis, quod 10 
et ipsius Timagorae carmine vetusto apparet chronicorum 
errore non dubio. alii quoque post hos clari fuere ante 
LXXXX olympiadem, sicut Polygnotus Thasius qui primus 
mulieres tralucida veste pinxit, capita earum mitris versi- 
coloribus operuit plurimumque picturae primus contulit, 15 
siquidem instituit os adaperire, dentes ostendere, voltum 

59 ab antiquo rigore variare. huius est tabula in portion 
Pompei, quae ante curiam eius fuerat, in qua dubitatur an 
ascendentem cum clupeo pinxerit an descendentem. hie 

1 . vestibus rugas] Trauie ; veste brugas Bamb. ; verrugas reliqui ; veste 
rugas Detlefsen. 

xxxiv, 59, the improvements attributed tradition of the names attaching to 

to Pythagoras of Rhegion. Introd. each figure would be carefully pre- 

p. xxvii. served ; perhaps too there was an 

57. 3- apud Marathona: on a wall attempt at characterization, so that 

ofthe(r7-od7roiKiA?;(§ 59). The picture in a history of the development of 

was ascribed by other writers to Mikon painting Fanainos might pass as the 

(Arrian, Anai. vii, 1 3, 5 ; Ailian, ittfi first to have essayed portraiture (In- 

fomj' vii, 38 ; Sopatros, Sioip. f^ri;/*. i, trod. p. xxviii f.). 
8), and may have been the work of both 6. Miltiaden: his name was not 

painters, Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen ii, inscribed, but he was characterized 

p. 503. Others again (see Ailian, loc. by his gesture of exhortation, Ais- 

cit^ gave it to Polygnotos. Pausanias Chinese. Ktesifh. 186, &c., see Wachs- 

in his description of the paintings of muth's fine criticism of the passage, 

the Poikile, i, 15, names no artists. op. cit. p. 506, note 2. For the 

For the latest reconstruction of the motive see the warrior on the gold 

picture see Robert, Hall. Winckel- sheath in the Hermitage, Benndorf, 

mannspr. xviii, 1895. Addenda. Gjolbaschi p. 157 fig. i/^z = ComJ)te 

5. ioonioos duces: the year of .ff«»rf» 1864, pi. v, i. 
tte battle being B. c. 490, and the Callimachum, Cynaegirum : Ail. 

Stoa dating presumably from Kimon's loc. cit. roiis a/ifl rbv Kvyiycpov 

recall in B.C. 457 (Furtwangler, ml -Emitjf^v re ical KaXXiixaxov, 

Masterpieces, p. 41), there can be no cf. Wachsmuth, op. cit. p. 5iof. The 

question of real portraiture ; but the omission of Epizelos in Pliny is 



/. PAINTING 103 

discovered the wrinkles and the windings of drapery. Further- 57 

more Panainos the brother of Pheidias painted the battle between P^nainos. 

J^tctufc of 
the Athenians and Persians at Marathon. So extensively were battle of 

colours now used, so perfect had technique now become, that he ^'^^'^^'^o"- 

is actually said to have given the real portraits of the commander 

on both sides, of Miltiades, Kallimachos and Kynaigeiros among 

the Athenians, of Datis and Artaphernes among the barbarians. 

Nay more, competitions for painters were instituted at Corinth 58 

and Delphoi in the time of Panainos, when in the first contest he ^'^^'^'^"S 
'^ ' competi- 

tried for the prize against Timagoras of Chalkis, who conquered tions. 

him, as we know from an old epigram by Timagoras himself, at ^? ^^^■ 

the Pythian games ; an evident proof that the chroniclers are of Chalkis. 

wrong in their dates. Yet other painters became famous before 

the ninetieth Olympiad [420-417 B.C. J, as for example Polygnotos Polygmtos 

of Thasos, who first painted women with transparent garments "^ Thaws. 

and gave them headdresses of various colours. This artist made 

a first serious contribution to the development of painting by 

opening the mouth, showing the teeth, and varying the stiff 

archaic set of the features. He painted the picture now in the 59 

gallery of Pompeius and formerly in front of his Council Chamber, -^^ . , 

,11 warrior. 

representmg a warrior armed with a shield, about whom people 

argue as to whether he is ascending or descending. He also 

curious. The heroes are mentioned 18. curiam : Gilbert, Rom. iii, 

as an indivisible triad by Plutarch, p. 325 ; numerous works of art 

Glor. Ath. 3, Diogenes Laert. i, 56. were collected by Pompeius in the 

§ 58. 9. Corinthi ao Delphis : i.e. complex of buildings about his 

at the Isthmian and Pythian festivals Theatre. 

(JPythiis below) ; for contests be- in qua dubitatur: the warrior 

tween painters cf. §§ 65, 72 and (perhaps Kapaneus, cf Benndorf, op. 

Introd. p. Ixiv. cit. p. 190; pi. xxiv, A. 4 : Anth. Plan. 

13. Polygnotus : son of the first iv, 106) was presumably on a ladder, 
Aglaophon, and brother of Aristophon and it was difficult to tell whether he 
(§§ 60, 138). was climbing up orcoming down again. 

qui primus : introduces as usual, Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr. 

the artist's special contribution to the xviii, 1895, p. 67, suggests that 

progress of his art, Introd. p. xxviii f. the tabula was the votive picture of 

14. tralucida veste : Ailian, tioik. an apobates, of whom it was uncertain 
iffT. iv, 3 i/iOTiW XeTTTc^TiyTas; Lucian, whether he was stepping up to, or 
fXxlyvfi 7 « ^ii X(TTT6TaTov k^fipyaa- down from, his chariot; for the subject 
fi4vr]v (of the drapery of Kassandra in see the beautiful monochrome picture 
the Nekuia). on white marble slab (Naples, Helbig, 

§ 59. 17. portiou Pompei: in Wandgemalde 1405''), published by 
the immediate vicinity of Pompeius's Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogr. 
theatre. xix, 1895. 



I04 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



Delphis aedem pinxit, hie et Athenis porticum quae Poecile 
vocatur gratuito, cum partem eius Micon mercede pingeret. 
vel maior huic auctoritas, siquidem Amphictyones, quod 
est publicum Graeciae concilium, hospitia ei gratuita de- 
crevere. fuit et alius Micon qui minoris cognomine distin- 5 
guitur, cuius filia Timarete et ipsa pinxit. 
60 LXXXX autem olympiade fuere Aglaophon, Cephiso- 
dorus, Erillus, Evenor pater Parrhasi et praeceptor maximi 
pictoris de quo suis annis dicemus, omnes iam inlustres, non 
tamen in quibus haerere expositio debeat festinans ad lumina 10 
artis in quibus primus refulsit Apollodorus Atheniensis 
LXXXXIII olympiade. hie primus species exprimere 
instituit primusque gloriam penicillo iure contulit. eius est 
sacerdos adorans et Aiax fulmine incensus, quae Pergami 



1. Delphis aedem : i. e. the 
A.eaxv or covered portico where 
people met to converse. The pictures, 
which included an llioupersis and a 
Nekuia are described in Paus. x, 25- 
31. For modern reconstructions see 
Robert, ffall. Wincltelmannspr. xvi, 
1892 and xvii, 1893. 

Poeoile : where next to Mikon's 
Amazonomachia (below) Polygnotos 
painted an llioupersis. Next to 
this again came the Marathon by 
Mikon and Panainos (above). For 
the distribution of the pictures see 
Benndorf, op. cit. p. 156, and the new 
arrangement proposed by Robert in 
Hall. Winckelmannspr. xviii, 1895, 
p. 44. The pictures, as appears 
from Synnesios, Ep. 135 (= Overb. 
Schriftquell. 1057), were not mural 
paintings in the ordinary sense, but 
were painted on wooden boards or 
panels ; cf. Wachsmuth, Stadt Athen, 
ii, p. 504. 

2. gratuito : cf. Melanthios (cf. 
Wilamowitz, Arist. u. Athen. p. 287, 
n. 37) ap. Plutarch, Kimon, iv, p. 431 : 

auTou 7(i/) Za.Tikvo.icri Bvtiv vaov"* 

KexpoTriav Kdfffj.tjff' fj^Bioiv 
aperais. 



(The vaoi here referred to are those of 
Theseus and the Anakes, Harpokra- 
tion s. v. VloKv'^vono^^ 

partem eius Mieon: he painted 
the battle of Theseus and the Ama- 
zons, Paus. i, 15, 2 ; Arrian vii, 13, 5, 
where few will agree with Graef {ap. 
Pauly s. V. Amazonen p. 1778) in 
defending the old reading Kifiaii' ; cf. 
Robert, loc. cit. p. 47, note 2. Mikon 
was also a sculptor, xxxiv, 88, where 
see note. 

3. Amphictyones : the reward 
they gave was more probably for the 
decoration of the l^iaxt ; while for 
his work at Athens he received the 
Attic citizenship, Harpokration, /. c. 

6. Timarete : below, § 147. 

5 60. 7. LXXXX autem Olymp. : 
as in the case of the sculptors (xxxiv, 
49), the first painter in each Olym- 
piad is dated from a work brought 
into connexion with an important 
historical event; about this central 
date his contemporaries, whether 
older or younger, are roughly grouped, 
cf. Robert, ArcA. March, p. 66 f. 

Aglaophon : son of Aristophon 
(below, § 138), andaccordinglynephew 
of Polygnotos (Plato, Gorg. p. 448 B) 
and grandson of the first Aglaophon. 



I. PAINTING 



los 



decorated the temple at Delphoi and at Athens the Painted Portico 
[o-Toa TToiKi'Xr)], as it is Called. For this he took, no money, while 
Mikon, to whom part of the work was entrusted, accepted pay- 
ment. The position he thus won for himself was all the greater, 
so much so that the Amphyktionic council, or national assembly 
of Hellas, decreed that he should be a public guest. There was 
another Mikon, distinguished as ' the younger,' whose daughter 
Timarete was also an artist. 

In the ninetieth Olympiad [420-417 B.C.] lived Aglaophon, 
\Kephisodoros, -^Erillos and Evenor, the father and master of 
the great artist Parrhasios, whom I shall mention in due time. 
They were all painters of note, yet they need not prevent my 
hastening on to the true luminaries of art, among whom the 
first to shine was Apollodoros of Athens in the ninety-third 
Olympiad [408-405 b.c.J. He was the first to give his figures 
the appearance of reality, and he first bestowed true glory on 
the brush. He painted a priest in prayer, and an Aias struck 
by lightning, which is still to be seen at Pergamon. No picture 



He paints 
the Lesche 
at Delphoi, 
and at 
Athens 
the Stoa 
Poikile. 
Mikon, 
Mikon the 
Younger. 



60 

Great 
■masters 
of the 
ninetieth 
Olympiad. 

Apollo- 
doros of 
Athens. 



His works 

1. Priest, 

2. Aias. 



His date (Robert, loc. cit.') seems 
determined by his picture of Olympias 
and Pythias crowning Allcibiades 
(Satyros ap. Athen. xii, p. 534 D), 
painted to commemorate the chariot 
victories of Ol. 90 (Grote, Greece, v, 
p. 456 f.) or 01. 91 (Rutgers) ; see 
G. H. Forster, Die Olympischen 
Sieger, i, p. 20 f. The companion 
picture of Alkibiades in the lap of 
Nemea was by Aristophon, Hut. 
Alkib. xvi, Pans, i, 22, 6 (artist 
imnamed). Satyros, loc. cit., attributes 
it however to the son. 

8. Evenor, pater Parrhasi : Paus. 
i, 28, i. suis annis below, § 67. 

11. ApollodoTUS : Overb. Schrift- 
quell. 1641-1646. 

12. primus species . . . primus- 
que gloriam : belongs to the series 
of Xenokratic art judgements begun in 
§§ 15-16; 56-58: cf Introd. p. xxix. 

species : evidently the vague trans- 
lation of some Greek technical term ; 
cf. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, p. 138. 
The discovery attributed to Apollo- 
doros by Plutarch [Glor. Ath. ii) was 



the <p0opd. Kcd a.Tr6xpoj(TL9 afcias — (an 
advance also attributed to Zeuxis, 
Quinct. xii, Jo, 4 prior luminum 
umbrarumque invenit rationem) i. e. 
he showed how to render — not the 
shadow cast, but the graduated 
passage from light to shadow on 
curved surfaces (Lange, Fremstilling, 
p. 465 ; cf. above, tonon and harmogen 
in § 29). In this connexion may be 
noted the attempt at expressing by 
shadow the curving of surfaces, on 
two interesting polychrome lekythoi 
of the Berlin Museum {Cat. 26S4, 
2685 — the latter published in facsimile 
by Winter, Winckelmannsprogr. 1895, 
cf id. p. 9). 

14. saoerdos adorans : votive 
portrait ; cf. the sacerdos adstante 
puero of Parrhasius (§ 70) the sup- 
plicans paene cum voce of Aristeides 

(§ 99)- 

Aiax fulmine incensus : Verg. 
Aen. i, 43 ff. ipsa (sc. Minerva^ 
lovis rapidum iaculata e nubibus 
ignem \ disiecitque rates, evertitque 
aequora ventis \ ilium expirantem 



io6 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



spectatur hodie. neque ante eum tabula ullius ostenditur 

61 quae teneat oculos. ab hoc artis fores apertas Zeuxis 
Heracleotes intravit olympiadis LXXXXV anno quarto, 
audentemque iam aliquid penicillum — de hoc enim adhuc 
loquamur — ad magnam gloriam perduxit, a quibusdam falso 
in LXXXVIIII olympiade positus. confuisse necesse est 
Demophilum Himeraeum et Nesea Thasium, quoniam 

62 utrius eorum discipulus fuerit ambigitur. in eum Apollo- 
dorus supra scriptus versum fecit, artem ipsis ablatam 
Zeuxim ferre secum. opes quoque tantas adquisivit ut in 
ostentationem earum Olympiae aureis litteris in palliorum 
tesseris intextum nomen suum ostentaret. postea donare 



6. positus. confuisse] Traube ; positus cum fuisse (faisset omnes f racier 
Bamb.) codd. \ positus, cum quo fuisse Ritschl, Detlefsen. 



transfixo pectore Jlammas \ turbine 
corripuit scopuloque infixii acuto ; cf. 
Odyss. iv, 499 ff. [The fulmine in- 
census of the subject not (as Furt- 
wangler, Plinius, p. 53 suggests) of 
the picture, in which case Pliny would 
use tabula, cf. below, § 69. — H. L. U.] 

Pergami : Introd. p. xc. 

§ 61. 2. fores apertas ; [ii, 31 
rerum fores aperuisse Anaximander 
. . . traditur ; the metaphor is common 
to Silver Latin, cf. Plin. Epist. i, 1 8, 4 
ilia {actio) iamiam famae {mihi) 
patefecit. Because a similar expression 
occurs, Babrios, Proem. 1. 29, there is 
no need to follow Schneidewin, Rhein. 
Mus. vii (1850), p. 479, in thinking 
that Pliny's words go back to a Greek 
metrical epigram, cf. also Miiller, 
Stil, p. 126 ff. H. L. U.] At the 
same time, the words exactly express 
the position which the Greek writers 
(Introd. p. xxix) assigned to Apollo- 
doros at the opening of a series of 
painters who, masters of their art, 
each brought towards the final per- 
fection to be attained by Apelles (§ 79) 
a definite contribution : ApoUodoros 
among the painters is the counterpart 
of Pheidias among the statuaries, 
Robert, Arch. March, p. 67 f. (Introd. 



p. xxvii) . Therefore the words must 
represent some closely similar Greek 
expression ; for an analogous para- 
phrase cf. Add. to note on xxxiv, 81. 

3. Heracleotes : Plato, Protag. 
318 B 6 veaviaKos vvv viwoTL i-ntb-qnitiv 
Z6u£i7r7roso'Hpa«\€ctiT);s(on the identity 
of Zeuxis and Zeuxippos see Fick, 
Griech. Personennamen, pp. 35, 132). 
The dialogue being imagined as taking 
place in B. c. 424, it is impossible to 
reconcile this mention of Zeuxis with 
the tradition that he was bom at 
Herakleia (founded B.C. 432), except 
by either holding Plato guilty of an 
anachronism (and likewise Xenophon, 
who alludes to Z. in the 'Banquet,' 
of which the scene is laid in B. c. 422), 
or supposing with Robert (Hall. 
Winckelmannsprogr. xix, 1895, p. 18), 
that the parents of Zeuxis removed as 
colonists to Herakleia when he was 
already a boy of nine or ten. The artist 
was evidently at home in Lower Italy 
(he paints for Agrigentum, Kroton, 
&c.) ; it is out of the question to 
assume that he was bom at the older 
Pontic Herakleia. Addenda. 

01. 95, anno quarto : the occa- 
sion for the date assigned to him here 
is unknown. Since the ' Alkmena,' 



/. PAINTING 



107 



by any of his predecessors really rivets the gaze. It was he who 
opened the gates of art through which Zeuxis of Herakleia 
passed in the fourth year of the ninety-fifth Olympiad [397 B.C.], 
giving to the painter's brush (for of the brush alone I speak as 
yet) the full glory to which it already aspired. Zeuxis is erro- 
neously placed by some in the eighty-ninth Olympiad [424- 
421 B.C.] ; it is evident that \ Demophilos of Himera and \Neseus 
of Thasos were among his contemporaries, seeing that there is a 
controversy as to which of the two was his master. In an epigram 
written against him by the Apollodoros whom I mentioned above, 
it is said that ' Zeuxis bore away with him the art he had stolen 
from his masters.' He amassed great wealth, and in order to 
make a parade of it at Olympia he showed his name woven in 
golden letters into the embroideries of his garments. Later on 



ai 

Zeuxis of 
Herakleia, 



taught by 
Demophilos 
or Neseus. 
62 



His wealth, 
luxury, 
and pride. 



which belongs to his later period (see 
below Urlichs' note on posiea), was 
yet painted previous to B.C. 406, in 
which year Agrigentum was destroyed 
by the Carthaginians, Zeuxis must 
have been an artist of note long 
before B. C. 398 ; cf. also the 
passage from Plato quoted above. 
On the other hand the ascription to 
Z. of the 'Epws ... yeypafjLfjievos 
eX^^ <XTe(pavov dvB^fioJv, Ar. Acharn. 
991 (play produced B. C. 425), rests 
only on the doubtful authority of the 
scholia. 

4. adhiuo : i. c. in opposition to 
encaustic painting in | 149. 

5. falso : Quinct. xii, 10, 4, dates 
Zeuxis, and Parrhasios circa Pelopon- 
nesia ambo tempera, from the fact 
that Xenophon {Memorab. iii, 10, i) 
records a conversation between Par- 
rhasios and Sokrates. The earlier 
date was the correct one. 

7. DemopMlum : distinct from 
the Damophilos (below, § 154, where 
see note) who decorated the temple of 
Ceres. 

Himeraeum : 'I/iepo on the N. 
coast of Sicily. 

Thasium ; the ethnic suggests that 
Neseus belonged to the circle of 
Polygnotos (§ 58) of Thasos. Robert, 
loc. cii., points out that the young 



Zeuxis very possibly placed himself 
under this master, on his arrival in 
Athens. 

§ 62. 9. ipsis ; sc. Demophilo et 
Nesea (Traube). Benndorf, Epigr. p. 
30, and Jahn, Kleine Beitrdge, p. 284, 
explain it as sibi sociisque, which is 
impossible. 

10. in ostentationem : the story 
of the gorgeous robes worn by Zeuxis 
has its counterpart in the gorgeous 
robes of his rival Parrhasios (Athen. 
xii, 643 C — D), Introd. p. Ivii. 

12. tesseris intextum : the best 
explanation seems that of Urlichs, 
Chrest. p. 345 ; he takes the tesserae 
to have been small squares (of stuff) 
upon which the name was embroidered, 
and quotes Vopiscus, Carinus 30 
inscriptum est adhuc in choraulae 
pallio Tyrianthino Messalae nomen 
uxoris (ed. H. Peter) ; see in Casau- 
bon's edition, vol. ii, p. 851 ", Sau- 
maise's note, who in reference to the 
Plinian passage explains tesserae = 
KV0OI, and quotes Hesychius {s.v. 
Kv^os) ol ^a\aiMVLOL Kiyovffi kv^ov 
TO Tov t/jLaTtov ffrjfietov, 

postea : [i. e. in his latter period; 
the Alkmena and the Pan must there- 
fore be reckoned among the artist's 
later works.— H. L. U.] 



io8 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



opera sua instituit, quod nullo pretio satis digno permutari 
posse diceret, sicuti Alcmenam Agragentinis, Pana Archelao. 

63 fecit et Penelopen in qua pinxisse mores videtur, et athletam, 
adeoque in illo sibi placuit ut versum subscriberet celebrem 
ex CO, invisurum aliquem facilius quam imitaturum. magni- 5 
ficus est et luppiter eius in throno adstantibus diis et 
Hercules infans dracones strangulans Alcmena matre coram 

64 pavente et Amphitryone. reprehenditur tamen ceu grandior 
in capitibus articulisque, alioqui tantus diligentia ut Agra- 
gentinis facturus tabulam quam in templo lunonis Laciniae 10 
publice dicarent inspexerit virgines eorum nudas et quinque 
elegerit, ut quod in quaque laudatissimum esset pictura 
redderet. pinxit et monochromata ex albo. aequales eius 
et aemuli fuere Timanthes, Androcydes, Eupompus, Parrha- 

65 sius. descendisse hie in certamen cum Zeuxide traditur, et 15 
cum ille detulisset uvas pictas tanto successu ut in scaenam 



2. Alcmenam : probably iden- 
tical with the picture in § 63. 

Archelao : for whom Zeuxis de- 
corated the palace at Pella, Ailian 
TTOin. ItTT. xiv, 17. 

3. mores : in the sense given to it 
by Horace, £p. i, i, 57 est animus 
tibi, sunt mores. Some commentators 
however (chief among them Winckel- 
mann), have understood mores to be 
a translation of the Greek ^^os, where- 
by endless difficulties have arisen, 
seeing that ^flos was precisely the 
quality in which , according to Aristotle, 
Poet. 6, II, Zeuxis was deficient. But 
^flos in its strictly philosophical sense 
had no precise Latin equivalent, as 
we learn from Quinct. vi, 2, 8, and 
from Pliny himself (below, § 98, 
where see note) ; cf. Brunn, K. G. 
ii, p. 86 i. ; Jahn, Kunsturtheile, 
p. 105 f. 

5. invisurum ; /Min^ireTai tis 
lioXKov i) fju/jiiiffeTai ; the proverb is 
attnbuted by Plntarch {Glor. Ath. 2), 
and Hesychios to Apollodoros. The 
saying recurs from early times in a 
variety of forms ; Bergk, Lyr. Graec. 
ii, p. 318, Benndorf, Efigr. p. 27, n. 3; 



cf. Preger, Inscript. Gr. Metr. 193. 
Introd. p. Ivii. 

6. luppiter . . . Amphitryone : 
the whole subject is preserved on a 
vase-painting in the Brit. Mus. ; A. S . 
Murray, Class. Rev. 1888, p. 327; id. 
Handb. of Greek Arch. p. 376. Add. 

§64. 8. reprehenditur tameu: the 
toz««» presupposes a sentence of praise, 
which has fallen out. Quinctilian (xii, 
10, 5) says of Zeuxis plus membris 
corporis dedit . . . but praises him on 
the same grounds that Pliny blames 
him, another instance of conflicting 
criticisms in antiquity; cf. note on 
Kallimachos in xxxiv, 92. 

9. articulisque : literally the 
joints (knuckles, wrists, ankles, &c.) 
and so by extension the extremities ; 
see Robert, Arch. March, p. 76, Hall. 
Winckelmannsprogr. xix, 1895, p. 25. 
An almost identical criticism is passed 
upon Euphranor in § 128. Zeuxis is 
represented in the same relation to 
Apollodoros as Polykleitos xxxiv, 56 
to Pheidias (ib. 54). On the Xeno- 
kratic authorship see Introd. p. xxvii. 

Agragentinis : from Cic. {Invent. 
ii, I, i) it appears that this picture 



/. PAINTING 



109 



he began to make presents of his pictures, saying that they were 
beyond all price. In this way he gave his Alkmena to the city of 
Agrigentum and his Pan to Archelaos. He also painted a Pene- 
lope, in whom he embodied virtue's self, and an athlete with whom 
he was so well pleased that he wrote beneath it the line thence- 
forward famous : 'Another may carp more easily than he may copy.' 
He also painted a superb Zeus enthroned amid the assembled gods, 
with the infant Herakles strangling the snakes in presence of his 
trembling mother Alkmena and of Amphitryon. Zeuxis is criti- 
cized however as having exaggerated the heads and extremities of 
his figures ; for the rest he bestowed such minute pains upon his 
work that before painting for the people of Agrigentum a picture 
to be dedicated in the temple of Hera on the Lakinian pro- 
montory, he inspected the maidens of the city naked, and chose 
out five, whose peculiar beauties he proposed to reproduce in his 
picture. He also painted monochromes in white. Ttmanthes, 
Androkydes, \Eupompos and Parrhasios were contemporaries 
and rivals of Zeuxis. The story runs that Parrhasios and Zeuxis 



is identical with the famous Helena 
(below, § 66). 

10. luuonis Laciniae : Cicero, 
loc. cit., says the Helena was painted 
for the Krotoniates ; so too Dionysios 
H. (^de veter. script, cens. i), and this 
is doubtless correct, for as Freeman 
remarks {Sicily, vol. ii, p. 402, note 
3) ' the Lakinian Hera, at home at 
Kroton, would have no place at 
Akragas ' (cf. Roscher, i, p. 2086). 

11. inspexerit virgines : Lange 
{J^remstilling, p. 354 n.) points out 
that the anecdote gives concrete ex- 
pression to the saying that the best 
parts must be taken ' out of divers 
Faces, to make one Excellent,' cf. 
Xenoph. Mem. iii, 10, 2 ; Cicero and 
Dionysios (//. cc.') incorporate the 
axiom with the anecdote which 
illustrates it. See Introd. p. Ixi f. 

13. ex albo : i. e. on a dark ground, 
perhaps in imitation of marble reliefs 
(cf Bliimner, Technol. iv, p. 420, note 
4), whereas monochrome paintings 
were usually carried out in red {cinna- 
bar, minium, rubrica, sinopis, Plin. 
xxxiii, 117), presumably on a white 



ground. Of the latter technique we 
have imitations in the pictures painted 
in red colour on the white marble 
slabs in Naples. Semper's theory 
{Stil, i, p. 470, ed. i) that these had 
once been polychrome pictures in 
encaustic, whose colours were destroyed 
by the heat of the lava, has been dis- 
proved by Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 
170''; ci.'RohtTt,Hall.Winckelmanns- 
progr. xix, 1895, p. 9 ; on the contrary, 
the slabs admirably prove the practice 
of painting in monochrome. 

14. Timanthes : below, | 73. 

Androoydes : of Kyzikos ; ac- 
cording to Plutarch {Pel. xxv) he 
painted at the time of the liberation of 
the Kadmeia (B.C. 379) the picture of 
a battle in which both Epameinondas 
and Pelopidas had been engaged ; i. e. 
probably the battle mentioned Pel. iv 
(Brunn, X. G. ii, p. 1 24). From Athen. 
viii, p. 341 A, we learn that he was cele- 
brated for his accurate painting offish. 

Eupompus : below, § 75. 

§ 65. 16. uvas pictas : cf. below, 
§§66, 15s; above, § 23. 

ut in scaenam : i. e. the pictures 



His gifts 

of the 

' Alkmena' 

and the 

'Pan: 

63 



64 

For the 
temple 
of Hera 
Lakinia 
he paints 
a picture 
takenfrom 
the five 
most 
beauteous 
maidens 
of the city. 

65 

His con- 
tempora- 
ries. 



no C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

aves advolarent, ipse detuHsse linteum pictum ita veritate 
repraesentata ut Zeuxis alitum iudicio tumens flagitaret 
tandem remoto linteo ostendi picturam atque intellecto 
errore concederet palmam ingenuo pudore, quoniam ipse 

66 volucres fefellisset, Parrhasius autem se artificem. fertur et 5 
postea Zeuxis pinxisse puerum uvas ferentem, ad quas cum 
advolassent aves, eadem ingenuitate processit iratus operi 
et dixit : uvas melius pinxi quam puerum, nam si et hoc 
consummassem, aves timere debuerant. fecit et figlina opera, 
quae sola in Ambracia relicta sunt, cum inde Musas Fulvius lo 
Nobilior Romam transferret. Zeuxidis manu Romae Helena 
est in Philippi porticibus, et in Concordiae delubro Marsyas 

67 religatus. Parrhasius Ephesi natus et ipse multa contulit. 
primus symmetrian picturae dedit, primus argutias voltus, 
elegantiam capilli, venustatem oris, confessione artificum in 15 
lineis extremis palmam adeptus. haec est picturae summa 



were exhibited in the theatre, and 
hung on the scaenae frons, or front 
wall of the stage-buildings. 

§ 66. 7. pinxisse puerum: a 
mere douhlette of the preceding anec- 
dote; the story is also told Senec. 
Rhet. Controv. li, 5 (34), 27. 

9. flglina opera: Pyrrhus had 
probably inherited these works as king 
of Macedonia. Zeuxis, it will be re- 
membered, had worked for King 
Archelaos, above, § 62. 

10. sola . . . reliota sunt : doubt- 
less because these painted terra-cottas 
were architectural decorations, and 
could not be removed without injury 
to the buildings; Liv. xxxviii, 9, 13 
signa aenea marmoreaque et tabulae 
pictae, guibus omatior Ambracia quia 
regia ibi Pyrrhi fiierat . . . sublaia 
omnia avectaque ; nihil praeterea tac- 
tum molatumve, cf. Raoul-Rochette, 
Peiniures, p. 51. 

^mbraoia: the capital of King 
Pyrrhus : for its art treasures cf. 
Polyb. xxii, 13, 9; Liv. loc. cit. 

Musas : these statues, which pro- 
bably dated from the reign of Pyrrhus, 



were dedicated by Fulvius in the 
Temple of Hercules Musarum, with 
a statue of Herakles as Hlovaa- 
yeTTjs (see in this connexion Eumenius 
of Autun pro reslaurandis scholis, 
vii, in Paneg. Lai. ed. Baehrens, 
p. 121; cf also Ovid, Fasti, vi, 
804). The Muses are figured on 
the reverse of the coins of Q. Pom- 
ponius Musa (reproduced and fully 
discussed by O. Bie, Die Musen in d. 
antiken Kunst, pp. 24-44). The 
tragic Muse is preserved in a statuette 
of the Vatican (Clarac, 507, 1013), 
while a head from Frascati in the Brit. 
Mus.(Friederichs-Wolters, 1445) seems 
to reproduce the head of another ; 
cf. Amelung, Basis des Praxiteles, 
p. 44. For the one extant basis, 
see Bull. d. Inst. 1869, p. 3 ff. — The 
temple was surrounded by t\i.eporticus 
Philippi, and was close to the ^orii- 
cus Octaviae on the W. side of the 
Circus Flaminius. 

II. Helena: the mention of the 
Muses which Fulvius brought to 
Rome, suggests to Pliny two more 
works by Zeuxis, noted by him as 



'. cur- 



I. PAINTING III 

entered into competition,' Zeuxis exhibiting a picture of some Comfeii- 

grapes, so true to nature that the birds flew up to the wall of the '^^^^' 

stage. Parrhasios then displayed a picture of a linen curtain, Zeuxis and 

realistic to such a degree that Zeuxis, elated by the verdict of the P"'^^''"-- 

birds, cried out that now at last his rival must draw the curtain The i 

and show his picture. On discovering his mistake he surrendered f?*" """i 
'■ ° the grapes. 

the prize to Parrhasios, admitting candidly that he had deceived 
the birds, while Parrhasios had deluded^ himself, a painter. After 66 
this we learn that Zeuxis painted a boy carrying grapes, and when Boy with 
the birds flew down to settle on them, he was vexed with his own S>''^f'^- 
work, and came forward saying, with like frankness, ' I have 
painted the grapes better than the boy, for had I been perfectly 
successful with the latter, the birds must have been afraid.' He 
also modelled certain terra-cottas which were the only works of art 
left in Ambrakia when Fulvius Nobilior brought the statues of the 
Muses to Rome. The paintings in Rome by the hand of Zeuxis Helen. 
are : the Helen in the gallery of Philip and the bound Marsyas ^^"^^"^ 
in the temple of Concord. Parrhasios, a native of Ephesos, also 67 
made great contributions to the progress of art. He first gave P^^'^'^<^- 
painting symmetry, and added vivacity to the features, daintiness 
to the hair and comeliness to the mouth, while by the verdict of 
artists he is unrivalled in the rendering of outline. This is the 

being also in Rome. In making relief of a marble vase at Naples, 

this addition he forgets that he A. Z. 1869, taf. 18. 

had already mentioned the Helena, §67. 13. Ephesi natus: Strabo 

when quoting from his main authority. xiv, p. 642 ; Anth. App. lix, 2. 

His oversight is, however, the easier 14. primus symmetrian pict. 

to explain as in the previous passage dedit : his achievement as a painter 

the name of the picture had not been marks a similar advance upon that of 

given. Zeuxis (§ 64) to Myron's (xxxiv, 57) 

12. Philippi portioibns ; built by upon that of Polykleitos among the 

L. Marcius Philippus, the step-father statuaries, Introd. p. xxvii. 

of Augustus, round the T. Hercules argutias : note on xxxiv, 65. 

Musarum (above); Suet. Aug. 29; 15. oonfessione artifioum : refers 

Ovid, i^ffirfi, vi, 801 ; cf. Gilbert, iJtfm. to the artists and art-historians Anti- 

iii, p. 248. gonos and Xenokrates (below, § 68) ; 

Concordiae delubro: note on cf. artifices qui condidere haec in 

xxxvi, 73. xxxiv, 68, where the same two writers 

Marsyas religatus : the repre- are meant, Introd. p. xxxvii. 

sentations of Marsyas bound are in lineis ; cf. Quinct. xii, 10, 4 

all cited by Jessen ap. Roscher, ii, examinasse {Parrh.) subtilius lineas 

2450 ff. None, however, can be traced traditur. 

back vrith any certainty to Zeuxis's 16. haeo est pioturae . . . ooou.1- 

picture. A reminiscence of the whole tat : the passage is of unique aesthetic 

composition perchance survives in the interest (Introd. p. xxxiv), it expresses 



112 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

suptilitas. corpora enim pingere et media rerum est quidem 
magni operis sed in quo multi gloriam tulerint, extrema cor- 
porum facere et desinentis picturae modum includere rarum 

68 in successu artis invenitur. ambire enim se ipsa debet ex- 
tremitas et sic desinere ut promittat alia post se ostendatque 5 
etiam quae occultat. hanc ei gloriam concessere Antigonus 
et Xenocrates qui de pictura scripsere, praedicantes quoque, 
non solum confitentes. et alia multa graphidis vestigia 
exstant in tabulis ac membranis eius, ex quibus proficere 
dicuntur artifices, minor tamen videtur sibi comparatus in 10 

69 mediis corporibus exprimendis. pinxit demon Atheniensium 
argumento quoque ingenioso. ostendebat namque varium, 
iracundum iniustum inconstantem, eundem exorabilem 
clementem misericordem, gloriosum, excelsum humilem, 
ferocem fugacemque et omnia pariter. idem pinxit et 15 
Thesea, quae Romae in Capitolio fuit, et navarchum thora- 
catum, et in una tabula, quae est Rhodi, Meleagrum, Hercu- 
lem, Persea, haec ibi ter fulmine ambusta neque obliterata 

70 hoc ipso miraculum auget. pinxit et archigallum, quam 

5. alia sponse (sponte e correction^ Bamb. {serif turn erat alias pos se ; an 
alias post se ? Traube). 

the dominant effort of painting to trand {loc. cii.) translates ' il faut en 
represent objects not only as relieved effet que les contours senvelopfent 
from the flat, but as occupying space. eux-mSmes' In other words, the con- 
It is suggestively discussed by Ber- tours must be so drawn as to appear 
trand, Etudes, p. 65 ff. to clasp what is behind them. 

1. media rerum : i. e. the model- § 68. 5. ut promittat alia post 
ling of the particular face chosen for se : the meaning is so clear, the 
presentation, as it lies between its aesthetic lesson so true, that I have 
bounding lines, without any necessary decided on keeping Detlefsen's read- 
suggestion of the parts which are ing. but not without hesitation, for the 
concealed from view. MSS.are in favour of a/zaj(sc.«.«//-fmj- 

2. extrema . . . modum inclu- tales) post se—a. reading recommended 
dere: the subtle meaning conveyed by Dr. Traube. The meaning of 
by these words is more easily felt this alternative reading would be : in 
than translated. The idea is that the any object, the face which the artist 
supreme difficulty and consequently chooses for presentation forms, where 
the supreme achievement of painting it leaves off, a line against the back- 
cojjsists in bringing the painted out- ground. But another view of the 
line {modus desinentis picturae) into same object would have afforded a 
agreement with the contour of the different system of bounding lines, of 
f^gare. extremitates, and as any object may 

4. ambire . . . extremitas : Ber- be viewed from an endless number 



/. PAINTING 



"3 



highest subtlety attainable in painting. Merely to paint a figure 
in relief is no doubt a great achievement, yet many have succeeded 
thus far. But where an artist is rarely successful is in finding an 
outline which shall express the contours of the figure. For the 68 
contour should appear to fold back, and so enclose the object 
as to give assurance of the parts behind, thus clearly suggesting 
even what it conceals. Preeminence in this respect is con- 
ceded to Parrhasios by Antigonos and Xenokrates, writers on Judgement 
painting, who indeed not only concede but insist upon it. Many "f ^"'^o- 
other traces of his draughtmanship remain, both in pictures and Xeno- 
on parchments, which are said to be instructive to artists. Still, '^™'*^- 
if tried by his own standard, he fails in modelling. He painted 69 
an ingenious personification of the Athenian 'Demos,' discovering His works. 
it as fickle, passionate, unjust, changeable, yet exorable, com- 
passionate and pitiful, boastful, proud and humble, bold and 
cowardly, in a word, everything at once. He also painted 
the Theseus formerly in the Capitol at Rome, an admiral in 
armour, and Meleager, Herakles and Perseus in a picture at 
Rhodes, where it has thrice been set on fire by lightning 
without being destroyed, a miracle which increases our wonder. 



of points, there is no limit to its bound- 
ing lines. It therefore becomes the 
business of the great artist, to give 
assurance, although working on the 
flat, of these hidden lines. This notion 
of fugitive, pursuant outlines, though 
somewhat rhetorical and over-subti- 
lized, would also convey its peculiar 
truth. 

9. tabulls : either small tablets, 
containing the artist's sketches for his 
large pictures, or, if in the usual sense 
of easel pictures, we must understand 
these tabulae to have been left un- 
finished, with the design merely 
sketched in. 

J 69. II. demon Atheniensium: 
cf. the same subject by Euphranor, 
Pans, i, 3, 3 ; below note on § 129. 

16. Thesea : the picture was ori- 
ginally in Athens (Plut. Thes. iv), 
whence it may have beea brought by 
Sulla. 

fait : i. e. it was destroyed by the fire 
of B.C. 70; cf. xxxiii, 154; xxxiv, 38. 



17. quae est Bhodi : Mucianus 
is therefore presumably the authority 
here followed by Pliny, Introd. p. 
Ixxxvi f, 

Meleagrum, Heroulem, Persea ; 
grouped in a 'Santa conversazione,' 
such as were becoming popular in 
the period of Parrhasios ; they had 
little mythological significance, save 
as presenting, pleasantly grouped to- 
gether, two or more of the popular 
national gods or heroes ; cf. the 
' Aineias, Kastor and Polydeukes ' 
in § 71. (Robert, Bild u. Lied, 

P- -IS-) 

18. ter fulmine ambusta : the 
stress laid on the miraculous circum- 
stance confirms the authorship of 
Mucianus, Introd. loc. cit. 

§70. 19. arohigallnm: literally 
the word would apply to the chief of 
the priests of Kybele. But the follow- 
ing anecdote shows that the picture 
more probably represented the figure 
of a nude boy, surnamed the archi- 



114 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



picturam amavit Tiberius princeps atque, ut auctor est 
Deculo, HS. [LX] aestimatam cubiculo suo inclusit. pinxit 
et Thressam nutricem infantemque in manibus eius et Philis- 
cum et Liberum patrem adstante Virtute, et pueros duos in 
quibus spectatur securitas et aetatis simplicitas, item sacer- 5 

71 dotem adstante puero cum acerra et corona, sunt et duae 
picturae eius nobilissimae, hoplites in certamine ita decurrens 
ut sudare videatur, alter arma deponens ut anhelare sentia- 
tur. laudantur et Aeneas Castorque ac Pollux in eadem 
tabula, item Telephus, Achilles, Agamemnon, Ulixes. fecun- 10 
dus artifex, sed quo nemo insolentius usus sit gloria artis, 
namque et cognomina usurpavit habrodiaetum se appellando 
aliisque versibus principem artis et earn ab se consummatam, 
super omnia Apollinis se radice ortum et Herculem, qui est 
Lindi, talem a se pictum qualem saepe in quiete vidisset. 15 

72 ergo magnis suffragiis superatus a Timanthe Sami in Aiace 
armorumque iudicio herois nomine se moleste ferre dicebat 
quod iterum ab indigno victus esset. pinxit et minoribus 
tabellis libidines, eo genere petulantis ioci se reficiens. 



gallus, owing to some physical pecu- 
liarity (cf. Klein, Arch. Ep. Mitth. 
xii, 1888, p. 123); perhaps therefore 
the picture should be reckoned among 
the libidines mentioned below in § 72. 

I. amavit Tiberius : cf. the 
similar story told of the Apoxyomenos 
of Lysippos, xxxiv, § 62. 

3. Thressam nutrioem : a votive 
portrait put up in gratitude for the 
services of a favourite nurse ; cf. Furt- 
wangler, Darnauszieher, p. 95, or a 
grave picture; cf. Anth. Pal. vii, 
663: 

'O fuxKbs t6S' 6TCi/^c Ta 0petffaq. 
MijSeios TO livdfi' eirl to oBS, k^ttc- 
'YpaJpe KKiiras. 

e^€t rav \apiv d yvvci avr exeivojv 
Siv Tov Koipov t6pi\p^. trvp.' Sjv It: 

XPH2IMA 7-fXEuT?. 
From pinxit et Thr. nuir. down to et 
corona we seem to have part of the 
old account of Parrhasios by Xeno- 
krates; Miinzer, op. cit. p. 515; cf. 
Introd. p. xxvii. 



Philiscum ; a poet of the Middle 
Comedy ; Kock, Fragm. Com. Graec. 
vol. ii, p. 443. 

5. saoerdotem adstante puero : 
cf. above, note on | 60. 

§ 71. 6. duae pioturae : apparently 
composed as pehdants; the descrip- 
tion is epigrammatic, Benndorf, Epi- 
gramm. p. 55, Introd. p. Ixxi. 

9. Aeneas Castorque ao Pollux: 
for this group of heroes, who have 
no mythological connexion with one 
another, cf. above, note on § 69. 

10. Telephus, Achilles, Aga- 
memnon, Ulixes : i. c. a picture re- 
presenting the healing of Telephos by 
the rust from the sword of Achilles 
(xxxiv, 152), in presence of Agamem- 
non and of Odysseus. Robert {_Bild. 
u. Lied. p. 35) conjectures the picture 
to have been inspired by the lost play 
of Euripides ; but Vogel {Scenen 
Euripid. Trag. in gr. Vasengemdlden, 
p. 18) rightly points out that Euripi- 
des had assigned too marked a part 



I. PAINTING 115 

He also painted a priest of Kybele : a picture of which the 70 
Emperor Tiberius was enamoured, and which, according to 
Deculo, although valued at 6,000,000 sesterces (;!^S 2,500 circ), he 
placed in his private apartments. Furthermore he painted a 
Thrakian nurse with an infant in her arms ; a portrait of Philiskos, 
Dionysos by the side of Virtue, two boys whose features express 
the confidence and the simplicity of their age, and a priest with 
a boy at his side holding a censer and a wreath. Two other 71 
picture(s by him are most famous, a hoplite in a race who seems to 
sweat as he runs, and a hoplite laying aside his arms, whose 
labouring breath we seem to hear. His picture of Aineias, Kastor 
and Polydeukes is praised, so is his Telephos with Achilles, Aga- 
memnon and Odysseus. He was a prolific artist, but carried his His luxury 
success with an arrogance that none have equalled ; he called ^^^ 
himself djipoUaiTos [the luxurious] and said in another epigram \ / 
that he was the prince of painting, that he had brought it to the -\\ 
highest point of perfection, and more than all that he was of the / 
seed of Apollo, and had painted the Herakles at Lindos precisely Herakhsat 
as he had often seen him in sleep. Hence it was that when he ,^3 
was defeated by a large majority of votes in a competition with Competi- 
Timanthes at Samos, the subject of his picture being Aias and ^^-^^^^^^ 
the award of the arms, he said in the name of the hero that he 
was grieved at being worsted a second time by an unworthy rival. 
He also painted small pictures of licentious subjects, seeking 

in the action to Klytaimnestra, for naios. 

her to have been left out in a picture 15. talem . . . pictum : Athen. xii, 

taken straight from his drama. Vogel 543F = ^«/,4. y^//. 61 =Bergk,p. 321, 

therefore points to the Telephos of 636, 3 ; these verses were probably in- 

Aischylos as the source of Parrhasios' scribed on the picture ; cf. the epigram 

inspiration. wliich Parrhasios composed for his 

12. habrodiaetum : from the epi- picture of Hermes, Themistios Orat. 
gram preserved Ath. xii, p. 543 D, ii, p. 34 (Dindorf). 

-.Anthol. App. 69 = Bergk. L. G. ii, § 72. 16. a Timanthe : the name of 

pp. 320, 635, i; cf. O. Jahn, Kleine Parrhasios' rival is given only by Pliny ; 

Beitrage, p. 286 ff. ; Introd. p. Iv. the story of the competition also 

13. consummatam : from the epi- Athen. xii, 543 E, Ailian, noiidkri lar. 
gram Athen. xii, p. c,^z'K = Anthol. ix, 11. Introd. p. liv f. 

App. 6o = Bergk, ii, p. 321, 636, 2 ; cf. in Aiaoe armorumque iudicio : 

the epigram composed by Zeuxis upon it is unnecessary to suppose from 

himself, Aristeides, Or. 49, ii, p. 521 these words that 'The award of the 

= Bergk, ii, pp. 318, 634. Arms' was also the subject of the 

14. super omnia . . . ortum : ac- picture by Timanthes. 

cording to Jahn {loc. cit.) these words 19. libidines: one instance on re- 

are from a lost epigram of similar cord is his ' Meleager and Atalanta,' 
character to those preserved in Athe- Suet. Tib. 44; Polemon (a/. Athen. 

I 2 



Ii6 



C. PLINIl SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



73 nam Timanthi vel plurimum adfuit ingenii. eius enim est 
Iphigenia oratorum laudibus celebrata, qua stante ad aras 
peritura cum maestos pinxisset omnes praecipueque patru- 
um, et tristitiae omnem imaginem consumpsisset, patris 
ipsius voltum velavit quern digne non poterat ostendere. 5 

74 sunt et alia ingenii eius exempla, veluti Cyclops dormiens 
in parvola tabella, cuius et sic magnitudinem exprimere 
cupiens pinxit iuxta Satyros thyrso pollicem eius metientes. 
atque in unius huius operibus intellegitur plus semper quam 
pingitur et, cum sit ars summa, ingenium tamen ultra artem 10 
est. pinxit et heroa absolutissimi operis artem ipsam com- 
plexus viros pingendi, quod opus nunc Romae in templo 

75 Pacis est. Euxinidas hac aetate docuit Aristiden praecla- 
rum artificem, Eupompus Pamphilum Apellis praeceptorem. 
est Eupompi victor certamine gymnico palmam tenens. ig 



xiii, p. 567 b) makes the same charge 
of nopvoypcupia against Aristeides, 
Fansias and Nikophanes; cf. also 
Euripides, Hippol. 1005. 

§ 73. I. Nam : resumes the snbject 
from victus esset. 

Timanthi : a native of Kythnos, 
Quinct. ii, 13, 13. Eustathios (on 
//. p. 1343, 60), whose authorities 
are rarely trustworthy, calls him 
'StKvimios. It must be by confusion 
with a later Timanthes, who painted 
the battle of Aratos against the 
Aitolians at Pellene in Arkadia, in 
B. c. 240 (Plut. Arat. 32), and who 
was therefore presumably a Sikyonian. 

2. oratorum: cf. Cic. Orator, 22, 
74 fictor (name not mentioned) ille 
vidit, cum immolanda Iphigenia iristis 
Calchas esset, tristior Vlixes, mae- 
reret Menelaus, obvolvendum caput 
Agamemnonis esse, quoniam sum- 
mum ilium luctum penicillo non posset 
imitari. That the Iphigeneia was a 
stock rhetorical subject is proved by 
Quinct. {loc. cit.) and Val. Max. viii, 
II, ext. 6. A famous Pompeian wall- 
painting, representing the sacrifice 
(Helbig, Wandgemalde, 1 304 = phot. 
Alinari 12027), shows Agamemnon 



with head completely veiled, but since 
Iph. is being carried, and not stand- 
ing, we must see in it only a later 
adaptation of the picture by Timan- 
thes (cf also Helbig, op. cit. 1305, and 
the mosaic in A. Z. 1869, taf. xiv). 
The ancients entertained two distinct 
views as to the veiling of Agamem- 
non ; Pliny and Quinctilian arguing 
that the painter did not show the 
features of the father, in order to save 
dignitas, while Cicero and Valerius 
Maximus argued that he had recourse 
to this means because the highest 
pain cannot be expressed in art. 
Both ancient and modem criticisms 
are discussed by Bliimner, Comm. to 
Lessing's Laokoon, p. 506 f. As 
Bliimner points out, the veiling motive 
in sorrow is common both in painting 
and poetry ; c. g. Euripides veils the 
head of Agamemnon in the description 
of the identical scene, i^A. Aul. 1550 ; 
cf. also Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 124. 
According to Quinctilian, this picture 
gained for Timanthes the prize over 
Kolotes of Teos. 

4. constunpsisset : cf. the simi- 
lar story of Euphranor, Val. Max. 
viii, II, ext. 5. According to Ensta- 



/. PAINTING 117 

relaxation in this wanton humour. To return — Timanthes was a 73 
painter above all curious in invention, for by him is that Iphigeneia Iphigeneia 
praised by the orators, whom he depicted standing by the altar ready "t ^'""'"' 
for death. Having represented all the onlookers and especially 
her father's brother as plunged in sorrow and having thus exhausted 
every presentment of grief, he has veiled the face of her father for 
which he had reserved no adequate expression. There are other 74 
examples of his inventiveness; for instance, being' desirous to 
emphasize, even in a small picture, the huge size of a sleeping sleeping 
Cyclops, he painted some Satyrs at his side, measuring his thumb Cyclops. 
with a thyrsos. He is the only artist whose works always suggest 
more than is In the picture, and great as is his dexterity, his 
power of invention yet exceeds it. He also painted a hero, a pic- Hero in 
ture in which he touched perfection, having comprehended in it '^f^'°{ 
the whole art of painting the male figure. The picture is now at Rome. 
Rome in the temple of Peace. 

In this period ■\Euxeinidas was the master of Aristeides, 75 
a famous artist, and \Eupompos of Pamphilos, who in turn was the ^?' '^'' 
master of Apelles. We have by Eupompos a victor in an athletic the schools 
contest holding a palm. So great was this artist's reputation that ''^ff/J^j^„i^ 
thios (/. ir.),wliose statement, however, 12. in templo Paois : note oa and Si- 

savours of concoction, Timanthes was xxxiv, 84. kyoman. 

inspired to veil the head of Agamem- 5 75. 13. Aristiden: identical 

non, by the similar device employed with the Aristeides of § iii, the master 
by Homer in describing the grief of of Euphranor, where Pliny however 
Priam, //. xxiv, 163. confuses him with his grandson 

§ 74. 6. Cyclops dormiens : the Aristeides the Theban. According to 
presentation of this subject in paint- Kroker [Gleichnamige Gr. Kiinstler, 
ing was doubtless influenced by the p. 33) and Furtwangler {Masterpieces, 
A/^/i?/J of Euripides, in which the p. 349) he is further probably identical 
Satyrs were brought on the stage with with the sculptor of xxxiv, 72, pupil of 
Polyphemos ; Robert, Bild a. Lied, Polykleitos; the dates favour the 
p. 35 ; Winter,ya/4?-i. vi, 1891, p. 272, supposition. 

who rightly refuses to refer the pic- 14. Eupompus : xxxiv, § 61 ; 

ture (with Klein) to the younger above, § 64. 
Timanthes. 15. palmam tenens : a number of 

II. artem ipsam oomplexua : examples of a youth with palm in 
the similarity of expression with the left hand, and raising the crovm 
xxxiv, 56, solusque hominum autem to his head with the right, are collected 
ipsam fecisse artis opere iudicatur, by Milchhbfer, Arch. Stud. Brunn 
suggests that the ^«?-tfj of Timanthes, dargebracht, 1892, p. 62, ff. ;they 
like the Doryphoros of Polykleitos, probably go back to the type created 
was a canonical figure intended to by Eupompos, Furtwangler, Master- 
illustrate the artist's theories of pro- pieces, p. 256 ; cf. also Reisch, Griech. 
portion ; cf. Kalkmann, Jahrb. x, Weihgeschenke, p. 41. 
1895, p. 84, note 147 ; Introd. p. xli. 



ii8 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



ipsius auctoritas tanta fuit ut diviserit picturam in genera, 
quae ante eum duo fuere — Helladicum et Asiaticum appella- 
bant— propter hunc, qui erat Sicyonius, diviso Helladico 

76 tria facta sunt, lonicum, Sicyonium, Atticum. Pamphili 
cognatio et proelium ad Phliuntem ac victoria Atheniensium, 5 
item Ulixes in rate, ipse Macedo natione, sed primus in 
pictura omnibus litteris eruditus, praecipue arithmetica et 
geometria, sine quibus negabat artem perfici posse, docuit 
neminem talento minoris — annuis 5f D — quam mercedem et 

77 Apelles et Melanthius dedere ei. huius auctoritate efifectum 10 
est Sicyone primum, deinde et in tota Graecia, ut pueri in- 
genui omnia ante graphicen, hoc est picturam in buxo, 
docerentur recipereturque ars ea in primum gradum libera- 
lium. semper quidem honos ei fuit ut ingenui eam exerce- 
rent, mox ut honesti, perpetuo interdicto ne servitia doce- 15 
rentur. ideo neque in hac neque in toreutice ullius qui 

78 servierit opera celebrantur. clari et centesima septima 
olympiade exstitere Action ac Therimachus. Aetionis 



4. tria facta sunt : above note on 
§ 72. 'It is difficult to say wherein 
this great local superiority consisted, 
which tempted, moreover, wealthy 
amateurs, like Ptolemy II and Atta- 
los, to purchase at enormous prices 
galleries of old Sikyonian masters. 
Plutarch uses a special term for it, 
XpTiaToypacjiia, which is usually ex- 
plained as indicating the reaction in 
art against the methods of Zeuxis 
and his contemporaries.' (C. Smith, 
art. Pictura, Smith's Diet. Ant. p. 

413-) 

§ 76. 5. cognatio : it may have 
been a grave picture placed upon a 
family grave, cf in sculpture a similar 
family gathering on the Eastern pedi- 
ment of the tomb known as the 
' Nereid monument ' (Brit. Mus.), 
Michaelis, A. Z. 1845, pi. xxxiv, p. 
145. Or it may have been merely a 
votive commemorative picture. For 
similar subjects cf. the cognatio 
nobilium of Timomachos (136), the 
frequentia of Athenion (134), the 



syngenicon of Oinias (143), finally 
the stemmata of Koinos (139). 

proelium ad Phliuntem ac vic- 
toria := victoria Atheniensium in 
proelio ad Phliuntem : hendiadys, 
cf. MUUer, Stil, pp. 109, 15. The 
picture is generally supposed to have 
represented the episode narrated by 
Xenophon, HelUnika, vii, 3, 18-23, 
when the Fhliasians and Athenians 
under the command of Chares sur- 
prised and put to flight the Sikyonian 
troops (b. c. 367) ; Brunu, K. G. ii, p. 
133 f. ; Schaefer, Demosthenes, i, p. 
103 ff. ; cf. Grole, Greece, viii, p. 258. 

6. Macedo : from Amphipolis 
(Souidas). His birthplace is of im- 
portance as giving the probable clue 
to the subsequent connexion of his 
pupil Apelles — and possibly to that 
of Lysippos— with the Makedonian 
court. (Against his identification, on 
the insufficient testimony of thescholia, 
with the Pamphilos of Aristoph. Plut. 
385, see Judeich, Fleckeisen's Jakrb. 
1890, p. 758.) 



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/. PAINTING 119 

it occasioned a new division of the schools of painting. Before 

his time there had been two schools, known as the Helladic 

proper and the Asiatic ; but now the Helladic was subdivided 

in his honour, and thus the schools became three, the Ionic, the 

Sikyonian and the Attic, Euporapos himself being a Sikyonian. 

By Pamphilos we have a family group, the victorious engage- 76 

ment of the Athenians at Phlious, and a picture of Odysseus on P<^>"P^'- 

' '^ ' los, master 

his raft. A Makedonian by birth, Pamphilos was the first painter of A f elks. 
who was thoroughly trained in every branch of learning, more 3"7 ^■'^• 
particularly iri arithmetic and geometry; without which, so he 
held, art could not be perfect. He taught no one for less than 
a talent \j[^2\o circ] — that is, five hundred denarii [^^17 los. 
circ] a year — the fee paid him both by Apelles and by Melanthios. 
It was owing to his influence that first at Sikyon, and after- 77 
wards throughout Greece drawing, or rather painting, on tablets jj'j^^l"f 
of boxwood, was the earliest subject taught to freeborn boys, a.-n6.freeborn 
that this art was accepted as the preliminary step towards a liberal •''■'■ 
education. It was at any rate had in such honour that at all 
times the freeborn, and later on persons of distinction practised 
it, while by a standing prohibition no slaves might ever acquire 
it, and this is why neither in painting nor in statuary are there 
any celebrated works by artists who had been slaves. 

In the hundred and seventh Olympiad [352-349 B.C.] lived 78 
Action and tTherimachos, both painters of note. By Aetion are xherima- 

chos. 

7. praeeipue arithmetioa . . . with other pupils, assisted him in the 

posse : these words are probably votive picture for Aristratos of Sikyon 

derived from a Treatise on Painting (Plut. loc. cit.). 

by Pamphilos; see Introd. p. xliii. § 77. n. pueri ingenui = fA.61;- 

9. quam mercedem . . . Apelles: Oipioi : cf. Aristotle, Polit. v (viii), 3, 
'KvBei y&p en S6(a rijs :SiKvavias p. 1338 Sokcl di Kai ff>a<piicii X/"}"''" 
jjLovaris KoX xP^^'^^lP^-^'^'^^i ^ fiovrjs fjLos elvai -nphs rb /cpiveiv to, Tutv rex* 
ddia(p$opov kx^^^V^ "^^ KaK6Vf liiffTe vnojv epya KiXKiov ovd' aS KaBdirep ^ 
Kal 'hireWfiv kxetvov ^Si; 6avp.a(6- yv/ivaanur) Trpbs iyleiav xat aXx^v 
fi€vov d<ptK€ffdai Kal avyyfv^aOai toTs ovScrepov ydp roiTUV Spwfitv yiv6- 
dvbpdciv kirl raKavTqj, t^s h6^r)s jxaK- iifvov iic rrjs fwvatKQs. XeineTat roivvv 
\ov fi rrjs rexyv^ SeSjuevov litraKa^fiv. Trpbs t^v iv tJ axo^V Staywy^v, Is 
Plut. Arat, xiii. o-mp Kal (paivovraL itapAyovTis avTTjv 

10. Melanthius : §§ 50, 80; and ■fjv yAp otovrat hiayojy^v etvai twv 
Ifidex to this book. From Antigonos k\ev6^pa/Vf ev ravTij rarrovaiv. 
ofKarystos, ap. Diogenes L. iv, 3, 18 §78. 18. Aetionet Therimaohus: 
(Introd. p. xxxviii), we learn that he cf note on xxxiv, 50. Therimachos is 
wrote Tiepl (aiypa<j>i«^s ; Melanthios otherwise unknown, Aetion is a fav- 
was also a master of Apelles (perhaps ourite artist of Lucian, who has given 
after the death of Pamphilos), who, a famous description of his Alexander 



I20 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

sunt nobiles picturae Liber pater, item Tragoedia et 
Comoedia, Semiramis ex ancilla regnum apiscens, anus 
lampadas praeferens et nova nupta verecundia notabilis. 

79 verum et omnes prius genitos futurosque postea superavit 
Apelles Cous olympiade centesima duodecima. picturae 5 
plura solus prope quam ceteri omnes contulit, voluminibus 
etiam editis quae doctrinam earn continent, praecipua eius 
in arte venustas fuit, cum eadem aetate maximi pictores 
essent. quorum opera cum admiraretur omnibus conlaudatis, 
deesse illam suam Venerem dicebat, quam Graeci Charita 10 
vocant, cetera omnia contigisse, sed hac sola sibi neminem 

80 parem. et aliam gloriam usurpavit, cum Protogenis opus 
inmensi laboris ac curae supra modum anxiae miraretur, 
dixit enim omnia sibi cum illo paria esse aut illi meliora, 
sed uno se praestare, quod manum de tabula sciret tollere, 15 
memorabili praecepto nocere saepe nimiam diligentiam. fuit 
autem non minoris simplicitatis quam artis. Melanthio 
dispositione cedebat, Asclepiodoro de mensuris, hoc est 

81 quanto quid a quoque distare deberet. scitum est inter 
Protogenen et eum quod accidit. ille Rhodi vivebat, quo 20 
cum Apelles adnavigasset avidus cognoscendi opera eius 

and Roxana ('H/iiiS. ^ 'Afrlaiv, 4) ; where Hephaistion holds a torch, the 

cf. ('m6vk, 7, irepl tS/v firl luaB. aw. marriage feast of Peirithoos by Hippys 

42 ; cf. Cicero, Brutus, xviii, 70 (Athen. xi, p. 474), which was lit up 

(quoted above, note on § 50). by u. hanging candelabrum. The 

2. Semiramis : Brunn {K. G. ii, enumeration from Tragoedia to anus 

p. 245) points out that the nuptials is asyndetical — et being reserved to 

of S. and Ninos may have been con- link Comoedia to Trag. (both in one 

ceived as a sort of mythical counter- picture) and nova nupta to anus 

part to those of Alexander and Rox- — so that I cannot follow Brunn 

ana. (K, G. ii, p. 245) and Furtwangler 

anus ... nova nupta : of course (Domauszieher, p. 96, n. 57), in 

in one picture. The anus is doubtless understanding the words anus . . . 

the mother of the bride, to whom the notabilis to be descriptive of the 

S^Soux'"') the carrying of the 5a5ts picture of the Nuptials of Semiramis. 
vvii<j)ticai, usually fell ( Hermann-Blum- § 79. 5. Apelles Cous : Ovid, 

ner, Lehrbuch, p. 275; Furtwangler, ArsAmat. iii, 401, Pont. Epist. iv, i, 

S. Sabouroff, i. 58, 59 ; cf. the at- 29 ; but Strabo (xiv, p. 642), Lncian, 

ten(iant(?) holding torches on the 5io;SoX. 2,andafterhim Tzetzes (C,4j7. 

marriage vases or KouTpo<l>6poi). The viii, 392) call him an Ephesian ; that 

torch was doubtless made the occa- this is correct is proved by Herondas, 

sion for effects of light; cf. the iv, 72 ('E^cffiou 'AmWia) who cer- 

mariiage of Alexander and Roxana, tainly would not have made Apelles 



/. PAINTING lai 

the well-known pictures of Dionysos, of Tragedy and Comedy, 
of Semiramis rising from slavery to royal power, and of an old 
woman carrying lamps and a bride, whose shamefacedness is very 
apparent. 

Apelles of Kos, however, in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad 79 
[332-329 B.C.] excelled all painters who came before or after him. '^f^" 
He of himself perhaps contributed more to painting than all the. ffis written 
others together ; he also wrote treatises on his theory of art. The ^''^'"'""■ 
grace of his genius remained quite unrivalled, although the very 
greatest painters were living at the time. He would admire their Bis esti- 
works, praising every beauty and yet observing that they failed ""'■'" of the 

• ^u 1, 1 , ■ ^ , , ■ , •!• ■ • , , ■ worksofhts 

m the grace, called xapis in Greek, which was distinctively his contemfor- 

own ; everything else they had attained, but in this alone none "7" andof 

equalled him. He laid claim to another merit : when admiring so 

a work of Protogenes that betrayed immense industry and the 

most anxious elaboration, he said that, though Protogenes was 

his equal or even his superior in everything, he yet surpassed 

that painter in one point — namely in knowing when to take his 

hand from a picture ; a memorable saying, showing that too much 

care may often be hurtful. His candour was equal to his genius : 

he acknowledged the superiority of Melanthios in the distribution 

of figures, and that of Asklepiodoros in perspective arrangement, 

that is in giving the accurate distances between different objects. 

A neat story is told of him in connexion with Protogenes, who 81 
was living in Rhodes. Thither Apelles sailed, eager to see the"?"""*"" 

° i ; D Protogenes. 

into an Ephesian, if he could have 9. quorum opera cum adm. : 

claimed him for his native Kos. The i. e. in his writings. 

tradition that the artist was a Koan § 80. 12. Protogenis : below, 

arose because at Kos were some of his §§ 8i, 101-106. 

most celebrated works, among them opus miraretur ; presumably the 

the Anadyomene. lalysos. 

6. voluminibus editis : cf. §111; 15. manum de tabula :=X"P'"'''° 
it must be from these writings of rpoMi^-qi ; Petron. j6 postquam coepi 
Apelles that the judgements he passed plus habere, quam tola men patria 
upon his contemporaries were origi- ha6et,manum de taSiila; also used of 
nally derived (Introd. p. xl). school-boys trifling in their master's 

7. praeoipua venustas: Quinct. absence, cf. Cic. ad Fain, vii, 25 
xii, 10, 6 ingenio et gratia, quam sed heus tu, manu de tabula I (Otto, 
in se ipso maxime iactat, Ap. est prae- SprichivSrter, p. 210). 
stantissimus. According to Plutarch 1 7- Melanthio : above, § 76. 
(fiemetr. xxii), and Ailian (ttoiw. Iot. 18. Asclepiodoro : below, § 107. 
xii, 41) this judgement on himself was § 81. 19. scitum est: the follow- 
passed when he saw the lalysos of ing anecdote appears to be elaborated 
Protogenes (§ 102). out of the admiration which Apelles 



122 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

fama tantum sibi cogniti, continuo officinam petiit. aberat 
ipse, sed tabulam amplae magnitudinis in machina aptatam 
una custodiebat anus, haec foris esse Protogenen respondit 
interrogavitque a quo quaesitum diceret. ab hoc, inquit 
Apelles, adreptoque penicillo lineam ex colore duxit sum- s 

82 mae tenuitatis per tabulam, et reverso Protogeni quae gesta 
erant anus indicavit. ferunt artificem protinus contempla- 
tum subtilitatem dixisse Apellen venisse, non cadere in 
alium tarn absolutum opus, ipsumque alio colore tenuiorem 
lineam in ipsa ilia duxisse abeuntemque praecepisse, si lo 
redisset ille, ostenderet adiceretque hunc esse quern quae- 
reret, atque ita evenit. revertit enim Apelles et vinci 
erubescens tertio colore lineas secuit nullum relinquens 

83 amplius subtilitati locum, at Protogenes victum se confessus 
in portum devolavit hospiteni quaerens, placuitque sic eam 15 
tabulam posteris tradi omnium quidem, sed artificum prae- 

A.u.c. 757. cipuo miraculo. consumptam eam priore incendio Caesaris 
domus in Palatio audio, spectatam nobis ante spatiose nihil 
aliud continentem quam lineas visum effugientes inter egregia 
multorum opera inani similem et eo ipso allicientem omnique 20 

84 opere nobiliorem. Apelli fuit alioqui perpetua consuetudo 
numquam tam occupatum diem agendi ut non lineam du- 
cendo exerceret artem, quod ab eo in proverbium venit. 
idem perfecta opera proponebat in pergula transeuntibus, 
atque ipse post tabulam latens vitia quae notarentur aus- 25 
cultabat vulgum diligentiorem iudicem quam se praeferens, 

85 feruntque reprehensum a sutore, quod in crepidis una pauci- 
ores intus fecisset ansas, eodem poster© die superbo emenda- 

3. aptatam una] Bamb. ; aptatam picturae una reliqui, Detlefsen. 

had professed for Protogenes in his Laert. vii, 7, 185. The motive is 

writings, see Introd. p. xl. Homeric Siavep 6 Aaeprij? . . . ypjjl aiiv 

3. una . . . anus : Leo, Plautinische d^^iTroAoi, Teles, p. 25 (ed. Hense). 
Forschungen (i 895), p. 65, calls atten- 5. lineam . . . duxit : the anecdote 

tion to the part played in classical belongs to the same category as 

literature by the single ancilla or the Giotto'sO,Vasaried.MilanesiI,p.383. 
anus. Like the pistrinum she is, so § 83. 17. consumptani ... audio : 

to speak, one of the requisites of the oral tradition. 

contented life. We get the ancilla § 84. 23. in proverbium : i. e. 

in the amusing anecdote, Cic. de Oral. nullus dies sine linea; c{.Otto,SfincA- 

ii, 276, while Chrysippos i)p«tiro viorter, p. 194. 
7/jai5i'9J, \i.6vm, Demelrios ap. Diog. 24. pergula : cf. Ulpian, Digest. 



7. PAINTING 123 

works of a man only known to him by reputation, and on his 
arrival immediately repaired to the studio. Protogenes was not 
at home, but a solitary old woman was keeping watch over a large 
panel placed on the easel. In answer to the questions of Apelles, 
she said thaf "Protogenes was out, and asked the name of the 
visitor : ' Here it is,' said Apelles, and snatching up a brush he 
drew a line of extreme delicacy across the board. On the return 82 
of Protogenes the old woman told him what had happened. ^ une in 
When he had considered the delicate precision of the line he at friendly 
once declared that his visitor had been Apelles, for no one else 
could have drawn anything so perfect. Then in another colour 
he drew a second still finer line upon the first, and went away, 
bidding her show it to Apelles if he came again, and add that this 
was the man he was seeking. It fell out as he expected ; Apelles 
did return, and, ashamed to be beaten, drew a third line of 
another colour cutting the two first down their length and leaving 
no room for any further refinement. Protogenes owned himself 83 
beaten and hurried down to the harbour to find his visitor ; they 
agreed to hand down the painting just as it was to posterity, 
a marvel to all, but especially to artists. It perished, I am told, a.d. 4. 
in the first fire of the house of the Caesars on the Palatine. 
Formerly we might look upon it; its wide surface disclosed 
nothing save lines which eluded the sight, and among the 
numerous works by excellent painters it was like a blank, and it 
was precisely this that lent it surpassing attraction and renown. 

Apelles further made it an unvarying rule never to spend a day, 84 
however busy, without drawing a line by way of practice ; hence ^^J^' 
the proverb. It was also his habit to exhibit his finished works 
to the passers-by in a balcony, and he would lie concealed behind 
the picture and listen to the faults that were found with it, regard- 
ing the public as more accurate critics than himself. There is 85 
a story that when found fault with by a cobbler for putting one ^^^^j^j^l!"'^^ 
loop too few on the inner side of a sandal, he corrected the 
mistake. Elated by this the cobbler next day proceeded to find 
fault with the leg, whereupon Apelles thrust out his head in 

i'^i 3) 5 > § 12 cum fictor in pergula 6, the old reading pergula pictorum 

clipeum vel tabulam exposilam ha- shoald be altered to pergula ficto- 

buisset eaque excidisset, et transeunti rum, which is adopted by Buecheler.) 

damni quid dedisset. (It has been For pergulae at Pompei, see Mau, 

shown by F. Marx in Studia Lucili- Rom. Mitth. ii, 1887, p. 214 ff. 
ana, 1882, p. 16 f. that in Lucilius xv, 



124 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

tione pristinae admonitionis cavillante circa crus, indignatum 
prospexisse denuntiantem ne supra crepidam sutor iudicaret, 
quod et ipsum in proverbium abiit. fuit enim et comitas 
illi, propter quam gratior Alexandro Magno frequenter in 
officinam ventitanti — nam, ut diximus, ab alio se pingi s 
vetuerat edicto — sed in officina imperite multa disserenti 
silentium comiter suadebat rideri eum dicens a pueris qui 
83 colores tererent. tantum erat auctoritati iuris in regem 
alioqui iracundum. quamquam Alexander honorem ei 
clarissimo perhibuit exemplo, namque cum dilectam sibi lo 
ex pallacis suis praecipue, nomine Pancaspen, nudam pingi 
ob admirationem formae ab Apelle iussisset eumque, dum 
paret, captum amore sensisset, dono dedit ei magnus animo, 
maior imperio sui, nee minor hoc facto quam victoria aliqua. 

87 quippe se vicit, nee torum tantum suum sed etiam adfectum 15 
donavit artifici, ne dilectae quidem respectu motus, cum 
modo regis ea fuisset, modo pictoris esset. sunt qui Venerem 
anadyomenen ab illo pictam exemplari putent. Apelles et 
in aemulis benignus Protogeni dignationem primus Rhodi 

88 constituit. sordebat suis ut plerumque domestica, percon- 20 
tantique quanti liceret opera effecta parvum nescio quid 
dixerat, at ille quinquagenis talentis poposcit famamque 
dispersit se emere ut pro suis venderet. ea res concitavit 
Rhodios ad intellegendum artificem, nee nisi augentibus 
pretium cessit. imagines adeo similitudinis indiscretae 25 
pinxit ut — incredibile dictu — Apio grammaticus scriptum 
reliquerit quendam ex facie hominum divinantem, quos 
metoposcopos vocant, ex iis dixisse aut futurae mortis annos 

§ 85. 2. ne supra orepidaiu sutor: 7. qui colores tererent: to nai- 

cf. Valer. Max. viii, 1 3, ext. 3 ; Otto, Bopia rd toS ZeiJf i8os Tiiv lirjAiSa rpi- 

Sprichwdrter, p. 97. Introd. p. lix. ^avra KarcyfAa, Ailian, loc. cit. 

3. enim; corroborates idem prae- §86. 11. Pancaspen: ovo/ra ?pi 

ferens, ignoring the intervening anec- XlayKaavrj, rb Si yifos Aapiacraia, 

dote. Ailian, IlotK. 'lar. xii, 34. Lucian 

5. ut diximus: invii, i25 = App.I; {iMvis, 7) calls her naKdrij. 

cf. note on xxxiv, 63. j 87. 18. anadyomenen : = exeun- 

6, in officina : the following anec- Um e mart, below, § 91. 

dote is told by Plutarch (tie Tranquill. exiemplari : according to Athen. 

Anim. 12), concerning the megabyzos xiii, p. 590 f, the model was Phryne, 

(§ 93). while Ailian, noi«. 'lo-r. ii, j,, while according to Anth. Plan. 179 

tells it of Zeuxis and a megabyzos. Apelles, like Praxiteles (xxxvi, 21), 



/. PAINTING 125 

a passion and bade the cobbler ' stick to his last/ a saying which 
has also passed into a proverb. 

The charm of his manner had won him the regard of Alexander Friendship 
the Great, who was a frequent visitor to the studio, for, as we have ^^ and"' 
said, he had issued an edict forbidding any one else to paint his Apelles. 
portrait. But when the king happened to discourse at length in pankSpe. 
the studio upon things he knew nothing about, Apelles would 
pleasantly advise him to be silent, hinting that the assistants who 
ground the colours were laughing at him ; such power did his 86 
personality give him over a king habitually so passionate. Yet j 
Alexander gave him a signal mark of his regard : he commissioned J 
Apelles to paint a nude figure of his favourite mistress Pankaspe, 1 
so much did he admire her wondrous form, but perceiving that j 
Apelles had fallen in love with her, with great magnanimity and \ 
still greater self-control he gave her to him as a present, winning 
by the action as great a glory as by any of his victories. He 87 
conquered himself and sacrificed to the artist not only his mistress 
but his love, and was not even restrained by consideration for the 
woman he loved, who, once a king's mistress, was now a painter's. 
Some believe that she was the model for the Aphrodite rising 
from the sea. 

Friendly even to his rivals, Apelles was the first to establish in 88 
Rhodes the reputation of Protogenes, who, as so many in their ^f"A"i\l^ 
own homes, was neglected by his countrymen. When asked by to Proio- 
Apelles the prices of his finished works, he mentioned some^''"*''" 
trifling sum, upon which Apelles offered fifty talents [^^10,500 
circ] for each, and spread a report that he was buying the pictures 
to sell as his own. This stirred up the Rhodians to a better 
appreciation of the artist, but not until they offered a still higher 
price would Apelles give up the pictures. 

His portraits were such perfect likenesses that, incredible as it His aston- 
may sound, Apio the grammarian has left it on record that "'^^^ ^ 
a physiognomist, or ^cruTroo-Kojros as they are called, was able to portrait 

painter. 

was privileged to see the goddess waives the responsibility aad imme- 

herself : avjav ka ttuvtoio tlBtjvtjt^pos diately niimes his authority, 
'AireWrjs | ray Kvirpiv yv/ivcLv tlSe Apio gTammaticus : Praef. 25, 

Aox'i"';'^'''"'. yixn, 18, and oftea in Pliny; flor. 

§ 88. 25. similit. indisoretae : reign of Caligula. Miiller, F. H, G. 

xxxiv, 60 facie quoque indiscreta iii, 506-516. 
similis, and note. 28. metoposoopoa : cf. Suet. Ti- 

36. incredibile diotu : hence Pliny tus 1, 



126 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



89 aut praeteritae vitae. non fuerat ei gratia in comitatu 
Alexandri cum Ptolemaeo, quo regnante Alexandriam vi 
tempestatis expulsus subornato fraude aemulorum piano 
regio invitatus ad cenam venit, indignantique Ptolemaeo at 
vocatores suos ostendenti, ut diceret a quo eorum invitatus s 
asset, arrapto carbone axtincto e foculo imaginem in parieta 
deliniavit, adgnoscante voltum plani rega inchoatum proti- 

90 nus. pinxit at Antigoni regis imaginem altero lumine 
orbam primus axcogitata rationa vitia condendi, obliquam 
namqua fecit, ut quod deerat corpori picturae deesse potius lo 
videretur, tantumque eam partem a facie ostendit quam 
totam poterat ostendera. sunt inter opera eius at axspi- 
rantium imagines, quae autem nobilissima sint non est 

9} facile dictu. Venerem axeuntem e mari divus Augustus 
dicavit in delubro patris Caesaris, quae anadyomene vocatur, 15 
versibus Graecis tali opere, dum laudatur, victo sed inlus- 



§ 89. I. nou fuerat ei gratia : 
the following is a mutilated and some- 
what different account of the events 
narrated at length by Lucian (5ia;8oX. 
4), for which, according to Lucian, 
Apelles took vengeance by painting 
his famous 'Calumny.' Both the 
versions have an aitiological fla- 
vour, and probably arose in great 
measure out of the picture itself (for 
the historical inaccuracies in Lucian's 
story see Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 208). For 
the latest discussion of the Calumny, 
and especially of the influence of 
Lucian's description on artists of the 
Renascence, see R. Forster in Jahrb. 
d. Preuss. Saniml. 1887, p. 39 ff. 

3. aemulorum : from Lucian, loc. 
cit.,'^& learn that the Egyptian painter 
Antiphilos (§§ 114, 138) was among 
them. 

5. vocatores : i. e. the slaves in 
charge of the invitations or vocationes, 
Seneca, Ira iii, 37, 4; Suet Calig. 

39. fee- 

§ 90. 8. altero lumine orbam : 
Ant. was accordingly sumamed )i.ov6- 
(j>0a\iio5 and KjJ/cAot^, Polyb. v, 67, 6 ; 
Ailian, Tilout. 'lar. xii, 43. 



9. oblic[uam : Brunn, IC. G. ii, 
p. 10; Quinct. ii, 13, 12 habet in pic- 
tura sfeciem tola fades ; Apelles tamen 
imaginem Antigo7ii latere tantum 
altero ostendit, ut amissi oculi deformi- 
tas lateret. These words prove beyond 
the possibility of doubt that tlie obli- 
qua imago of Antigonos was a simple 
portrait in profile. Hartwig, however, 
{Meisterschalen, p. 157) argues that 
to disguise a defect a simple profile 
would be unworthy of the inventiveness 
of so great an artist as Apelles, and, 
starting from the meaning which he 
claims for catagrapha (above, § 56, 
where see note) , tries to show that the 
portrait was in | and foreshortened. 
The portrait of the squinting Tommaso 
Inghirami by Raphael (original in 
Pal. Inghirami at Volterra ; the picture 
in the Pitti is only " copy), which 
Hartwig quotes in support of his 
theory, seems as a fact to emphasize 
rather than conceal the physical de- 
fect. 

1 2 . exspirantium imagines : 
acutely explained by Briickiier {Sitz- 
ungsber. d. Wiener Akademie, vol. 
116, p. 519, note 4) as grave pictures ' 



/. PAINTING 127 

tell from the portraits alone how long the sitter had to live or had A 
already lived. When in Alexander's train he had been on un- 89 
friendly terms with Ptolemy, during whose reign he was once 
driven into Alexandria by a violent storm. On Apelles appearing ! 
at a banquet, to which his rivals had maliciously induced the ; 
king's fool to invite him, Ptolemy flew into a passion, and pointing ' 
to his chamberlains bade him say from which of them he had j 
received the invitation, whereupon the painter snatching up : 
a charred stick from the hearth traced on the wall a likeness, in 
whose first strokes the king at once recognized the face of the 
fool. 

He also painted a portrait of king Antigonos, who was blind of 9° 
one eye, being the first to devise a means of concealing the ^y,^ 
infirmity by presenting his profile, so that the absence of the, eye Antigonos. 
would be attributed merely to the position of the sitter, not to 1 
a natural defect, for he gave only the part of the face which could j 
be shown uninjured. There are among his works some pictures 
of dying people, though it were difficult to say which are the best, j 
His Aphrodite rising from the sea was dedicated by the god 91 
Augustus in the temple of his father Caesar : she is known as the ^j-^-„C/)-o»i 
am^voiJ.€vri, being, like other works of the kind, at once eclipsed i/ie sea.' 
yet rendered famous by the Greek epigrams written in her praise. 

representing death - scenes ; cf. the quellen, 1 847-1866) we learn that 

7pairTus TUTTO?, described Anth. vii, the goddess was represented wring- 

730; cf. also «^. vii, 170; Weisshaupl, ing her hair, in a type which 

Die Grabgedichte der Gr. Anthologie, was likewise adapted to statuary 

97ff.; further, Pans, ii, 7, 3 praises the (Helbig, Class. Ant. 254). For the 

excellent painting of a grave picture picture itself see Benndorf, Athen. 

at Sikjon, of Xenodyke, who died in Mitth. 1876, p. 50. 

childbirth; cf. in sculpture the grave 15. in delubro patris Caesaris : 

relief of Malthake from the Peiraieus, the picture was previously in the 

see Friederichs-Wolters, 1043. Praxi- Koan Asklepieion, whence Augustus 

teles(xxxiv,7o),Nikias(below,§ 132), obtained it by remitting 100 talents 

Nikomachos (mon. of Telestes, § 109), of the Koan tribute; Strabo xiv, 

likewise decorate graves ; cf. the p. 657. Since Ovid (exiled A. D. 8) 

iuvenis requiescens of Simos, § 143. mentions the Anadyomene in Trist. 

13. quae autem nobilissima ii, 527 £, the picture must have been in 

sint t [refers not to of era but to Rome previous to the year of his exile. 

imagines ; rapid changes of gender or For further discussion of the dates see 

number are common in Pliny, May- Wunderer, Manibiae Alexandrinae, 

hoff, Lumhr. Plin. (1865) p. 83 ; cf. p. 8. 

J. Miiller, Slil, p. 56. — H. L. U.]. 16. vioto sed inlustrato : ' sur- 

§ 91. 14. exeuntem e mari = passed ' inasmuch as the poet can give 

anadyomenen, above, § 87. From expression to more things than the 

numerous descriptions {OYerh. Schrift- painter who is limited to one moment ; 



128 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



trato, cuius inferiorem partem corruptam qui reficeret non 
potuit reperiri, verum ipsa iniuria cessit in gloriam artificis. 
consenuit haec tabula carie, aliamque pro ea substituit Nero 

92 principatu suo Dorothei manu. Apelles inchoaverat et 
aliam Venerem Coi superaturus famam illam suam priorem. S 
invidit mors peracta parte, nee qui succederet operi ad prae- 
scripta liniamenta inventus est. pinxit et Alexandrum 
Magnum fulmen tenentem in templo Ephesiae Dianae viginti 
talentis auri. digiti eminere videntur et fulmen extra 
tabulam esse — legentes meminerint omnia ea quattuor colo- lo 
ribus facta — manipretium eius tabulae in nummo aureo 

93 mensura accepit, non numero. pinxit et megabyzi sacer- 
dotis Dianae Ephesiae pompam, Clitum cum equo ad 
bellum festinantem, galeam poscenti armigerum porrigentem. 
Alexandrum et Philippum quotiens pinxerit enumerare i5 
supervacuum est. mirantur eius Habronem Sami, Menan- 

6. famam] etiam omnes f raster Bamb ., Detlefsen. 



for the idea conveyed by inlustrato 
cf. xxxiv, 57, of the heifer of Myron, 
celebratis versibus laudata, quando 
alieno plerique ingenio magis quam 
suo commendantur. 

3. substituit : this may be an 
exaggeration, as the picture of Apelles 
seems still to have been in exist- 
ence under Vespasian, when Suetonius 
(J^esp. 18) speaks of its being again 
restored : Coae Veneris . . . refectorem 
insigni congiario magnaque mercede 
donavit. 

§ 92. 4. inclioaverat : Cic Fam. 
i, 9, 15, and Off. iii, i, 10. 

8. fiolmen tenentem = nepavvo- 
(p6pov, i. e. deified. Plutarch {irepl 
TJjr 'A\. rixv^t ^h 2) relates that it was 
said of this picture that there were 
two Alexanders, the son of Philip 
who was invincible, and the Alex- 
ander of Apelles who was inimitable. 
It is a fascinating conjecture of King 
{Anc. Gems i, p. xii), followed by 
Fnrtwangler, Jahrb. iv (1889% p. 69, 
that an ancient copy of this famous 
picture is extant in the carnelian in 
St. Petersburg {Jahrb. iii, pi. xi, 26). 



The position of the right arm holding 
the thimderbolt in the gem is specially 
significant. 

9. eminere videntur : cf. in 
§ 127 quae volunt eminentia videri; 
§ 131 ut eminerent e tahulis picturae. 

10. legentes meminerint : harks 
back to 5 50. 

§ 93. 12. megabyzi: Strabo xiv, 
p. 641 Itpias 5' ci/vovxovs ei^ov o{}s 
eicaX(»jv MeyaPv^ovs. 

13. pompam; from Herondas iv, 
66 fif. we learn that the picture was 
at Kos, in the iratrriSr (Sanctuary) of 
theAsklepieion, and that itrepresented 
a sacrifice of oxen. It is amusingly 
described by the gossips Kokkale and 
Kynno (ed. Crusins). 
KOK. i Pais Si x<" ayojv airov, ^ 9' 
ofiapTtvaa 
X^ ypvwds ovTos x^ avaffifws 

dv$pajTroij 
oixl iiriv PKeirovaiv ^/J-iprjr 

TrdvT€S ; 
6( /jt^ eSdteevv Ti p.€^ov fj yw^ 

nprjffaeiv, 
dvi]\d\a^' at/, 1171 /i' 6 Povs ri 
■mjiaivri. 



/. PAINTING 



ia9 



When the lower portion was damaged no one could be found to 
restore it, and thus the very injury redounded to the glory of the 
artist. In course of time the panel of the picture fell into decay, Its resiora- 
and Nero when Emperor substituted for it another picture by the j^^-otheos. 
hand of Dorotheos. Apelles had begun another Aphrodite at 92 
Kos, intending to surpass even the fame of his earlier achieve- 
ment, but when only a part was finished envious death interposed, 
and no one was found to finish the outlines already traced. He 'Alexander 
also painted in the temple of Artemis at Ephesos a portrait of^^„^^^. 
Alexander holding a thunderbolt for twenty talents [^4,200 bolt.' 
circ] : the fingers seem to stand out and the thunderbolt to 
project from the picture ; — the reader should remember that all 
this was done with four colours. For this picture he was paid in 
gold coins, reckoned not by number but by measure. He painted 93 
too the train of a jicya^v^oi, or priest of Artemis of Ephesos, 
Kleitos on horseback going out to battle, and the picture of 
a squire handing a helmet to one who asks for it. It were vain 
to enumerate the number of times he painted Alexander and 
Philip. At Samos we admire his Habron, at Rhodes his 
Menander, king of Karia, and his Antaios, at Alexandria Gorgo- 



ovTcy iinXo^oTf Kvvvtj TJ} erepri 
KOVfrri. 
KYN. iXijeivai, <t>i\ri, yAp at 'Efeaiov 

Is iravr' 'AireWiio ypaii/uiT' , 
ou5* epets '* KUyos 

&v$paTros fV /tlv ttSev, %v S' 
dinjpv-fidTj^' 

dX\' w kirl vovv yiVOlTOf KaX 
OeStv Tpavetv 

^TTciyfB' . . . 
The use of the past tense j/irci^exo 
shows that Apelles was no longer 
alive at the time Herondas wrote the 
Mimiamboi (circ. B. c. 280-37:?). For 
similar subjects cf. on § 126 (Pansias) 
and § 137 (Aristolaos). A curious but 
arbitrary explanation of the Koan 
picture, as representing the Egyptian 
bull Apis, is given by R. Meister in 
his ed. of Kerondas, p. 223. 

Clitum ; sumamed o iti\as (Plu- 
tarch, Alex. 16), the bosom friend 
of Alexander, whose life he saved at 
the Granikos, and by whom he was 



afterwards slain : Arrian. iv, 8, &c. 

14. galeam poscenti : [generally 
taken as descriptive of the portrait of 
Kleitos. But the change from the 
accusative to the dative would be bar- 
barous,whiletheasyndeticenumeration 
shows that we have here a fresh sub- 
ject. It was perhaps a grave picture 
(expir. imago) ; very similar subjects 
appear on grave reliefs (i ) in Syracuse, 
rider with horn of plenty, standing by 
his horse, to 1. attendant leaning on 
spear, to 1. boy bringing helmet, snake 
between boy and horse, unpublished ; 
(2) the relief from Thyrea in Athens, 
Frlederichs-Wolters, 1812, cf. Dene- 
ken, ap. Roscher ii, art. ' Heros,' col. 
2563. Also on vases, Naples, Heyde- 
mann 2193, from Canosa. — H. L. U.] 

15. quotiens pinzerit: cf. xxxiv, 
63, of Alexander's portraits by Lysip- 
pos. 

16. Habronem : probably the 
painter mentioned below, § 141. 

Sami: where the Heraion con- 



K 



130 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

drum regem Cariae Rhodi, item Antaeum, Alexandreae 
Gorgosthenen tragoedum, Romae Castorem et Pollucem 
cum Victoria et Alexandro Magno, item Belli imaginem 
restrictis ad terga manibus, Alexandro in curru triumphante, 
94 quas utrasque tabulas divus Augustus in fori sui celeberrimis s 
partibus dicaverat simplicitate moderata, divus Claudius 
pluris existimavit utrique excisa Alexandri facie divi 
Augusti imagines addere. eiusdem arbitrantur manu esse 
et in Dianae temple Herculem aversum, ut, quod est diflfi- 
cillimum, faciem eius ostendat verius pictura quam promittat. lo 
pinxit et heroa nudum, eaque pictura naturam ipsam provo- 

85 cavit. est et equus eius sive fuit pictus in certamine, quo 
iudicium ad mutas quadripedes provocavit ab hominibus. 
namque ambitu praevalere aemulos sentiens singulorum 
picturas inductis equis ostendit, Apellis tantum equo adhin- 15 
nivere, idque et postea semper evenit, ut experimentum 

86 artis illud ostentaretur. fecit et Neoptolemum ex equo 
adversus Persas, Archelaum cum uxore et filia, Antigonum 
thoracatum cum equo incedentem. peritiores artis praefe- 
runt omnibus eius operibus eundem regem sedentem in equo 20 
et Dianam sacrificantium virginum choro mixtam, quibus 

tained a collection of pictures (Strabo in § 37 the subject of the picture is 

xiv, p. 637 rh 'Upatov . . . veais fie7as, described as Triumph and War. 

Ss vvv mvaxoBrjicri (Vti). Servius on ^en. i, 294 (ed. Thiloi, p. 

Menandrum : one tSv fTalpay, 109) inforo Augusti introeuntibus ad 

Arrian, Anabasis iii, 6, 8 ; iv, 13, 7 ; sinistram fuit helium fictum et furor 

vii, 24, 1, Diodoros xviii, 59 ; he sedens super anna devincius eo habitu 

was satrap of Lydia, and as no king quo poeta dixit ; it is of course 

of Karia of the name of Menander is possible tliat Pliny forgot to mention 

known, it may be that we have here the Furor, but, as Jacobi {Museogr. 

a confusion on Pliny's part, cf. Brunn, p. 73) has pointed out, it is more likely 

K. G. ii, p. 213. that Servius, in order to give a more 

1. Antaeum : unknown. striking explanation of the Virgilian 
Alexandreae : above, § 89. lines {Claudentur Belli portae ; Furor 

2. tragoedum : cf. the femulenta itnpius initis \ saeva sedens super 
tibicina of Lysi|ipos, xxxiv, 63, the arma et centum vitutus aenis {post 
saltator Alcisthents in § 147, &c. tergum nodis fremet horridus ore 

, Castorem. . .Magno : above, § 37. cruento), split the personification of 

The type of Alexander between the War into two. We may assume from 

Dioskouroi was at a later date adapted Servius, loc. cit., that the first picture 

to triumphal pictures of the Emperors, was on the R. of the spectator entering 

cf. Mon. d. Inst, iii, 10. the Forum. 

4. restrictis ad terga manibus j § 94. 8. arbitrantur : i. e. a judge- 



I. PAINTING 131 

sthenes the tragic actor, at Rome Kastor and Polydeukes with Allegorical 
Victory and Alexander the Great, and also a figure of War with ^]'"J'and{r 
his hands bound behind his back, and Alexander riding in triumph the Great. 
in a chariot. These two pictures had been placed in the most 94 
crowded parts of his forum with the restraint of good taste by the 1 
god Augustus, but the god Claudius thought fit to cut out in both 1 
the face of Alexander and substitute that of Augustus. The ' 
Herakles with averted face, in the temple of Diana, is also 
attributed to Apelles ; by a triumph of art the picture seems not 
only to suggest, but actually to give the face. He also painted 
a nude hero, a picture which challenges comparison with Nature 
herself. A horse also exists, or did exist, painted for a com- 95 
petition, in which he appealed from the judgement of men to that ^H^^^f"^'' 
of dumb beasts. When he saw that his rivals were likely to be The horses 
placed above him through intrigue, he caused some horses to be "Mt^' f 
brought in and showed them each picture in turn ; they neighed Apelles. 
only at the horse of Apelles, and this was invariably the case 
ever afterwards, so that the test was applied purposely to afford 
a display of his skill. He also painted Neoptolemos on horse- 96 
back fighting against the Persians, Archelaos in a group with 
his wife and daughter, and a portrait of Antigonos in armour 
advancing with his horse. Skilled judges of painting prefer 
among all his works his equestrian portrait of Antigonos and his 3"'- 
Artemis amid a band of maidens offering sacrifice, a painting 

ment of connoisseurs not certified by Alexander, son of Arrhabaios, Arrian 

the artist's signature. i, 20, 10; ii, 27, 6, Diodoros xviii, 

9. Dianas : in the campus Flami- 29. 

nius dedicated by Lepidus B.C. 179; exequo : sc. pugnantem. 

Liv. xl, 52. The reading Annae (sc. 18. Archelaum : two Archelaoi 

Perennae) is defended by Jordan {ap. are known among the soldiers of 

Prellcr, J?om. Mythol. 2nd ed. i, Alexander, (i) the son of Androliles, 

p. 344, note i), but against his view one tSjv traipoivj he was placed in 

see Wissowa ap. Pauly, s. v. Anna command of the garrison left at 

Perenna. Aornos (Arr. iii, 29, i) ; (2) the son 

§95. 12. est et equus : according of Theodoros, who was placed in 

to Ailian,noiK. 'IffT.ii, 3, thestory was command at Susa (Arr. iii, 16, 9). 

told of Alexander and the horse in 21. sacriflcantiuin : since the 

his equestrian portrait. The est . . . words aie at variance with the 

sive fuit show how little im- Homeric description, endless emen- 

portance Pliny himself attaches to dations of the passage have been 

such anecdotes. suggested (see Overbeck, Schriftquell. 

§ 96. 17. Weoptolemum : not the 1870). The best explanation seems 

son of Achilles, as Welcker and others that of Dilthey {Rhein. Mus. xxv, p. 

have supposed, but the (ratpos of 327), who supposes that in translating 

K 3 



13a 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



vicisse Homeri versus videtur id ipsum describentis. pinxit 
et quae pingi non possunt, tonitrua, fulgetra, fulgura, quae 

97 Bronten, Astrapen, Ceraunobolian appellant, inventa eius 
et ceteris profuere in arte, unum imitari nemo potuit, quod 
absoluta opera atramento inlinebat ita tenui ut id ipsum 5 
repercussu claritatis colorem album excitaret custodiretque 
a pulvere et sordibus, ad manum intuenti demum appareret, 
sed etiam ratione magna, ne claritas colorum aciem offende- 
ret veluti per lapidem specularem intuentibus et e longin- 
quo eadem res nimis floridis coloribus austeritatem occulte 10 
daret. 

98 Aequalis eius fuit Aristides Thebanus. is omnium primus 
animum pinxit et sensus hominis expressit, quae vocant 
Graeci ethe, item perturbationes, durior pauIo in coloribus. 
huius opera : oppido capto ad matris morientis ex volnere 15 

6. album] Traube ; alvum Bamb. ; alium Bamb. e corr., Detlefsen ; cm. 
reliqui. 8. etiam] Bamb. e corr. ; etium Bamb. ; et cum Voss., Detlefsen. 

15. opera] Bamb. ; pictura reliqui, Detlefsen. 



some Greek epigram beginning for 
instance : 

'Bvovaavs 8^ x6paifftv 6fjLopp6$os iox^o.ipa 
e^Apxovffa x°P°^3 ffeveTOi dypoTepij. 
Pliny or his author mistook 6voi<rais 
from 6viw for the partic. of Bvoi. 

I. Homeri versus : Od. vi, 102 — 
0117 6' "Aprepiis flffi uar* ovpea iox^- 
aipa 
***** 

T^ Se fl' a/jia Nifj^t, Kovpat Aibs 

alyt6xoio, 
dypovbfioi nai^ovffi. 

3. Bronten . . . Ceraunobolian : 
personifications [^Kfpavvo0o\ta was 
the personification of xepamSs (Diels, 
Doxographi Graeci, p. 367 foil, and 
Aetios Mac. ii, 2, 3, p. 368) ; for Bronte 
cf. Philostr. the Elder Imag. i, 14 
BpoVTT] Iv ciSci fffcXrjpSi Kal 'AffTpavTj 
ffeKas l/e twi' d<p9a\iiwv Ultra Trvp . . . 
Possibly the three figures were united 
ia an allegory of a storm and formed 
a votive offering to Zeus xepavyo- 
PSKos; cf. C. I. G. 1513; /3/)oyraii' and 
Kepavvios, C.I. G. 2641, 3446, 3810, 
and often. — H. L. U.]. 

§ 97. 5. atramento : the exact 



composition of Apelles's atramentum 
still remains obscure ; we can only 
gather that although some black sub- 
stance formed its basis, this was so 
diluted and spread out as to become 
transparent and practically colourless. 
6. colorem album excitaret : 
this passage offers grave difficulties, 
(i) If we follow the remaining codices 
in omitting the word album we get 
pure nonsense, since it is absurd to 
talk of a glazing that raised the 
picture's colour as a whole, and yet 
toned it down. (2) If we follow 
Detlefsen and adopt the alium which 
a later hand wrote for the alvum of 
cod. Bamb. we get worse nonsense, 
for what is this color alius ? (3) I 
cannot help suspecting that albus{-a%tA 
of a dead, opaque white) is a mis- 
translation of the Greek \fti/c<5j in its 
sense of ' brilliant ' ; the object of the 
glazing, then, was to give a brilliant 
surface to the whole picture ; this 
brought the colours into unison, and 
at the same time served the practical 
purpose of protecting the painting 
from dust. 



/. PAINTING 



133 



thought to have excelled the lines of Homer that describe the 
same scene. He also painted the unpaintable, thunder, for 
example, lightning and thunderbolts, /S/joxtij, do-TpaTrij and Kepavi/ofiuKla 
as they are called. 

All have profited by his innovations, though one of these could 97 
never be imitated ; he used to give his pictures when finished 
a black glazing so thin that by sending back the light it could 
call forth a whitish colour, while at the same time it afforded 
protection from dust and dirt, only becoming visible itself on 
the closest inspection. In using this glazing, one main purpose 
of his was to prevent the brilliance of the colours from offending 
the eyes, — the effect was as when they are looked at through talc, 
— and also that when seen at a distance those which were vivid to 
excess might be imperceptibly toned down. 

Aristeides of Thebes was his contemporary : he was the first 98 
among all painters to paint the soul, and gave expression to the 'J'^p^^j,"^ 
affections of man — I mean to what the Greeks call ijdq — and also 
the emotions. His colouring is rather harsh. His works are : 



9. lapidem specularem: xxxvi, 
160 ; it was a transparent highly lami- 
nated substance, used also for windows 
{specularid), cf. Plin. Ef. ii, 17, 4; 
Juv. iv, 21, &c. 

§88. 12. Aristides Thebanus : 
below, § III ; he was the second of 
the name, son of Nikomachos, § 108, 
and grandson of the first Aristeides, 
ib., above, § 75. 

omnium primus : note on § 16. 

13. sensus . . . perturbationes : 
as O. Jahn points out {Kunsiuriheile, 
p. 115), Pliny is here giving a closer 
definition of animus by dividing it 
into fi9i\ and 170817, for the first of 
which, according to Quinct. vi, 2, 8, 
no precise Latin equivalent existed: 
horum (sc. affectuum) autem, sicut 
antiquitus traditum accefimus, duae 
sunt species: alteram Graeci nddos 
vacant, quod nos vertentes recte ac 
proprie affectum dicimus, alteram §floi, 
cuius nomine, ut ego equidem sentio, 
caret sermo Romanus: mores appel- 
lantur, atque inde pars quoque ilia 
philosophiae ifiiieq moralis est dicta 
(cf. above, note on mores in § 63). 



Pliny, therefore, to avoid misunder- 
standing, gives the Greek word also 
for iffli), while for irofl?; he felt himself 
on safe ground in wsai% perturbationes, 
the translation introduced by Cicero 
{Tusc. Disp. iii, 4, 7). Not a few 
commentators have considered ?i9os, 
iriBos to be incompatible qualities in 
one artist, yet Quinct. (vi, 2, 1 2) shows 
that in a sense iraBos is complementary 
to ^Sos, while Ailian (IIoi/c, 'lar. iv, 3) 
especially attributes both qualities to 
Polygnotos — the dya6is ri6oypd^os. 
(For a thorough and subtle discussion 
of the question cf. O. Jahn, op. cit. 
pp. 105-117.) 

1 5. matris morientis ; the motive 
was employed in sculpture by Epi- 
gonos (xxxiv, 88). The picture is 
described AntA. Pal. vii, 623. The 
Plinian passage doubtless inspired the 
group of a dead mother with a young 
child seeking her breast, on the left 
of the celebrated ' Morbetto ' or ' Pliry- 
gian Plague ' engraved by Marc. An- 
tonio (reproduced Delaborde, M. 
Antoine Raimondi, to face p. 214) 
according to general supposition from 



134 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



mammam adrepens infans, intellegiturque sentire mater et 
timere ne emortuo lacte sanguinem lambat, quam tabulam 
Alexander Magnus transtulerat Pellam in patriam suam. 

99 idem pinxit proelium cum Persis, centum homines tabula ea 
conplexus pactusque in singulos minas denas a tyranno 5 
Elatensium Mnasone. pinxit et currentes quadrigas et 
suppHcantem paene cum voce et venatores cum captura et 
Leontion Epicuri et anapauomenen propter fratris amorem, 
item Liberum et Ariadnen spectatos Romae in aede Cereris, 

100 tragoedum et puerum in Apollinis, cuius tabulae gratia 10 
interiit pictoris inscitia cui tergendam earn mandaverat M. 
Junius praetor sub die ludorum Apollinarium. spectata est 



a drawing of Raphael. But the draw- 
ing in sepia wash and white in the 
Uffizi (comice 265, no. 525) is only, 
Mr. B. Berenson informs me, a copy 
after an original, now lost, that may 
have been by Perino del Vaga. 

3. transtulerat Fellam : after the 
sack of Thebes in B.C. 335. 

§ 99. 4. proelium cum Fersis : 
since Aristeides is a contemporary of 
Apelles and Alexander, the picturemust 
have represented one of the battles of 
this king. It is tempting to identify 
the proelium with the battle of Issos 
and to recognize its copy in the famous 
mosaic from Pompei in Naples : the 
powerfully characterized Alexander, 
the Dareios with his gesture of de- 
spairing command are conceptions 
worthy of the great master of ^floi and 
irdflos, while motives such as the fallen 
Persian in the foreground recall the 
mater moriens. It is possible, how- 
ever, that the Pompeian mosaic should 
be rather traced back to Aristeides's 
fellow-pupil Philoxenos (§ log) 
(Michaelis, y3;4>-*. vii, 1893, p. 134), 
whose battle-piece is more closely de- 
fined as proelium cum Dario. It is, at 
any rate, time to claim the picture for 
po\^erful artists such as Aristeides or 
Philoxenos, and to discard the opinion 
which attributes it to a lady-painter 
Helena, reputed indeed to have 
painted a battle of Issos, but only on 



the authority of so notorious a liar as 
Ptolemaios Chennos. Addenda. 

6. Mnasone : a pupil and friend 
of Aristotle, circ. B.C. 349 (Timaios 
apud Athenaios, vi, p. 264 D, Ailian, 
IIoiK. 'IffT. iii, 19). He was made 
tyrant of Elateia after the battle of 
Chaironeia in B.C. 338. 

currentes quadrigas : votive offer- 
ings for victories in the chariot course, 
cf. note on xxxiv, 71. 

7. supplicantem : making a ges- 
ture of entreaty, probably the picture 
was that of an adorans ; cf. xxxiv, 73, 
90, &c. Cum voce epigr. cf. Introd. 
p. Ixxi. 

venatores cum captura : note on 
xxxiv, 66 ; cf. the hunt of Ptolemaios 
Soter by Antiphilos in § 138. 

8. Xieontion Epicuri : friend and 
pupil of Epikouros (B. c. 34 1-2 70), and 
mistress of his favourite pupil Metro- 
doros; she was a rival of Glykera 
(Athen. xiii, p. 585 D), who came to 
Athens with Harpalos, B. c. 326. 
Aristeides probably painted her not 
much later than B.C. 320. Although 
Epikouros did not reside in Athens 
before B.C. 306, it is natural that her 
portrait, whenever painted, should be 
described as that of the famous 'Leon- 
tion Epicuri^ Kroker, Gleichnamige 
Gr. Kiinstler, p. 28 ; Uilichs, Rhein. 
Mus. XXV, p. 5 u f. Another portrait 
of her by Theoros below, § 144. 



/. PAINTING 



135 



a picture of a mother lying wounded to death in the sack of Wounded 
a city ; she appears conscious that her babe is creeping towards f "''^ryv"'^ 
her breast, and afraid lest, now that her milk is dried up, he 
should suck blood. This picture Alexander the Great carried off 
to his native Pella. He also painted a battle with the Persians ; 99 
the picture contains a hundred figures, for each of which Mnason 
the tyrant of Elateia had agreed to pay him ten minae [;^3S] ; 
and furthermore a chariot race, and a suppliant whose very accents 
we seem to hear, huntsmen with their game, Leontion the pupil 
of Epikouros, a girl dying for love of her brother, the Dionysos 
and Ariadne now to be seen at Rome in the temple of Ceres, and 
a tragic actor and a boy in the temple of Apollo. This picture 100 
was ruined through the ignorance of the painter to whom Marcus 
Junius as praetor entrusted it to be cleaned before the games of 
Apollo. In the temple of Faith on the Capitol was to be seen 



anapauomenen . . . amorem : 
[the subject, which has given rise to 
much controversy (see especially Dil- 
they and L. Urlichs in Rhein. Mus. 
XXV and xxvi) is sufficiently easy to 
explain by reference to Anth. Pal. vii, 
517— 

Zvoyikvov BatriXw /cdrBave -nafiOfvfK^ 
avTox^pi' C^ctv yap dSeXifte^v kv tnpl 
8daa, 

ovK ir\ri. SiSvfjiov S^ot/cos IffcfSe KaK^v 
Ttarphs ^ApiffTiiTiroio' Kari]^aiv 5i Ku- 

Pn<'V 
Tidaa, rhv iVTitcvov xnpov tSoGo'a 

d6pL0V. 

Evidently the anapauomene was a girl 
who had died in grief at her brother's 
death. The picture was a grave pic- 
ture, an expirantis imago (§ 90), and 
the name anapauomene was doubtless 
derived from the epigram inscribed 
upon it : ava-naifaBai, here of rest in 
death.— H. L. U.] Introd. p. Ixxi. 

9. spectatos : before the fire which 
took place in the reign of Augustus, 
Strabo, viii, p. 381 ; see note above on 
§ 24, where the Dionysos alone is 
mentioned. 

aede Cereris : note on xxxiv, 1 5. 

10. tiagoedum et puerum: has 



sometimes been explained of a tragic 
actor playing his part with a boy (e. g. 
Maas, Ann. d. Inst, 1881, p. 142, 
155, suggests Priam and Troilos), but 
it more probably simply represented 
an older actor teaching a boy his part ; 
for the subject cf. Schreiber, Hell. Rel. 
pi. 47, 48 ; Helbig, VVandgemiilde, 
1455 (actor with poet), and the cylixby 
Douris in Berlin (Furtwangler, Vasen, 
ii, 2285), also a similar subject below; 
an old man with a lyre teaching a 
boy. 

Apollinis : in the temple on the 
Campus Flaminius, near the porti- 
cus Octaviae, xxxvi, 34; dedicated 
B.C. 430, for the removal of a plague 
(Liv. iv, 25), it remained down to the 
age of Augustus the only temple to 
the god in Rome (Asconius on Cic. 
In toga Candida, p. 91). In B.C. 32, 
C. Sosius dedicated in it a cedar-wood 
statue of the god which he brought 
from Seleukia (xiii, 53) ; hence the 
temple is sometimes called templum 
Apollinis Sosiani. 

§100. II. M. Junius: probably 
Silanus, cos. B.C. 25. 

12. ludorum Apollinarium : held 
on July 13 ; instituted B.C. 212. 



136 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



et in aede Fidei in Capitolio senis cum lyra puenim docentis. 
pinxit et aegrum sine fine laudatum, tantumque arte valuit 
ut Attalus rex unam tabulam eius centum talentis emisse 

101 tradatur. simul, ut dictum est, et Protogenes floruit, patria 
ei Caunus, gentis Rhodiis subiectae. summa paupertas 5 
initio artisque summa intentio et ideo minor fertilitas. 
quis eum docuerit non putant constare, quidam et naves 
pinxisse usque ad quinquagensimum annum, argumentum 
esse, quod cum Athenis celeberrimo loco Minervae delubri 
propylon pingeretj ubi fecit nobilem Paralum et Hammoni- 10 
ada, quam quidam Nausicaan vocant, adiecerit parvolas 
naves longas in iis quae pictores parergia appellant, ut appa- 
reret a quibus initiis ad arcem ostentationis opera sua 

102 pervenissent. palmam habet tabularum eius lalysus, qui 
est Romae dicatus in templo Pacis. cum pingeret eum, 15 



I. asde Fidei: Livy (i, 21), attri- 
butes its foundation to Numa ; restored 
B. c. 115 by M. Aemilins Scaunis ; it 
was on the Capitol, see Gilbert, Rom, 
iii, p. 399, note 2. 

i. aegrum: votive picture for a 
recovery ; for the subject Furtwangler 
(Jahrb. iii, p. 218) compares an excel- 
lent bronze statuette of a sick man (in 
the Cook coll. at Richmond). 

3. Attalus rex : vii, 126. = App. I. 

§ 101. 4. ut dictum est : in § 81. 

patria Caunus : so also Paus. i, 3, 
5, Plut. Demelr. 22, while Souidas 
names Xanthos in Lykia as his birth- 
place. 

7. quis eum docuerit : cf. Seila- 
nion xxxiy, 51 ; Lysippos, ibid. 61 ; 
see Introd. p. xlvi ff. 

naves pinxisse : i. e. he would 
paint the napaaijfia and eiriarjiia of 



9. Athenis : he was probably 
twice at Athens ; Curtins conjectures 
that his picture of the ' Thesmothetai ' 
(Pans, i, 3, 5), in the Boukiiterion, 
was connected with the re-organization 
of the vonofvXoKis by Demetrios of 
Fhaleron, but that in the days of 
Pausanias, the origin of the picture 



being forgotten, it was called after 
the old republican SifffioSirat {Stadt- 
Geschickte von Athen, p. 2 29). Add. — 
The second visit was under his special 
patron Demetrios Poliorketes, on the 
occasion alluded to here. 

10. propylon: cf. xxxvi, 32 Cha- 
rlies in propylo Atheniensium quas 
Socrates fecit; the unusual form 
propylon for the more familiar propy- 
laeum or propylaea justifies us in 
attributing both passages to the same 
authority; Vi Achsm-ath, Stadt Athen, 
i, 36, 2 ; Introd. p. 1. 

Faralum et Hammoniada : i.e. 
the patron-heroes of the two holy 
triremes. The Ammonias — ^ toO 
''Afifjtwvos Upd Tpi-fjp^s — (see Kenyon's 
note on Aristotle, 'Afliji/. no\. p. 152) 
replaced the old Salaminia. The choice 
of the name is characteristic of the 
Antigonids and their strenuous efforts 
to keep alive the memory of the 
deified Alexander (Curtius, op. cii. 
P- 233); for the holy triremes cf. 
Boeckh - Frankel, Siaatsalterthiimer, 
P- 3°S ff- ; Boeckh, Seeurkunden, p. 
76 ff. 

11. Ifausicaan: both figures were, 
it seems, united in one picture which 



/. PAINTING 



137 



a picture of an old man with a lyre teaching a boy. Aristeides 
also painted a sick man, a picture never sufficiently praised, and 
so great was his name that king Attalos, we are told, paid a 
hundred talents [;^2 1,000 circ] for a single picture by his hand. 

Protogenes, as I have already said, was a painter of the same 
date. He was a native of Kaunos, a city subject to Rhodes. 
The great poverty of his early days and his scrupulous devotion 
to his art were the causes that he produced but few pictures. 
The name of his master is supposed to be unknown, while some 
say that he painted ships until his fiftieth year, and adduce in 
proof thereof that when he was at Athens decorating, in the most 
celebrated of spots, the gateway to the temple of Athene, for 
which he painted his famous Paralos and Hammonias, — a figure 
sometimes called Nausikaa, — he introduced some tiny warships 
in the part of the picture called the napepyia, purposing to show 
the humble origin of the painter whose works had risen to such 
a height of glory. Among his pictures the lalysos, dedicated in 
the Temple of Peace at Rome, bears off the palm. The story 



101 

Protogenes 
of Kaunos, 
Obscurity 
of his 
early life. 



102 

The 
'lalysos! 



lent itself to interpretation as Odysseus 
and Nausikaa ; but see C. Torr, Class, 
Rev. iv, 1890, p. 331. 

parvolas naves : perhaps along 
the edge of the picture ; they were 
merely ornamental, or, at the most, 
served to indicate that the hero and 
heroine depicted were connected with 
ships. C. Torr {loc. at.) suggests 
that the little warships were repre- 
sented in the background out at sea, 
the figures themselves being in the 
foreground upon the shore. In this 
case the ' smallness ' was due simply 
to the necessities of perspective. 
The explanation given by Pliny is 
evidently aitiological, nor is it neces- 
sary to follow Curtius {loc. cit.) in 
bracketing the et, and taking these 
small triremes to indicate ' to what 
a height of glory — from what 
small beginnings — ship-building had 
attained. ' 

12. parergia: diminutive of irap- 
fpyov. No specific part of the picture 
is intended, but only a subordinate or 
incidental detail. The word is best 



explained by reference to Strabo xiv, 
p. 652, where it is related that Proto- 
genes was vexed because in his picture 
of the Satyr (below, § 105) the admira- 
tion roused by the partridge had caused 
the work itself — -rii ipyov — to become 
a ir&pepyov, 

§ 102. 14. lalysus : a Rhodian 
hero, after whom the city of 'laAvaos 
was named ; son of Kerkaphos and 
Kydippe, whose other sons were the 
eponymous heroes Lindos and 
Kameiros (Pindar, 01. vii, 74). The 
dog shows that lalysos was represented 
as a huntsman. Possibly the picture 
was one of a cycle of Rhodian heroes, 
likewise including the Kydippe and 
Tlepolemos (below, § 106). When 
Strabo wrote {loc. cil.'), the picture 
was still at Rhodes; it was prob- 
ably brought away by Vespasian 
and placed at once in his Temple of 
Peace. Plutarch {Dem. 22) says it 
was already burnt in his day. 

15. templo Paoia : note on xxxiv, 
84. 



138 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

traditur madidis lupinis vixisse, quo simul et famem susti- 
neret et sitim nee sensus nimia dulcedine obstrueret. huic 
picturae quater colorem induxit contra obsidia iniuriae et 
vetustatis, ut decedente superiore inferior succederet. est 
in ea canis mire factus ut quern pariter et casus pinxerit. 5 
non iudicabat se in eo exprimere spumam anhelantis, cum 
in reliqua parte omni, quod difficillimum erat, sibi ipse 

103 satisfecisset. displicebat autem ars ipsa nee minui poterat, 
et videbatur nimia ac longius a veritate diseedere, spumaque 
ilia pingi, non ex ore nasci ; anxio animi cruciatu, cum in 10 
pietura verum esse, non verisimile vellet, absterserat saepius 
mutaveratque penieillum, nullo modo sibi adprobans. post- 
remo iratus arti, quod intellegeretur, spongeam inpegit 
inviso loco tabulae, et ilia reposuit ablatos eolores qualiter 

104 eura optaverat, fecitque in pietura fortuna naturam. hoc 15 
exemplo eius similis et Nealcen successus spumae equi 
similiter spongea inpacta secutus dum celetem pingit ac 
poppyzonta retinentem eum. ita Protogenes monstravit et 
fortunam. propter hunc lalysum, ne cremaret tabulam, 
Demetrius rex, cum ab ea parte sola posset Rhodum capere, 20 
non incendit, parcentemque picturae fugit occasio victoriae. 

105 erat tunc Protogenes in suburbano suo hortulo, hoc est 
Demetrii eastris, neque interpellatus proeliis inchoata opera 

1. quo] Traube; qnoniam, codd., Detlefsen. sDStineret] codd.; sustinerent 
Detlefsm. 2. obstrueret] ^cot*. ; ohsXiweTenX religui, Dellefsen. 17. dum 
celetem pingit acj Traube ; disceret cum pingitnr Bamb. ; dicitur, cum 
pingeret, Detlefsen. 

3. obsidia iniuriae ao vetus- is told also by Plut. TrepJ Hvxi^t P- 

tatis : hendiadys, to avoid the 99 B. ( = Bemardakis I, p. 240) and 

awkward co-ordination of genitives; by Val. Max. viii, 11, ext. 7 (without 

cf. Patron. 84 nondum vetustatis in- naming the artist). Dio Chrysostom 

iuria victus. In spite of the ingenious and Sextus Empiricus (see .5". Q. 1889) 

remarks of Berger {Beitrdge, ii, p. 19), tell the story of Apelles. 
I think the story of the four coats 17. celetem . . . poppyzonta: 

of colour may still be considered for the subject in sculpture cf. (a) 

apocryphal. Winter ya;4?-*. viii, 1893, p. 142 ; (*) 

§ 103. 15. fortuna: the whole anec- Parthenon W. frieze, viii, 15, 22 {Cat. 
dote is an amusing illustration of the p. 180) &c. ; (c) a gem in the Coll. 
saying of Agathon (a/. Arist. Nic. Tyskiewiez (Furtwangler Ani. Gem- 
Ethics, vi, 4), Tf x"); rvxqv earep^e men, pi. ix, J4). 
Kal Tvxt Tex"'!"- Introd. p. xli f. 20. ab ea parte sola : cf. vii, 126. 

§ 104. 16. Nealoen : below, The picture was in the temple of 

§§ 14a, 145. The following anecdote Dionysos just outside the city (Strabo, 



/. PAINTING 139 

runs that while he was painting it he lived on lupins steeped in 
water, that he might thus satisfy at once his hunger and his 
thirst without blunting his faculties by over-indulgence. He gave 
this picture four coats of colour to preserve it from the approach 
of injury and age, so that if the first coat peeled off the one below 
might take its place. The dog in this picture is the outcome as The foam 
it were of miracle, since chance, and not art alone, went to the %'^ainted 
painting of it. The artist felt that he had not perfectly rendered by miracle. 
the foam of the panting animal, although he had satisfied himself 
— a difficult task — in the rest of the painting. It was the very 103 
skill which displeased him and which could not be concealed, but 
obtruded itself too much, thus making the effect unnatural ; it 
was foam painted with the brush, not frothing from the mouth. 
Chafing with anxiety, for he aimed at absolute truth in his paint- 
ing and not at a makeshift, he had wiped it out again and again, 
and changed his brush without finding any satisfaction. At last, 
enraged with the art which was too evident, he threw his sponge 
at the hateful spot, and the sponge left on the picture the colours 
it had wiped off, giving the exact effect he had intended, and 
chance thus became the mirror of nature. Nealkes likewise 104 
once succeeded in rendering the foam of a horse in the same jialtem^o 
way, by throwing his sponge at the picture he was painting of a horse in 
a groom coaxing a race-horse. Thus Protogenes even taught the 1y''^"alkes 
uses of fortune. It was to preserve this lalysos that king Demetrios 
refrained from setting fire to the city, which was open to attack 
on that side only, and by sparing the picture he forfeited his 
chance of victory. At the time of the siege Protogenes was living 105 
in his little garden beyond the walls, within the lines of Demetrios. 
He did not allow the war to interrupt his work, but went on with Generosity 
the pictures he was painting, except when summoned to the "f P^"'^' 

presence of the king, and when asked what gave him courage to towards 

Protogenes. 

loc. cit.) ; for a fuller accotmt of the story, which recurs in a variety of 

the episode see in especial Plutarch, forms, is suspicious : thus Archimedes 

Dem. 22 ; the story has little historical was found quietly drawing geometric 

credibility, but, as Helbig {Unters. figures when the Romans stormed 

p. 181) points out, serves to emphasize Syracuse (Liv. xxv, 31, 9) ; in modem 

the love of art which characterized times the painter Parmegianino was 

' the most genial of the Diadochoi.' found calmly painting a Madonna 

Khodum : i. e. the new city when the Spanish and Dutch troops, 

founded in B. c. 408 j for the siege cf. under Constable of Bourbon, stormed 

xxxiv, 41. Rome in 1527, &c. 

§ lOS. 22. erat tunc Fiotogenes : 



I40 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

intermisit omnino nisi accitus a rege, interrogatusque qua 
fiducia extra muros ageret respondit scire se cum Rhodiis 
illi bellum esse, non cum artibus. disposuit rex in tutelam 
eius stationes, gaudens quod posset manus servare quibus 
pepercerat, et ne saepius avocaret, ultro ad eum venit hostis 5 
relictisque victoriae suae votis inter arma et murorum ictus 
spectavit artificem, sequiturque tabulam illius temporis haec 

106 fama, quod eam Protogenes sub gladio pinxerit. Satyrus 
hie est quern anapauomenon vocant, ne quid desit temporis 
eius securitati, tenentem tibias. fecit et Cydippen, Tlepo- 10 
lemum, Piiiliscum tragoediarum scriptorem meditantem et 
athletam et Antigonum regem, matrem Aristotelis philo- 
sophi, qui ei suadebat ut Alexandri Magni opera pingeret 
propter aeternitatem rerum. impetus animi et quaedam 
artis libido in haec potius eum tulere. novissime pinxit 15 
Alexandrum ac Pana. fecit et signa ex aere, ut diximus. 

107 eadem aetate fuit Asclepiodorus, quem in symmetria mira- 
batur Apelles. huic Mnaso tyrannus pro duodecim diis 
dedit in singulos mnas tricenas, idemque Theomnesto in 

108 singulos heroas vicenas. his adnumerari debet et Nico- 20 
machus Aristidi filius ac discipulus. pinxit raptum 
Proserpinae, quae tabula fuit in Capitolio in Minervae 
delubro supra aediculam luventatis, et in eodem Capitolio, 

21. Aristidi] Urlichs in Chrestom.; aristiaci Bamb, Detlefsen; aristicheimi 
Riccard; ariste //// Voss.\ ariateclieimi Z?^f. 

§ 106. 9. ne . . . securitati : (Benndorf-Schone,245 = Helbig,C&ri. 

Strabo describes the Satyr as leaning Ant. 663) is a copy of Protogenes' 

on a column, apparently somewhat in picture is quite uncertain, 
the scheme of the celebrated 'Resting 12. Antigonum regem: painted 

Satyr 'by Praxiteles,Helbig,C/ojj./i»/. by Apelles, above, §§ 90, 96. 
525. Furtwangler,Afer/«?7tjV«j,p. 329. matrem Aristotelis: her name 

10. Cydippen, Tlepolemum : was Phaestis. Cf. Introd. p. Ixi. 
above, note on lalystis in § 102. 16. Alexandrum ao Pana : prob- 
Tlepolemos led the Rhodian contin- ably Alexander was represented as 
gent to Troy (//. ii, 653). Dionysos, to whom, according to the 

11. Philisoum trag. script.: he legend, Pan acted as shieldbearer 
was a native of Kerkyra. According during his progress through India, 
to»Athen. V, 198 c hetookpart in the Lucian, Z'zVjk/j. 2; Helbig, Unter- 
great iro/iTri} of Ptolemy Philadelphos, suchungen, p. 50. 

B. C. 284, in virtue of his office of ut diximus : xxxiv, % 91. 

priest of Dionysos. The theory that § 107. 17. Asclepiodorus : above, 

the beautiful relief in the Lateran § 80 ; he may be identical with the 



/. PAINTING i4t 

remain outside the walls, he replied that he knew the king was 
making war against Rhodes, not against art. Demetrios placed 
sentinels to guard him, and took a pride in protecting the artist 
he had spared. Unwilling to call him from his work, Demetrios, 
enemy though he was, visited him in person, and in the midst 
of arms and of assaults neglected his hopes of victory to watch 
the painter. Hence comes the saying about the picture which 
Protogenes was engaged on at the time, that he had painted it 
under the sword. This is the Satyr called the avanavotievos [resting], 106 
and he is holding the pipes, to emphasize the painter's sense of 
security at the moment. He also painted a Kydippe, and a Tle- 
polemos, Philiskos the tragedian in meditation, an athlete, a 
portrait of king Antigonos, and the mother of Aristotle the philo- 
sopher, who had tried to persuade him to paint the exploits of 
Alexander the Great, on the ground that they deserved immor- 
tality, but the natural turn of his genius, and his artist's caprice 
drew the painter rather to these other themes. Alexander and 
Pan were the last subjects he ever painted ; as already noted, he 
also made bronze statues. 

The Asklepiodoros whose knowledge of symmetry was praised 107 
by Apelles, belonged to the same epoch ; the tyrant Mnason jly^f"'' 
gave him thirty minae [loo guineas circ] for each of his twelve 
gods, and to \Ttieomnestos twenty minae [^70 circ] for each of 
his heroes. 

We must rank with these artists Nikomachos, the son and pupil 108 
of Aristeides. He painted the rape of Persephone, which was in ■^^o""'- 
the temple of Minerva on the Capitol, above the little chapel of Aristeides. 

sculptor xxxiv, 86. He must have held 21. Aristidi: i.e. the Elder, cf. 

a high position, since Plutarch, Glor. above, 5 7.5 ; Urlichs' reading is con- 

Athen. 2, mentions him along with firmed by the fact that whereas in § no 

Apollodoros (above, § 60), Enphranor Ariston appears as brotherand pupil of 

(below, 5 1281; Nikias (§ 132), and Nilcomachos, he appears in § ni as 

Panainos(§ 59), as one of the masters a son and pupil of Aristeides, hence 

who made Athens glorious through Nikomachos too must have been the 

their paintings. son of an Aristeides, Kroker, Gleich- 

18. Mnaso : above, note on § 99. namige Gr. Kilnstler, p. 26. 

§ 108. 20. Wioomaohua : the raptum Proserpinae : for the 

mention in Cic. Brutus, 1 8, 70, is subject cf. note on xxxiv, 69. 

alone sufficient to prove his high 22. fuit: before the fire of 69 A. D.; 

reputation, yet his works are known above, note on xxxiv, 38. 

from Pliny only; to the list given 23. aediculam luventatis : in the 

here must be added the unfinished actual cella of Minerva, near the statue 

Tyndaridai, in § 145. of the goddess; the cult of luventas, 



14a 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



quam Plancus imperator posuerat, Victoria quadrigam in 
sublime rapiens. Ulixi primus addidit pilleum. pinxit et 

109 Apollinem ac Dianam, deumque matrem in leone sedentem, 
item nobiles Bacchas obreptantibus Satyris, Scyllamque 
quae nunc est Romae in templo Pacis. nee fuit alius in ea 5 
arte velocior. tradunt namque conduxisse pingendum ab 
Aristrato Sicyoniorum tyranno quod is faciebat Telesti 
poetae monimentum praefinito die intra quern perageretur, 
nee multo ante venisse tyranno in poenam accenso paucisque 

110 diebus absolvisse et celeritate et arte mira. discipulos 10 
habuit Aristonem fratrem et Aristiden filium et Philo- 
xenum Eretrium, cuius tabula nullis postferenda Cassandro 
regi picta continuit Alexandri proelium cum Dario. idem 
pinxit et lasciviam, in qua tres Sileni comissantur. hie 
celeritatem praeceptoris secutus breviores etiamnum quas- 15 

111 dam picturae conpendiarias invenit. adnumeratur his et 
Nicophanes elegans ac concinnus ita ut venustate ei pauci 
conparentur. cothurnus ei et gravitas artis multum a 



like that of Terminus (in the same 
temple) was one of the oldest in 
Rome ; Liv. i, 55, 4 ; v, 54, 7 ; for 
full literature cf Wissowa, ap. Roscher, 
ii, pp. 666, 708, s. V. Jupiter ; ib. 
p. 764, s.v. Juventas. 

I. Flancus imperator : sc. L. 
Munatius, triumphed B. c. 43 (for his 
assumption of the title oiimperatorci. 
Cic. Phil, iii, 38, and the letters of 
Flancus, ap. Cic. ad Fam. li, 8 ; 24). 
His brother L. Plautius Plancus 
(adopted by L. Plautius) struck in B.C. 
45 a coinage with a type of Nike and 
horses, wliich is apparently a copy of 
the picture by Nikomachos (see next 
note and cf. Helbig, Untersuchungen, 
p. 154). Furtwangler {Jahrb. iv, 
1889, p. 62) hence suspects an error on 
the part of Pliny in naming the more 
famous Flancus Imp. as dedicator of 
the statue. 

Victoria ctuadrigam in Bub- 
lime rapiens : Furtwangler {loc. cit.) 
emphasizes the opinion already ex- 
pressed by Panofka (13th Winckel- 
mannsprogramm) and Schuchardt 



{Nikomachos, p. 20 ff.) that the com- 
position survives on a beautiful gem 
signed Fov<j>os {Jahrb. iii, 1888, pi. xi, 
10), in St. Petersburg, representing 
Nike with outspread wings, bearing 
away a team of four horses. This 
theory is confirmed by the fact that 
the composition is repeated on the 
coins of the gens Flautia (Babelon, 
Monnaies de la Rip. Rom. ii, p. 325). 
The painting of Nikomachos was of 
course a votive offering for a victory 
in the chariot race. ' Instead of the 
usual traditional type, in which the 
winner appears in his chariot crowned 
by victory, or else Nike standing in 
the chariot guides the horses, Niko- 
machos ventured on a daring inven- 
tion ; ignoring the chariot and the 
earthly chariot course, he painted tlie 
triumphant horses as they are borne 
aloft to victory by Nike herself.' 

(F-) 

2. rriixi primus : Servins on 
.^e«ezcf ii, 44 (Thilo i, p. 2221 huic 
Ulixi primus Nicomackus pictor pilleo 
caput texisse fertur, but the Schol. 



7. PAINTING 143 

Youth, and a Victory snatching up to Heaven a team of horses ; 
this was also to be seen in the Capitol, where Plancus had dedi- 
cated it when general. He was the first to give a cap to Ulysses. 
He also painted an Apollo and Artemis, a Mother of the Gods 109 
seated on her lion, a celebrated picture of Mainades with Satyrs 
stealing upon them, and a Scylla now at Rome in the temple of 
Peace. No artist surpassed him in rapidity of execution. It His 
is said, for instance, that Aristratos, tyrant of Sikyon, com- '■'??'^"«0'- 
missioned him to paint before a fixed day the monument which 
he was raising to the poet Telestes ; Nikomachos arrived only 
a little before the appointed time, and the tyrant in his annoyance 
wished to punish him, but the painter finished the work in a few 
days with a promptitude as marvellous as his success. His pupils 110 
were his brother iAriston, his son Aristeides and iPhiloxenos of 
Eretria, who painted for king Kassander the battle between 
Alexander and Dareios, a picture second to none ; he also painted 
a scene of revelry in which three Seilenoi are making merry. He 
imitated the swiftness of his master, and himself invented some 
shortened methods of technique. We must include in this list 111 
Nikophanes, a painter at once graceful and precise, whose delicacy V? 
few can equal, though he lacks the grandeur and dignity found in 

on Iliad x, 265 attributes the in- of Selinos, who had apparently mi- 
novation to ApoUodoros. grated to Sikyon (Athen. xiv, p. 616, 

3. Apollinem ao Dianam : agroup. 625). In B.C. 401 he won the first 

deumque matrem : i. c. Kybele prize at Athens. 

sitting on her lion, as for instance §110. 11. Aristidemfllium : i.e. 

on the Pergamene frieze, and on the Aristides Thebanus, above, § 98, cf. 

frieze from the temple at Priene (frag- below, §111. 

ment in Br. Mus.). 12. Cassandro regi : B.C. 306- 

§ 109. 4. nobiles Baoohas ob- 296. 

rept. Sat. : for the subject, cf. Wand- 13. proelium cum Dario : at Issos 

gemcilde, 542-556 ; Schreiber, Hell. in B.C. 43.^, or Gaugamela in B.C. 

Reliefs , xxiv. None of these com- 431. See note above oa proelium cum 

positions can, however, be referred Persis, in § 99. 

with certainty to Nikomachos. :6. oompendiarias : what this 

Soyllamque: Schuchardt {Niko- 'shortened method' may have been 

machos, p. 40 ff.) proposes to recog- it is impossible to tell ; cf. Patron. 2 

nize a copy of the picture of Niko- pictura quoque non alium exitum 

machos in the Scylla., Man. d. Inst, fecit, postquam Aegyptiorum audacia 

iii pi. liii, 3 = Helbig, Wandgemdlde, tarn magnae artis compendiariam in- 

1063 ; the same composition recurs venit. See Addenda, 

on coins struck by S. Pompeius. § 111. 17. Wioophanea : below, 

7. Aristrato: tyrant of Sikyon, 01. § 137 ; adnumeratur his, because he 

105 = B.C. 360-357. belongs to approximately the same 

Telesti : a dithyrambic poet, native date. 



144 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

Zeuxide et Apelle abest. Apellis discipulus Perseus, ad 
quern de hac arte scripsit, huius fuerat aetatis. Aristidis 
Thebani discipuli fuerunt et filii Niceros et Ariston, cuius 
est Satyrus cum scypho coronatus, discipuli Antorides et 
Euphranor, de quo mox dicemus. 5 

112 Namque subtexi par est minoris picturae celebres in 
penicillo, e quibus fuit Piraeicus. arte paucis postferendus 
proposito nescio an destruxerit se, quoniam humilia quidem 
secutus humilitatis tamen summam adeptus est gloriam. 
tonstrinas sutrinasque pinxit et asellos et obsonia ac similia, lo 
ob haec cognominatus rhyparographos, in iis consummatae 
voluptatis, quippe eae pluris veniere quam maximae multo- 

118 rum. e diverse Maeniana, inquit Varro, omnia operiebat 
Serapionis tabula sub Veteribus. hie scaenas optime pinxit, 
sed hominem pingere non potuit. contra Dionysius nihil 15 
aliud quam homines pinxit, ob id anthropographos cogno- 

114 minatus. parva et Callicles fecit, item Calates comicis 
tabellis, utraque Antiphilus. namque et Hesionam nobilem 
pinxit et Alexandrum ac Philippum cum Minerva, qui sunt 
in schola in Octaviae porticibus, et in Philippi Liberum ao 

a. de . . . arte scripsit: above, § 113. 13. e diverso : in contra- 

§ 79, Introd. p. xl. diction to the small pictures by Peirai- 

Aristidis Thebani: above, §§ 98- kos. 

100, no; he appears here as master Maeniana: maeniana appellata 

of Nikeros-Enphranor, by confusion sunt a Maenio censore qui primus in 

with his grandfather Aristeides I, foro ultra columnas tigna proiecit, quo 

above, note on % 108. ampliarentur superiora spectacula, 

5. Euphranor: he is erroneously Festus, 134. This derivation is prob- 

made into a pupil of Aristeides of ably correct, though the word soon 

Thebes, whereas he was the pupil of became a common appellative, cf. 

the older Aristeides, above, § 75. mox Vitruvius, v, i, i. Jordan (7i/. (/«>- 

dicemus, in § 128. Stadt Rom, vol. i, part 2, p. 383, 

§ 112. 7. Piraeicus = ntipoi'mis fr. note 94) believes that Pliny alludes to 
neipaietjs, Helbig, Untersuch. 366 ff. a temporary exhibition of a picture by 
This artist is still known only from Serapion, and not to painted decora- 
Pliny, the Pireicus of Propert. iii, 9, tions of the maeniana. The date of 
12, which rested on mere interpola- Serapion is unknown, except that it 
tion, having been abandoned for Par- must have been previous to Varro, 
rhasius by recent editors : Parrhasius from whom the information as to his 
parva vindicat arte locum. pictures is derived. 

10. tonstrinas sutrinasque: cf. inquit Varro: from whom §§ i la- 
the lanificium by Antiphilos in § 138, 114 appear to be almost wholly de- 
the workshops by Philiskos and Simos rived, Miinzer, op. cit. p. 540 f. 
in § 143. 14. sub Veteribus : note on § 25. 



I. PAINTING 



145 



Zeuxis and Apelles. Perseus, the pupil to whom Apelles dedicated 
his book on art, also belongs to this period. The pupils of 
Aristeides of Thebes were his sons \Nikeros and i Arts ton (by the Pufils of 
second of whom we have a crowned Satyr holding a cup) and also ■^"^'^i'^"- 
■\Antorides and Euphranor, of whom I shall speak presently. 

It is well to add an account of the artists who won fame with 112 
the brush in painting smaller pictures. Amongst them was S^'^^^j 
■\Peirdikos. In mastery of his art but few take rank above him, Peiraikos. 
yet by his choice of a path he has perhaps marred his own success, 
for he followed a humble line, winning however the highest glory 
that it had to bring. He painted barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, 
asses, eatables and similar subjects, earning for himself the name 
of pvirapoypdipos [painter of odds and ends]. In these subjects he 
could give consummate pleasure, selling them for more than other 
artists received for their large pictures. As a contrast, Varro 113 
mentions a picture by iSerapi'on which covered the whole of the Serapion. 
balconies by the Old Shops. This Serapion was an excellent 
scene-painter, but could not paint the figure. Dionysios on the Dionysios, 
contrary painted figures only, and was called dvdpanroypcKpos [painter iAe 'painter 
of men]. «^'»^»-' 

Kallikks also painted small pictures, and so did '^Kalates, who 114 
chose comic subjects ; while Antiphilos painted in both styles, his ^y^^^'- 
being a famous Hesione, and the picture of Alexander and Philip Antiphilos. 
with Athene now to be seen in the ' schools ' of the gallery of 
Octavia. In the gallery of Philip are his Dionysos, his young 



15. Dionysius : probably identical 
with the portrait painter named § 148, 
but not to be confused with the painter 
Dionysios of Kolophon, a contempo- 
rary of Polygnotos (Arist. Poet. 2). 

§ 114. 17. parva et Callioles: 
known besides only from the following 
passage of Varro, neque ille Callicles 
quaterniim digitum tabellis nobilis 
cum esset /actus, tamen in pingendo 
adscendere potuit ad Euphranoris 
altitudinem, Varro, de Vita P. R. i, 
ap. Charisius, p. 126, 25. 

comicis: i.e. in subjects borrowed 
from comedy, cf. § 140. 

18. utraque: i.e. both small and 
large pictures ; Urlichs, Chrest. p. 367. 

Antiphilua : appears again in 



§ 1 38 as n painter in encaustic. He 
was an Alexandrian and a rival of 
Apelles (above, note on §89). Quinc- 
tilian (xii, 10, 6) praises him for his 
facility {facilitate Antiphilus) ; he is 
probably one of those who introduced 
that ars compendiaria (above, § no, 
cf. on Pausias, in § 124), with the 
invention of which Petronius charged 
the Egyptians. 

Hesionam : probably her deliver- 
ance by Herakles. For the subject cf. 
the large picture, Helbig, Wandge- 
mdlde, 11 29. 

19. Alex, ac Phil, cum Minerva: 
probably on a chariot, with Athena 
acting as charioteer, Furtwangler, 
Jahrb, iv, 1889, P- 8^> °°'^ 42- 



146 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

patrem, Alexandrum puerum, Hippolytum tauro emisso 
expavescentem, in Pompeia vero Cadmum et Europen. 
idem iocosis nomine Gryllum deridiculi habitus pinxit, unde 
id genus picturae grylli vocantur. ipse in Aegypto natus 
115 didicit a Ctesidemo. decet non sileri et Ardeatis templi s 
pictorem, praesertim civitate donatum ibi et carmine quod 
est in ipsa pictura his versibus : 

Dignis digna. Loco picturis condecoravit 
reginae lunonis supremi coniugis templum 
Plautius Marcus, cluet Asia lata esse oriundus, lo 

quem nunc et post semper ob artem hanc Ardea laudat, 
lie eaque sunt scripta antiquis litteris Latinis ; non fraudando et 
Studio divi Augusti aetate qui primus instituit amoenissi- 
mam parietum picturam, villas et portus ac topiaria opera, 
lucos, nemora, coUes, piscinas, euripos, amnes, litora, qualia 15 
quis optaret, varias ibi obambulantium species aut navigan- 
tium terraque villas adeuntium asellis aut vehiculis, iam 
piscantes aucupantesque aut venantes aut etiam vindemi- 
117 antes, sunt in eius exemplaribus nobiles palustri accessu 
villae, succollatis sponsione mulieribus labantes trepidis quae 20 
feruntur, plurimae praeterea tales argutiae facetissimi salis. 

12. Latinis, non Detlefsen. 

1. Hippolytum tauro emisso; i, p. 1414, are probably influenced 
under the influence of the Euripidean more or less remotely by the composi- 
play, Kalkmann, A. Z. 1883 (41), tion of Antiphilos. 

p. 43 ff. 3. Gryllum: the name, which was 

2. in Pompeia; note on § 59. that of the father and of one of the 
Cf. again Varro, de Re Rust, iii, a, 5, sonsofXenophon.wascommonenough. 
and Miinzer, loc. cit. ; Introd. p. Ixxxiv. The deridiculus habitus must have 

Cadmum et Europen : its great been in allusion to jpvKXos = a dancer 
reputation is apparent from Martial of the y[mXiaii6s, in which the per- 
il. 14> 3j who uses the name of the formers were originally masked as 
picture as synonymous for the por- pigs, though in time the term seems 
ticus Pompeia {currit ad Europen). to have come to include every kind of 
The picture, which was doubtless ori- wanton dancing (see Phrynichos, ed. 
ginally in Alexandria, may, as Helbig Lobeck, p. loi). Such performances 
( Untersucli. p. 2 24 f ) points out, have were especially in favour at Alex- 
inspired Moschos during his stay in andria, so that it is natural to find 
that city to write the famous descrip- such a subject influencing an Alex- 
tion in Idyll i, 125 ff. A number of andrian artist (cf. Urlichs, ZJaj ,4ii72«?-«« 
extant later representations of the Pferd, p. 20 f). 

mylh — the most celebrated of which § 115. 5. Ctesidemo ; below, 

is the mosaic from Palestrina, Roscher, § 140. 



/. PAINTING 147 

Alexander, and Hippolytos terrified at the bull sent up from the 

sea, and in the gallery of Pompeius his Kadmos and Europa. 

Among his comic pictures is one of a man called Gryllos in a 

ridiculous costume, from which all such pictures are called ypiWoi. 

Antiphilos was born in Egypt, and studied under iKtesidemos. x'tesid^mZ. 

I ought not to pass over in silence the painter of the temple at 115 ^y^Ol" 

Ardea, especially as he was honoured by receiving the citizenship ( ^J-^ V 

of the town and the following verses written on the picture : ' To ^f^ 

the deserving be due honour paid. The temple of queenly Juno, ( 

wife of the almighty, did Lykon adorn with paintings, even Plautius Piautius 

Marcus, born in wide Asia, whom for this his art Ardea praises ^"■"^'"^ 
' ^ Lykon. 

now and for ever more.' The lines are in old-fashioned Latin 

characters. 

Nor must I neglect \Studius, a painter of the days of Augustus, 116 

who introduced a delightful style of decorating walls with repre- •^'^'"^""• 

sentations of villas, harbours, landscape gardens, sacred groves, 

woods, hills, fishponds, straits, streams and shores, any scene in 

short that took the fancy. In these he introduced figures of people 

on foot, or in boats, and on land of people coming up to the 

country-houses either on donkeys or in carriages, besides figures 

of fishers and fowlers, or of hunters or even of vintagers. Among 117 

his works we know well the men approaching a villa through 

a swamp, and staggering beneath the weight upon their shoulders 

of the terrified women whom they have bargained to carry over, 

with many other scenes of like vivacity and infinite humour. He 

Ardeatis templi : Verg. Aen. vii, ff.) it appears that the painting of 

41 1 ff. ; cf. above, §17. topiaria of era was older than the age 

8. Loco = AvKoiv; in addition to of Augustus. Studius gave it a new 

his Greek name he would, on recelv- impulse or perhaps made it for the 

ing the citizenship of Ardea, assume first time really fashionable at Rome, 

the name of Plautius Marcus. M. 15. topiaria opera: in Livia's 

HeiiT^'m Index Lect.Vratislav.{\^6'j), Villa at Prima Porta the walls of one 

suggests that he may hare been both room were decorated with the plan of 

painter and poet, as was Pacuvius a garden (see Antike Denkmdler, i, pi. 

(above, § 19), and that he is identical 11,24), and afford an excellent example 

with/'/o«rt'aj, a writer whose comedies of the style of Studius (Brunn, Bull. 

passed under the name of Plautus, 1863, p. 81 ff.) ; cf. also, Helbig, 

Varro, a/. A. Gellius, iii, 3, 3. The in- Untersuchungen, p. 62. Pliny the 

scription on his picture being in hexa- younger (^Ep. v, 6, 22) describes 

meter, he cannot be dated earlier than a bedroom in his villa as follows : 

Ennius (B.C. 239-169); cf. Mommsen, nee cedit gratiae marmoris ramos in- 

Rbm. Gesch ed. 7, i, p. 941 note. cidentesque ramis aves imitata pictura. 

§116. 13. qui primus : note on §117- 19. exemplaribus : sc. in- 

§16: as a fact from Vitruvius vii, 5, genii ; cf. § 74 ingenii . . . exempla. 

(cf. Rhein. Miis. xxv, 1870, p. 394 21. argutiae: §67; xxxiv, 65. 

L % 



148 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

idem subdialibus maritimas urbes pingere instituit, blandis- 

118 simo aspectu minimoque inpendio. sed nulla gloria artifi- 
cum est nisi qui tabulas pinxere, eo venerabilior antiquitatis 
prudentia apparet. non enim parietes excolebant dominis 
tantum, nee domos uno in loco mansuras quae ex incendiis 5 
rapi non possent. casa Protogenes contentus erat in hortulo 
suo, nulla in Apellis tectoriis pictura erat. nondum libebat 
parietes totos tinguere, omnium eorum ars urbibus excuba- 

119 bat pictorque res communis terrarum erat. fuit et Arellius 
Romae celeber paulo ante divum Augustum, ni flagitio 10 
insigni corrupisset artem, semper ei lenocinans cuius feminae 
amore flagraret, ob id deas pingens, sed dilectarum imagine. 

120 itaque in pictura eius scorta numerabantur. fuit et nuper 
gravis ac severus idemque floridus et vividus pictor Famu- 
lus, huius erat Minerva spectantem spectans quacumque 15 
aspiceretur. paucis diei horis pingebat, id quoque cum 
gravitate, quod semper togatus, quamquam in machinis. 
career eius artis domus aurea fuit, et ideo non extant 
exempla alia magnopere. post eum fuere in auctoritate 
Cornelius Pinus et Attius Priscus, qui Honoris et Virtutis 20 
aedes Imp. Vespasiano Aug. restituenti pinxerunt, Priscus 
antiquis similior. 

121 Non est omittenda in picturae mentione Celebris circa 
A.u.c. 711- Lepidum fabula, siquidem in triumviratu quodam loco 

deductus a magistratibus in nemorosum hospitium minaciter 25 
cum iis postero die expostulavit somnum ademptum sibi 
volucrum concentu, at illi draconem in longissima membrana 

14. floridls (floridus e corr.) umidns Bamb., corr. Traube ; floridissimus 
Urlichs in Chrest., Detlefsen. 

I. subdialibus: cf. xxxvi, 186. in his person (cf. below, «<ot ^aOTto«, 

§ 118. 4. excolebant dominis : togatus), whereas his painting was 

private patrons, cf. in § 30 (colores) floridus and mviius ; the adjectives 

quos dominus pingenti praestat ; in are transferred from the colour to the 

§ 44 « reliquis coloribus quos a do- painter, cf. § 134 austerior colore, 

minis dari diximus . . . though austerus like floridus was 

* 6. casa in hortulo : above, § 105. a technical qualification of certain 

The ' cottage ' doubtless belonged to colours, sunt autem colores austeri 

the same class of loci communes as the autfloridi, § 30. 

a»Ki (note on § 81). 17. quod semper togatus: so 

§ 120. 14. gravis ao severus : i.e. Vandyck painted in full dress. 



718. 



/. PAINTING 149 

also brought in the fashion of painting seaside towns on the walls 
of open galleries, producing a delightful effect at a very small cost. 
No artists, however, enjoy a real glory unless they have painted 118 
easel pictures, and herein the wisdom of past generations claims 
our greater respect. They did not decorate walls to be seen only 
by their owners, nor houses that must always remain in one place 
and could not be carried away in case of fire. Protogenes was 
content with a cottage in his little garden, and no fresco was to be 
seen in the house of Apelles. It was not yet men's pleasure to 
dye whole surfaces of wall ; all the masters laboured for the cities, 
and the artist was the possession of the whole world. 

Not long before the time of the god Augustus, Arellius had 119 
earned distinction at Rome, save for the sacrilege by which he ^''""''^■ 
notoriously degraded his art. Always desirous of flattering some 
woman or other with whom he chanced to be in love, he painted 
goddesses in the person of his mistresses, of whom his paintings 
are a mere catalogue. The painter •^Famulus also lived not 12'p 
long ago ; he was grave and severe in his persoUj while his ^'^'""""■ 
painting was rich and vivid. He painted an Athena whose eyes 
are turned to the spectator from whatever side he may be looking. 
Famulus painted for a few hours only in the day, and treated his 
art seriously, always wearing the toga, even when mounted on 
scaffolding. The Golden House was the prison of his art, and 
hence not many examples of it are known. After him \ Cornelius Cornelius 
Pinus and -[AUius Priscus were painters of repute, who painted 2uius 
the twin temples of Honour and Virtue when they were restored Prisms. 
by the emperor Vespasian Augustus. Priscus approached more 
nearly to the old masters. 

While on the subject of painting I must not omit the well- 121 
known story of Lepidus. Once during his triumvirate he had fscare^'^ 
been escorted by the magistrates of a certain town to a lodging in crow,' 
the middle of a wood, and on the next morning complained with ■^^■J„j 
threats that the singing of the birds prevented him from sleeping. 
They painted a snake on an immense strip of parchment and 
stretched it all round the grove. We are told that by this means 

macliinis 1 here of scaffolding, 20. Honoris et Virtutis aedes : 

Bliimner, Technol. iv, 430 ; for bnilt or rather restored by Marcellus, 

machma = e&se\, above, § 81. in B. C. 212, to contain part of the art 

18. career eius artis : for Pliny's treasures brought from Syracuse, Liv. 

hatred of Nero cf. above, § 51 ; xxxiv, xxv, 40, cf. xxvii, 25 ; Cic. Verr. II, iv, 

4g, 84. 54, 120 ; Gilbert, Kom, iii. p. 97 f. 



ISO C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

depictum circumdedere luco eoque terrore aves tunc siluisse 
narratur et postea potuisse compesci. 

122 Ceris pingere ac picturam inurere quis primus excogita- 
verit non constat, quidam Aristidis inventum putant postea 
consummatum a Praxitele, sed aliquanto vetustiores encau- 5 
stae picturae exstitere, ut Polygnoti et Nicanoris ac Mnasilai 
Pariorum. Elasippus quoque Aeginae picturae suae in- 
scripsit iviKaev, quod profecto non fecisset nisi encaustica 
inventa. 

123 Pamphilus quoque Apellis praeceptor non pinxisse solum 10 
encausta sed etiam docuisse traditur Pausian Sicyonium 
primum in hoc genere nobilem. Bryetis filius hie fuit eius- 
demque primo discipulus. pinxit et ipse penicillo parietes 
Thespis, cum reficerentur quondam a Polygnoto picti, 
multumque conparatione superatus existimabatur, quoniam 15 

124 non suo genere certasset. idem et lacunaria primus pingere 
instituit, nee camaras ante eum taliter adornari mos fuit. 
parvas pingebat tabellas maximeque pueros. hoc aemuli 
interpretabantur facere eum, quoniam tarda picturae ratio 
asset ilia, quamobrem daturus et celeritatis famam absolvit 20 
uno die tabellam quae vocata est hemeresios puero picto. 

125 amavit in iuventa Glyceram municipem suam, inventricem 
coronarum, certandoque imitatione eius ad numerosissimam 
florum varietatem perduxit artem illam. postremo pinxit 

§ 122. 3. ceris pingere . . is awkwardly dragged in a second 

inurere : i. c. encaustic ; note on time, in order to introduce his pupil 

§ 149. Pausias, who in the original Greek 

4. quidam . . . inventum : for this account, where no arbitrary division 
variant tradition, Introd. p. xxxiii. seems to have been drawn between 

Aristidis : presumably the first of the painters in encaustic and others, 

the name, above, § 75. would certainly be discussed in con- 

5. oonsumm. a Praxitele : who nexiou with his master and his con- 
would use encaustic for the czV^iw/zWo temporaries of §§ 75-76, Introd. 
of his statues (below, § 133). p. xxxiv. 

6. Polygnoti: above, 5§ 58-59. 13. pinxit . . . certasset: this 
8. Iv^KMv : cf. above, § 27. mention of wall-paintings shows that 
§ 123. 10. Pamphilus : §§ 75-76. encaustic was not treated separately 

We now come agam upon distinct by the Greek authors, 
traces of Xenokrates. Stress is laid 14. Thespis : the wall paintings 

uponthepre-emmenceofSikyon,and by Polygnotos had probably been 

the pamters are connected with defi- injured at the destruction of Thespiai 

nite stages of progress. Pamphilos by the Thebans in B. c. 374. The 



/. PAINTING 151 

they terrified the birds into silence and that this has ever since 
been a recognized device for quieting them. 

We do not know with certainty who first invented the art of 122 
painting with wax colours and burning in the painting. Some ^''f'^"^''' 
believe that it was invented by Aristeides and afterwards brought 
to perfection by Praxiteles, but encaustic paintings of a somewhat 
earlier date exist, for example, by Polygnotos, and by tNikanor 
and tMnasilaos of Pares. fElasippos of Aigina also wrote on one 
of his paintings ivUacv [burnt it in], which he certainly would not 
have done before the invention of encaustic painting. 

Tradition further says that Pamphilos the master of Apelles 123 
not only painted in encaustic but also taught Pausias of Sikyon, f'''Jf'"l'l ■ 
the first well-known master in this style. Pausias was the son of to, and by 
■\Bryetes, under whom he first studied. He also painted with the ^f"""' 
brush certain walls at Thespiai, which had originally been painted 
by Polygnotos and needed restoration. His work was held to 
suffer very greatly by the comparison, as he had competed in 
a style that was not his own. He was the first to paint panelled 124 
ceilings, nor was it the practice to decorate vaulted roofs in this 
way before his day. He habitually painted small pictures, boys 
being his favourite subject. His rivals declared that this was 
because his method of encaustic painting was slow, whereupon he 
determined to acquire a reputation for rapid execution, and 
painted in a single day a picture of a boy called the rjiiepfia-ios 
[day's work]. As a youth he loved his townswoman Glykera, 125 
who first invented flower wreaths. By copying and rivalling her ^b^''"', 
he enabled encaustic painting to represent a great variety oi girlfieloved 
flowers. Finally he painted a portrait of Glykera herself seated °f^<^""''^- 

restoration of the paintings would praise for swiftness bestowed upon 

take place on the restoration of the Nilcomachos, § top, and his pupil 

city, after the capture of Thebes by Philoxenos, § no; upon Iaia,in§ 148, 

Alexander in 335 B. c. and Quinctilian's estimate of Anti- 

§124. 16. idem et laounaria philos (note on § 114). 

primus: 'Funvi'i.ngltr {Fleck. Jahrb. § 125. 22. Glyceram ; xxi, 4, 

xxii, 1876, p. 507) has pointed out whence we obtain post Olympiada C 

that these words correspond to qui ( = B.c. 380) as a further guide to the 

primus lacunaria pinxit in the table artist's date. Append. V. 

of contents, while the following nee iuventrioem ; the passage in xxi 

camaras ante eum corresponds to shows that she was really thought of 

quando primum camarae pictae {ib.). as the inventor of the art of plaiting 

The statements accordingly are quite garlands ; thus the old conjecture 

distinct. ■venditricem (Gesner) becomes im- 

20. absolvit uno die : cf. the possible. 



152 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

et ipsam sedentem cum corona, quae e nobilissimis tabula 
est appellata stephaneplocos, ab aliis stephanopolis, quoniam 
Glycera venditando coronas sustentaverat paupertatem. 
huius tabulae exemplar, quod apographon vocant, L. Lucul- 

126 lus duobus talentis emit Dionysiis Athenis. Pausias autem s 
fecit et grandis tabulas, sicut spectatam in Pompei porticu 
boum immolationem. earn primus invenit picturam, quam 
postea imitati sunt multi, aequavit nemo, ante omnia, cum 
longitudinem bovis ostendi vellet, adversum eum pinxit, non 

127 traversum, et abunde intellegitur amplitudo. dein, cum lo 
omnes quae volunt eminentia videri candicanti faciant co- 
lore, quae condunt nigro, hie totum bovem atri coloris fecit 
umbraeque corpus ex ipsa dedit magna prorsus arte in aequo 
extantia ostendente et in confracto solida omnia. Sicyone 
et hie vitam egit, diuque ilia fuit patria picturae. tabulas 15 

A.u.c. 698. inde e publico omnis propter aes alienum civitatis addictas 

128 Scauri aedilitas Romam transtulit. post eum eminuit longe 
ante omnis Euphranor Isthmius olympiade CIIII, idem qui 
inter fictores dictus est nobis, fecit et colossos et marmorea 
et typos scalpsit, docilis ac laboriosus ante omnis et in quo- 20 
cumque genere excellens ac sibi aequalis. hie primus vide- 

4. apographou : there were at the duced by modelling, without the help 
time many artists who were solely of any extraneous colour, precisely as 
occupied in the business of copying ; the Kentaurs of the white marble 
at Athens Lucian, Zeux. 3, sees a slab at Naples (Helbig, Wandgem. 
copy of the ' Kentaurs ' of Zenxis ; cf. 1 241 ) appear in strong relief through 
also Dionysios inpX Atvipxov vii, the skilful though slight modelling, 
p. 644 ; Quinct. x, 2, 6 ; x, 2, 2 ; Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, p. 47. 
above, § qi (Helbig, Untersuchungen, in aequo omnia ; in modern 
p. 63). From the exorbitant price parlance Pausias excelled at giving 
paid, however, it is possible that the the 'impression of artistic reality with 
apographon was a replica by the only two dimensions' (cf. Berenson, 
artist himself. The Florentine painters of the Renais- 

5. Athenis: LucuUus visited m««, p. 4), i.e. at representing depth, 
Athens in B.C. 88-87 as Sulla's the third 'dimension, on a flat surface. 
Quaestor ; cf below, on § 156. 15. patria picturae : cf. xxxvi, 9. 

§ 126. 7. boum immolationem : 16. propter ass alienum : since 

for the subject cf § 93 (note on pom- Sulla's Mithridatic war the Sikyonians 

paii). had fallen into debt and distress 

5 127. II. eminentia; §§ 92 {di- (see especially Cic. ad Ait. i, 19, 9; 

giti eminere videntur) ; 1^1 . ib. 20, 4; Ttisc. Disp. iii, 22, 

13. umbrae corpus ex ipsa § 53) and were consequently forced 

dedit : the effect was simply pro- to sell their art treasures. 



/. PAINTING J 153 

with a wreath, one of the famous pictures of tjisr' world, called 
the oTf^acijTrXoKos [wreath-binder], or by othe/s the o-Tf^ai/oTrMXif 
[wreath-seller], because Glykera had support<ed herself by selling 
wreaths. A copy of the picture, an anoypaipv.v as it is called, was 
bought by Lucius Lucullus for two talents f -^420 circ.J at the 
festival of Dionysos at Athens. Pausias, however, also painted 12a 
large pictures, as for example the famous sacr'fice of oxen in the 
Gallery of Pompeius. He devised an innpva\ion which has often ffe devises 
been imitated but never equalled. ■ The most, striking instance is '^application 
that wishing to display an ox's length of body,«je painted a front of light 
and not a side view of the animal, and yet contrived to show 
its size. Again, while all others put in the high\ lights in white 127 
and paint the less salient parts in dark colour, i^e painted the 
whole ox black, and gave substance to the shadqw out of the 
shadow itself, showing great art in giving all his figjUres full relief 
upon the flat surface, and in indicating their form when fore- 
shortened. He spent his life at Sikyon, for many years the home 
of painting. Later on, in the aedileship of Scaurus, all the 56 b.c. 
pictures of Sikyon were sold to liquidate the public debt, and 
were brought to Rorne. 

After Pausias in the hundred and fourth Olympiad [364-361 128 
B. C.J, Euphranor of the Isthmos, whom I have already mentioned Ettpki-a- 
among the statuaries, far excelled all rivals. He furthermore ' 
produced colossal statues, works in marble and reliefs. Receptive 
and of indefatigable industry, he attained in every branch a high 
level, below which he never fell. He first, it is believed, gave to 

17. Soauri aedilitas: viii, 64, and into the present anachronism, 

often. 18. qvii inter flotores : xxxiv, 77, 

I 128. post eum : of time et colossos ib. § 78, Euphranor's marble 

(Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 15); but works are only mentioned here. 

a date posterior to Pausias is irrecon- 20. typos : in which he would be 

cilable with Ol. 104 below and able to bring out his double skill as 

xxxiv, 50. The mistake arises, as painter and artist ; the Greek relief, 

Robert, Arch. Marchen, p. 89, points as we know it from the Sidonian Sar- 

out, from Pliny's confusion between kophagi, being in reality a sort of 

the Elder Aristeides (§ 75) and raised picture (Wickhoff, Wiener 

Aristeides of Thebes. In his original Genesis, p. 46 ff.; cf. Winter, Arch. 

scl(eme he doubtless intended to keep Anzeiger, 1894, p. 8£f.); a. ypavTis 

E. in his right chronology immediately twttos, Anth. Pal. vii, 730. 

after Euxeinidas and his pupil Aris- in quooumque genere exoel- 

teides; but as in that case the ac- lens; Quinct. xii, 10, 12 Euphra- 

count of the supposed pupil would norem circa flurium artium species 

have preceded that of the supposed praestantem. 

master (§§ 98, III), Pliny was misled 21. Mo primus: introduces his 



nor. 



154 



C\PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



tur expressisSe-dignitatis heroum et usurpasse symmetrian, 
sed fuit in universitate corporum exilior et capitibus articu- 

129 lisque grandior. viblumina quoque composuit de symmetria 
et coloribus. opej'a eius sunt equestre proelium, XII dei, 
Theseus, in quo dixit eundem apud Parrhasium rosa pastum 5 
esse, suum vero caU-ne. nobilis eius tabula Ephesi est, Ulixes 
simulata insania qovem cum equo iungens et palliati cogi- 

130 tantes, dux gladimi. L.jadens. eodem tempore fuere Cydias 
et . . . , cuius tabjilam Argonautas HS. CXXXXIIII Hor- 
tensius orator -nercatus est eique aedem fecit in Tuscu- lo 
lano suo, Eugfnranoris autem discipulus Antidotus. huius 
est clipeo di/^icans Athenis et luctator tubicenque inter 
pauca laudajus. ipse diligentior quam numerosior et in 
coloribus severus maxime inclaruit discipulo Nicia Atheni- 

131 ense qui diligentissime mulieres pinxit. lumen et umbras 15 
custodiit atque ut eminerent e tabulis picturae maxime 

8. cydi et cydias codd. ; Cydias Detlefsen. 



special contribution to his art, cf. 
Introd. p. xxvii f. 

I. dignitatis heroum : so Varro, 
Vita Pop. Rom., ap. Char. p. 126, 
praises E. for his altitudo or loftiness. 

symmetrian : note on xxxiv, 65. 

i. exilior : see Addenda. 

capitibus articulisque : the 
judgement is identical with that passed 
on Zeuxis in § 64, where see note. 

§ 129. 3. volumina . . . com- 
posuit : lilce Apelles, § 79, Pam- 
philos (note on § 76),Melanthios, &c. 
Introd. p. xl f. 

4. equestre proelium : in the Stoa 
of Zeus Eleutherios at Athens, Paus. 
i, 3, 4 ; the picture represented the 
cavalry engagement which preceded 
the battle of Mantineia (b. c. 362, of. 
Plut. Glor. Ath. ii, p. 346) ; according 
to Paus. viii, 9, 8, a copy of it was to 
be seen in the gymnasion at Mantineia. 

XII dei : in the same Stoa, 
Pafls. i, 3, 3; for the Zeus in this 
picture see Val. Max. viii, ext. 5 ; for 
the Hera, Luc. ^iKdvis 7. 

5. Theseus : likewise in the Stoa 
Eleutherios ; the hero was represented 



with Demokratia and Demos, Paus. 
loc. cit. Both Theseus and Demos 
were subjects that had been treated 
by Parrhasios (above § 69). Demos 
was also painted by Aristolaos, § 137. 
For the distribution of Euphranor's 
pictures in the Stoa Eleutherios see 
Hitzig and Bliimn er, Pausanias, p. 1 4 1 . 

in quo dixit eundem : Plut. 
Glor. Athen. ii, p. 346 Ei(j>pavoip 
rbv ©Tjaea rov kavTOv to) Uappafflov 
7rapej3aA.€ ^^eyajv, rbv pi.'kv hiaivov poha 
peppojicivaij t6v 5e kavrov Kpia ^oeta. 
Miinzer {oJ>. cit. p. 527) aptly compares 
the Aristophanic verse (Fr. 180) upon 
Euripides, recorded by Antigonos of 
Karystos, ap. Diogenes iv, 3, 18 -napr)- 
TT] fjt^vos (sc. IIoAe/xaiy) a (prjaiv 'AptffTO- 
(pdvTjs trepl EvpLtriSov " d^ana koI tftX- 
0ia)Ta," awepj ujs 6 avris (prjffi, " fcara- 
•nvyoavvTj TavT^ effxi irpds Kpias fisya.^' 
Introd. p. Ixiii f. 

7. simulata insania : ore avarpa- 
Tcvct Tots 'ArpeiSats fii^ QiXaiv, Lucian, 
vfpi oixov 30, where the whole picture is 
described in detail. The same subject 
was painted by Parrhasios (Plut. aud. 
poet. 3), we are not told for what city. 



/. PAINTING 



155 



heroes their full dignity, and mastered the theory of fymmetry ; 
he made the body, however, too slim and the head and limbs too 
large. He also wrote on symmetry and colour. His works are : 
a cavalry engagement, the Twelve Gods and a 1,'heseus, of which 
he said that the Theseus of Parrhasios had fed pn roses, but his 
on flesh. At Ephesos is his famous picture of ' Odysseus feigning 
madness and yoking an ox with a horse, \^th cloaked figures 
in meditation, and their leader sheathing his sword. Kydias 
and . . . lived at the same time; his picture of the Argonauts was 
purchased for 144,000 sesterces [;^i25o circ] by the Orator 
Hortensius, who built a shrine for it on his estate at Tusculum. 
iAnttdotos was a pupil of Euphranor. He painted a warrior 
fighting with a shield, to be seen at Athens, a wrestler and 
a trumpeter^ a picture praised as are but few. He was a laborious 
rather than a prolific artist, and severe in his scheme of colouring ; 
his chief claim to renown is that he was the master of Nikias of 
Athens, who painted women with minute care. Nikias was pains- 
taking in his treatment of light and. shade, and took special care 



129 

He com- 
pares his 
' Theseus ' 
to that of 
Parrhasios. 

130 



Antidotos. 



Nikias of 

Athens. 

131 



palliati oogitantes : these must 
be identical with the nfka^us in 
Lucian's description. 

8. gladium condens : UaKa/v/ibris 
. . . TTponajTrov ex^'^ ^^ ^^^o^t i- e. the 
sword was half out of the sheath, and 
it was uncertain whether Palamedes 
was drawing or replacing it. So too 
in § 59, Pliny says of a picture by 
Polyguotos that it was uncertain 
whether the man represented was 
' ascending ' or ' descending.' 

§ 130. fuere Cydias et . . . : 
the fuere combined with the evidence 
of the MSS. compels one to assume 
the loss of an artist's name. Whether 
Cydias should appear in the first place 
or the second is uncertain. Over- 
beck's explanation Schriftquell. 1969° 
(which I presume is also Detlefsen's), 
that fuere refers to both Cydias and 
Antidotus, is quite unwarranted. 

9. Hortensius orator : xxxiv, 
48. 

12. luotator tubioenque: votive 
pictures ; for the latter, probably of 
a winner in a. herald's competition, 
see note on xxxiv, 88. 



13. numerosior: see on xxxiv, 58. 
in coloribus severus : for similar 

judgements ; § 98 durior faulo in 
coloribus; % 134 austerior colore 
Athenian; § 137 e severissimis pic- 
toribus (Aristolaus) ; ib. durus in 
coloribus (Nikophanes). 

14. disoipulo IVioia : Euphranor 
and Praxiteles being contemporaries 
(xxxiv, 50), a chronological difficulty 
arises from the statement that Nikias, 
who assisted Praxiteles to paint his 
statues, was the pupil of a pupil of 
Euphranor. Pliny himself felt the 
difficulty; in § 133 he hints at the 
solution in the words non satis discer- 
nitur . . . ; there were evidently two 
artists named Nikias ; to the Elder, 
the assistant of Praxiteles (fl. ab. B. c. 
370-330), and probably the painter of 
Alexander (r. B.C. 336-323), belongs 
the date Ol. cxii, while the Younger, 
who was the pupil of Antidotos, 
flourished about the time of Athenion 
(on whom see note). 

§ 131. 15. lumen et umbras: 
§§ 29, 127. Cf. Introd. p. xxxiv. 
16. ut eminerent : §§ 92, 127. 



156 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



A.u.c. 679. curavit. opera eius : Nemea advecta ex Asia Romam a 
Silano qu^m in curia diximus positam, item Liber pater in 

A.u.c. 724. aede Concordiae, HyacinthuSj quern Caesar Augustus delec- 
tatus eo secum deportavit Alexandrea capta — et ob id 
Tiberius Caesar in templo eius dicavit hanc tabulam et 5 

132 Danaen — , Eph 'si vero est megabyzi sacerdotis Ephesiae 
Dianae sepulchrum, Athenis necyomantea Homeri. hanc 
vendere Attalo regi noluit talentis LX, potiusque patriae 
suae donavit abundans opibus. fecit et grandes picturas, 
in quibus sunt Calypso et lo et Andromeda, Alexander 10 
quoque in Pompei porticibus praecellens et Calypso sedens. 

133 huic eidem adscribuntur quadripedes, prosperrime canes 
expressit. hie est Nicias de quo dicebat Praxiteles inter- 
rogatus quae maxime opera sua probaret in marmoribus : 
quibus Nicias manum admovisset, tantum circumlitioni eius 15 

5. tabulam et Danaen] Bamb. ; tabulam — et Danae Detlefsen. 



2. Silauo : ii, loo; governor of 
Bithynia, B. c. 76-75. The picture 
had possibly belonged to Pergamon. 

diximus : § 27, where see note. 

3. Hyaointhus : from Paus. iii, 
19, 4, it appears he was represented 
in the bloom of youth, in special 
allusion to Apollo's love for him. 

4. Alexandria capta : on the 
works of art brought by Augustus 
from Alexandria, and dedicated by 
him at Rome, see Wunderer's mono- 
graph, Manibiae Alexandrinae,y^\ixz- 
burg, 1894. 

5. in templo eius : i. c. in the 
temple built to the memory of 
Augustus by Livia and Tiberius in 
14 A. D., Dio Cassius Ivi, 46 ; cf. 
Plin. xii, 94. To it belonged both 
a portions and a library (xxxiv, 43). 

et Danaen: the Danae ig awk- 
wardly coordinated with the Hyacin- 
thus. That it did not come from 
Egypt, as Urlichs {Chrest. p. 372) 
supposes, is shown by the fact that 
Pliny would in that case have made 
the relative sentence refer to both 
pictures (Wunderer, op. cit. p. 9). 



§ 132. 6. megabyzi : note on 

§93- 

7. sepulchrum : for another grave 
picture, by Nikias, at Triteia in 
Achaia, see Paus. vii, 22, 6 ; cf the 
expirantium imagines of Apelles, in 
§ 90 ; the anapauomene of Aristeides, 
in § 99. 

necyom. Homeri : Odyssey xi. 
The picture, described Anth. Pal. 
ix, 792, was the artist's most cele- 
brated work. While he was engaged 
upon it, according to an entertaining 
tale told by Plutarch, An sen. sit ger. 
rep. v, 4, Nikias used to ask those of 
his household whether he had washed 
or breakfasted. 

8. Attalo regi : familiarity with 
the high prices paid by Attalos (vii, 
126; XXXV, 24) induced Pliny into 
error. The date of Attalos is irre- 
concilable with that of Nikias, so 
that Plutarch is probably right in 
telling the story of Ptolemaios 
(Soter, B. C. 306-284), UToXiimiou 
Se Tov $affi\e(as e^T/KOVTa roKavra ttjs 
ypa<pT]s ffvvTeKeaOeia'tjs irefjajjavTos ai/T^ 
fiij \aPeiv fiijS' diro56(T6at t6 epyov. 



/. PAINTING 



IS7 



that his figures should be relieved against the background. His His treat- 
works are : the picture of Nemea brought to Rome from Asia by ^^I^f ^^^ 
Silanus, and placed, as I have said, in the Council Chamber ; shade. 
a Dionysos in the temple of Concord ; the Hyakinthos carried ^^ ^' ^' 
away on the fall of Alexandria by Caesar Augustus, who took such 30 b. c. 
great delight in the picture that as a consequence Tiberius Caesar 
dedicated it in the temple of Augustus together with the Danae ; 
at Ephesos a painting for the grave of a fieya^v^os or priest of 132 
Artemis of Ephesos, and at Athens the veKvofiavreia [questioning 
of the dead] of Homer. This picture the artist refused to sell to 
King Attalos for sixty talents [;i^i 2,600 circ] but preferred, as he 
was a rich man, to present it to his own country. He also painted 
large pictures, amongst them Kalypso, lo, Andromeda, the excel- J p 

lent portrait of Alexander which is in the Gallery of Pompeius, and \ . 'J 
a Kalypso seated. Pictures of animals are also ascribed to him, :b3 
and he was very successful in painting dogs. It is of this Nikias He colours 
that Praxiteles, when asked which of his marble statues pleased '^"plf^l' 
him most, said, ' Those which the hand of Nikias has touched,' teles. 
such was his tribute to this artist's colouring of the accessories. 
It is not clear whether this or another Nikias is the one placed 



Non posse suav. vivere sec. Ep. xi, 2. 
The court of Alexandria had been 
more fortunate in purchasing the 
Hyakinthos (§ 131). 

patriae suae donavit : of. in 
§ 62 the similar statement concerning 
Zeuxis. 

9. grandes picturas : in opposi- 
tion to the smaller pictures painted in 
encaustic. 

10. Calypso : a standing figure 
from the fact that the second Kalypso 
is expressly described as sedens. 

lo : Helbig {Untersuchungen, pp. 
113, 140), inclines to see in the lo 
of the House of Livia on the Palatine, 
a copy of the lo of Nikias, a composi- 
tion which seems to have inspired 
Prop, i, 3, 20. 

Andromeda : the composition 
seems preserved in the well-known 
relief of the Capitol, Helbig, Class. 
Ant.^di =Schieibei, Hell. Reliefs, xii; 
of. the Pompeian paintings, Helbig, 
Wandgemalde, 1186-1189. Add. 



1 1 . Pompei porticibus : note on 

5 59- 

§ 133. 12. prosperrime canes: 
KHTai 8^ kvravOa . . , NiKias re o Nftfo- 
liTiSovs (cf. Kohler, AiA. Mitth. 1885, 
p. 234, 2), f^a dpiffTOS ypalpaL tSjv i<^ 
avTovj Pans, i, 29, 15. The descrip- 
tion appears to be from the inscription 
on the grave. 

15. ciTCumlitioni : the process 
must be kept distinct from the ydvaats 
or toning down of the whole statue 
(Vitr. vii, g, 4) ; circuml. was 
admirably explained by Welcker (in 
Miiller, Handhuch, p. 431), to consist 
in a painting of hair and accessories, 
intended to give relief Ui the statue — 
to be in a word identical with circum- 
litio as understood in painting, Qninct. 
viii, 5, 26 nee pictura, in qua nihil 
circumlitum est eminet (cf. id. xii, 
9, 8). Since then, the discovery of the 
Sidonian sarkophagoi has revealed 
precisely such a use of colour for hair, 
dress, &c., as was divined by Welcker, 



158 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



tribuebat. non satis discernitur alium eodem nomine an 

134 hunc eundem quidam faciant olympiade CXII. Niciae 
conparatur et aliquando praefertur Athenion Maronites 
Glaucionis Corinthii discipulus, austerior colore et in auste- 
ritate iucundior, ut in ipsa pictura eruditio eluceat. pinxit 6 
in templo Eleusine Phylarchum et Athenis frequentiam 
quam vocavere syngenicon, item Achillem virginis habitu 
occultatum Ulixe deprendente, et in una tabula VI signa, 
quaque maxime inclaruit agasonem cum equo. quod nisi 

135 in iuventa obiisset, nemo compararetur. est nomen et lo 
A.u.c. s86. Heraclidi Macedoni. initio naves pinxit, captoque Perseo 

rege Athenas commigravit, ubi eodem tempore erat Metro- 
dorus pictor idemque philosophus, in utraque scientia magnae 
auctoritatis. itaque cum L. Paulus devicto Perseo petiisset 
ab Atheniensibus uti sibi quam probatissimum philosophum 15 
mitterent ad erudiendos liberos, item pictorem ad triumphum 
excolendum, Athenienses Metrodorum elegerunt professi 
eundem in utroque desiderio praestantissimum, quod ita 



■while flesh parts are seen to have been 
left in the tone of the marble ; cf. the 
Artemis of Vienna, _/o^?-/'. d. Oesterr. 
Kunstsamml.y, 1887, pi. i, ii, and 
R. V. Schneider's remarks, ib. p. 22, on 
the former colouring of the Hermes 
of Praxiteles. See also Wickhoff, in 
Wiener Genesis, p. 48. 

I. nou satis discernitur : above, 
note on discipulo Nicia. 

% 134. 4. austerior : i. e. Nicia, 
cui comfarabatur ; cf. above, note on 
severus in § 1 30. 

5. eruditio : cf § 76 omnibus 
litteris eruditus of Pamphilos. 

pinxit . . . syngenicon : the two 
pictures mentioned here belonging 
to the class of votive offerings, and the 
locality of each being specially noted, 
B. Keil {Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 229 ; 
cf. Miinzer, ib. p. 540) considers the 
wholte sentence to be an addition 
to the main account from the work 
of Heliodoros trepl dvady/^Tojv, see 
Introd. p. Ixxiv f. 

6. Phylarchum: Pansanias (i, 



26, 3) mentions a cavaliy captain 
Olympiodoros (presumably identical 
with the archon of 01. 121, 3 = B.C. 
294) in the time of Kassander (d. Ol. 
i2i=B. c. 296), who distinguished 
himself in an engagement at Eleusis 
against the Makedonians, and was 
accordingly honoured with a portrait 
there. He may quite well, therefore, 
be identical with the Olympiodoros 
painted by Athenion, a contempo- 
rary of the younger Nikias. For 
lit. see Hitzig-Bliimner, Pausanias, 
p. 283. 

7- syngenicon : the Greek word 
introduced because P. is not quite 
assured of his Latin equivalent ; for 
the subject see note on cognatio, in 
§76. 

Achillem . . . deprendente : the 
subject had been treated by Poly- 
gnotos in the Pinakotheke of the 
Propylaia (Paus. i, 22, 6) and often. 
We know it from a series of Pompeian 
wall paintings, Helbig, Wandgemalde, 
1296-J303 (the most famous, 1297, is 



/. PAINTING 159 

by some authorities in the hundred and twelfth Olympiad 

[332-329 B. C.J. ^Athenion of Maroneia, the pupil of Glaukion of 134 

Corinth, is compared with Nikias, and preferred to him by some. j,utii^oP' 

He used a severer scheme of colouring than Nikias, and pro- Glaukion. 

duced a more pleasing effect withal, thus manifesting in his 

execution his grasp of the abstract principles of his art. He 

painted in the temple of Eleusis a captain of cavalry ; at Athens 

an assembly called a avyyiviKov ; also Achilles, in the guise of 

a maiden, at the moment of detection by Odysseus ; a picture 

containing six figures, and the groom with a horse on which his 

fame chiefly rests. Had he not died young, no artist would be 

comparable to him. 

•\Herakleides of Makedon, who began life as a ship painter, also 135 

enjoys a great reputation. After King Perseus was taken prisoner, ^^^^^^^ 

he repaired to Athens, where was then living Metrodoros, who was 168 b.c. 

Metro- 
doros. 



at once painter and philosopher, and had won high distinction ^^*''''' 



in either capacity. Accordingly, when Lucius Paulus after his 
victories over Perseus asked the Athenians to send him their best 
philosopher to teach his children, and a painter to commemorate 
his triumph, they chose Metrodoros, declaring that he could best 
fulfil both requirements, as indeed Paulus found to be the case. 

given in Rosclier, i, p. 27), none of forming the basis of the Plinian ac- 

which however can be traced baclc count, Introd. p. Ixxx f. 
with any certainty to Athenion ; cf. 12. Metrodorus : he is most 

Helbig, Untersuch.-f.\Cf%. Addenda. liltely identical with the Metrodoros 

§ 135. II. Heraolidi: below, in the Index to this book. Further he 

§ 146. is possibly the same as the Metrodoros 

captoque Perseo rege : Ol. 153, of Stratonikaia, mentioned by Diogenes 

I, Robert, Arch. March, p. 135, note, Laertios x, 9, and Cic. De Oraf. i, 1 1, 

points out that the last date for a 45, as being a pupil of Karneades (cf. 

painter having been Ol. 121 (§ 134), Brann, K. G. il, p. 293; Urlichs, 

there was precisely the same gap in the Maler'ei, p. 16; Helbig, Untersuch. 

chronology of the painters as in that p. 5). 

of the bronze sculptors (xxxiv, 52 16. ad erudiendos liberos : the 

cessavit deindears (p\.\2i) ac rursus two yoimger sons who died at the 

01. 116 revixii). It is evident that time of the triumph ; cf. the charming 

the Greek sources ended for painting passage in Plutarch, Aem. Paul, vi 

as for sculpture with approximately Oi -^bf fidvov ypa^iiMTiKol aal ffotpiaral 

the same period, and that the ad- teat gropes, ciWd Kal irXdcTai. Kal 

ditions concerning Herakleides and J^taypaclioi Kal irdiKaiv Kal ffKvk^Koiv 

Metrodoros, both of whom are con- (maTdTatKoiSiSiaKaXoiS'ljpas'EWrivfs 

nected with Roman exploits, like the ijaav ircpl Tois viaviaKovs (i. e. the 

additions made in xxxiv, 52 to the elder sons, the younger Scipio and 

Greek lists of the sculptors, are ex- Fabius Maximus, after their father's 

traneous to the original history of art triumph over the Ligurians, B.C. 181). 



l6o 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



136 Paulus quoque iudicavit. Timomachus Byzantius Caesaris 
dictatoris aetata Aiacem et Mediam pinxit ab eo in Veneris 
Genetricis aede positas, LXXX talentis venundatas. talen- 
tum Atticum X VI taxat M. Varro. Timomachi aeque 
laudantur Orestes, Iphigenia in Tauris et Lecythion agili- 5 
tatis exercitator, cognatio nobilium, palliati quos dicturos 
pinxit, alterum stantem, alterum sedentem. praecipue 

137 tamen ars ei favisse in Goi-gone visa est. Pausiae filius et 
discipulus Aristolaus e severissimis pictoribus fuit, cuius 
sunt Epaminondas, Pericles, Media, Virtus, Theseus, imago 10 
Atticae plebis, bourn immolatio. sunt quibus et Nico- 
phanes eiusdem Pausiae discipulus placeat diligentia quam 



§ 136. I. Timomaohus Byz. 
Caesaris . . . aetate : from what we 
know of the famous Aias and Medeia 
(see following note), Plinyseems guilty 
of an anachronism in placing Timo- 
machos in this period (so Brunn, 
Dilthey, Helbig, Urlichs and Furt- 
wangler ; see Brandstatter, Der Maler 
Timomachos, where all the evidence 
concerning the artist's date is col- 
lected) ; he presumably found no date 
in his author, and tried to obtain 
one out of the purchase by Caesar 
(Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 14), {Cae- 
saris dictatoris aetate in imitation of 
Magni Pompei aetate xx, 144 ; xxii, 
128; xxvi, 12; xxxiii, 130, 156. — 
H. L. U.] 

2. Veneris G-. aede : above, § 26 
where see note. 

Aiacem et Mediam: apparently 
identical with the Aias and Medeia 
mentioned by Cicero, Verr. II, 
iv, 60, 135, where he enumerates 
thirteen works of art, each of which 
was the pride of the city that owned 
it : quid arbitramini merere velle 
Cycicenos, ut Aiacem aut Mediam 
amittant? Now the Verrine orations 
date from B. c. 70, and since the 
pictures had then attained a world- 
wide celebrity, similar to that enjoyed 
by the Eros of Praxiteles, the heifer 
of Myron, &c., we must suppose they 



had been some time in existence ; 
thus the latest date which could well 
be assigned to the pictures would be 
about 100-90 B. c, but this cannot be 
called the ' age of Caesar.' Indeed 
since all the artists (i. e. Pythagoras, 
Myron, the two Praxiteles, Protogenes 
and Apelles) mentioned by Cicero are 
of the fifth and fourth centuries, it 
seems reasonable to suppose that 
Timomachos also lived not later than 
the fourth century. From the subjects 
of his pictures he was probably a con- 
temporary of Apelles (Brandstatter, 
op. cit."). The two pictures were com- 
posed as pendants, at least so we 
gather from the juxtaposition of the 
subjects in Ovid, Trist. ii, 525 : 
Utque sedet vultufassus Telamonius 

iram^ 
Inque oculis /acinus barbara mater 

habet. 
The composition has survived on a 
number of gems (Berlin, Cat. 673, 

674. 1357. 4319, 4327. 6491; Br. 
Mus. Cat. 1426, 1427). Copies of 
the Medeia have survived in two wall- 
paintings (i) from Pompei, Helbig, 
Wandgemdlde, 1262, (2) from Hercu- 
laneum, Helbig, 1264 (single figure 
of Medeia, but taken apparently 
from a large composition similar 
to the former) : Medeia meditating 
the murder, while the children 



/. PAINTING 



i6i 



Timomachos of Byzantion in the time of the dictator Caesar 136 
painted the Aias and the Medeia, placed by Caesar in the temple f^^"""'' 
of Venus the Mother, which cost eighty talents [_;^i6,8oo circ.J. 
(Marcus Varro values the Attic talent at 6000 denarii.) Other 
pictures by Timomachos meet with a like praise ; his Orestes and ) 
Iphigeneia among the Tauroi ; his portrait of Lekythion, a master jl 
of gymnastics ; an assembly of notable persons, and two men in j 
cloaks just read^ Jo speak, one standing, the other sitting. Art, \ 
however, is thought to have granted to him his greatest success in 
the Gorgon which he painted. 

■iAristolaos, the son and pupil of Pausias, was an artist of the 137 
severest school ; he painted pictures of Epameinondas, Perikles, son^and"^' 
Medeia, Valour, Theseus, a personification of the populace oi pupil of 
Athens, and a sacrifice of oxen. Faustas. 

\Nikophanes, another pupil of Pausias, is admired by a small Niko- 

phanes. 
sarkophagos, Robert, Sarkoph. Reliefs 



quietly play in charge of the 
paidagogos — a scheme which corre- 
sponds to Lucian's description Tttpi 
oiKov, 31. The picture was very 
probably inspired by the Medeia of 
Euripides. From § 145 we learn that 
it was left unfinished. The Medeia 
gave occasion for a number of 
epigrams (see Overbeck's Sckrift- 
quellen 2136-2139). Anth. Plan. 
iv, 137, shows that it was painted in 
encaustic — tv K-qpa. (Against the 
view advanced here that Timomachos 
is a painter of the fourth century, see 
Robert, in Arch. Mdrchen, p. 132, 
who defends Pliny's Caesaris aetate, 
and lately Wickhoff, in Wiener 
Genesis, p. 72). Addenda. 

5. Orestes, Iphigenia in Tauris: 
one picture, the two parts of which 
are given asyndetically, see J. MiiUer, 
Stil, p. 39 i. For the subject cf the 
Pompeian wall-painting, A. Z, 1875, 
pi. xiii : on the right, above, Iphigenia 
with her maidens emerging from the 
temple, on the left, below, Orestes 
and Pylades brought prisoners to the 
temple ; as Robert points out {ib. 
P- 133 f-); there are no grounds for 
identifying the Pompeian picture as 
a copy of the original by Timomachos. 
See also the composition on the 



. Ivii. Addenda. 

agilitatis exeroitator: he would 
be a less exalted personage than an 
tTnarwrr]^ a9\.T)TSiv (xxxiv, 82), but 
more on a level with the praestigiator 
Theodores, and the sallator Alki- 
sthenes in § 147. The picture was 
presumably a votive portrait. 

6. oognatio nobilium : above, 
note on § 76. 

palliati : i. c. wrapped in the 
pallium ^llifvnov, whence they were 
presumably portraits ; cf. on the duo 
palliata in xxxiv, 54. 

quos dicturos : [cf. the Elder 
Philostratos eltcdves ii, 31 opa Kal 
rdv ®€fit(TTotc\4a T^v pXv rov npoawTTov 
oraatv irapairA.'iio'tov Tois Xiyovtriv. 
— H. L. U.] ; also Sittl, Gebdrde, 
p. 7, note 5. 

8. in Gorgone: i.e. a Gorgoneion 
or mask of Medusa; we may compare 
in sculpture the 'Medusa Rondanini' 
(Munich, Glypt. 128). 

§137. Pausiae: above, § 123. 
The account of Aristolaus has been 
torn asunder from its original context. 

9. e severissimis : note on § 130. 

1 1, bourn immolatio : note on 
§ 93 ; cf. § 177. 
ITioophanea : above, § ill. 



M 



1 63 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



intellegant soli artifices, alias durus in coloribus et sile 
multus ; nam Socrates iure omnibus placet ; tales sunt 
eius cum Aesculapio filiae Hygia, Aegle, Panacea, laso et 
piger qui appellatur Ocnos, spartum torquens quod asellus 

138 adrodit. hactenus indicatis proceribus in utroque genere s 
non silebuntur et primis proximi : Aristoclides qui pinxit 
aedem Apollinis Delphis. Antiphilus puero ignem conflante 
laudatur ac pulchra alias domo splendescente ipsiusque pueri 
ore, item lanificio in quo properant omnium mulierum 
pensa, Ptolemaeo venante, sed nobilissimo Satyro cum pelle lo 
pantherina, quern aposcopeuonta appellant. Aristophon 
Ancaeo vulnerato ab apro cum socia doloris Astypale 
numerosaque tabula in qua sunt Priamus, Helena, Credulitas, 

139 Ulixes, Deiphobus, Dolus. Androbius pinxit Scyllum 
ancoras praecidentem Persicae classis, Artemon Danaen 15 

12. Ancaium (Angaium e corr.) vineratnrao Bamb. ; Ancaeum vulneratum 
Detlefsen. Astypalaea coni. Brunn K. G. ii, p. 53, Detlefsen. 



1. soli artifices ; MUnzer, op, cit. 
p. 519, points out that this reference 
to the opinion of artists recalls the 
passage on Telephanes, xxxiv, 68. 

durus in coloribus : § 1 30 in 
coloribus severus, where see note. 

2. nam : [elliptical, i. e. the case 
of the painter Sokrates is different, 
for he pleases everybody {omnibus), 
whereas Nikophanes is only for the 
few {sunt quibus) ; cf. the use of 
nam in xxxiv, 7; x, 210; xvii, 58, 
151.— H. L. U.] 

Sokrates : he appears in such 
close connexion with Aristolaos and 
Nikophanes, that he is presumably also 
a pupil of Pausias. In xxxvi, 32, Pliny 
mentions a sculptor Sokrates, whom 
he distinguishes from the painter, 
though according to some authorities 
they were identical. Introd. p. 1. f. 

3. Aesculapio : i. e. a votive 
picture for a reco^■ery ; for the subject 
c£ the reliefs, Friederichs-Wolters, 
1 148, 1 1 50. 

4. Ocnos ; for the subject, which 
had already been represented by 
Polygnotos in the Delphian Lesche 



(Paus. X, 29, 2), cf. the pulealia the 
Vatican (Helbig, 373). 

§ 138. 5. utroque genere : i. c. 
both large and small pictures. 

7. aedem Ap. Delphis ; nothing 
further is known of these paintings. 

Antiphilus : above, §§ 89, 114. 

puero ign. confl, : for the same sub- 
ject in statuary cf. the splanchnoptes 
of Styppax, xxxiv, 81. 

8. domo splendescente; for effects 
of reflected light cf. above, note on 
5 78, and Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, 

P- 79- 

9. lanificio : cf. the subjects of 
Peiraikos in § 112, of Philiskos in 

§ 143- 

10. Ptolemaeo : above, § 89. 

11. aposcopeuonta: i.e. raising 
his hand to shade his eyes in the 
satyric dance called OKuinivfia (Athen. 
xiv, p. 629 f.). Variations of the 
motive have been recovered in a num- 
ber of statues and statuettes, which 
can all be traced back to one original 
type of which the finest instance is a 
bronze at Berlin ; Furtwangler, Sa/yr 
aus Pergamon, p. 14 fF. 



/. PAINTING 163 

circle for an industry which painters alone can really appreciate ; 
apart from this merit he was too harsh in colouring, and too lavish 
in his use of yellow ochre. The merit of ■\Sokrates on the other Sokrates. 
hand is, as it should be, patent to everybody, thanks to his 
pictures of Asklepios with his daughters Hygieia, Aigle, Panakeia 
and laso, and of a sluggard, called "Okvos [sloth], twisting a rope 
which an ass is gnawing. 

So far I have spoken only of the leading artists in both styles, 133 
but I do not purpose to omit those of the second rank. Painters of 

•\Aristokleides painted the temple of Apollo at Delphoi. Anti- arranged 

philos is praised for his picture of a boy blowing a fire, and for the '^Ip^abeti- 

reflection cast by the fire on the room, which is in itself beautiful, Arista- 

and on the boy's face : for his picture of wool-weaving, where all ^^"<^f^- 

. . Antiphilos, 

the women busily ply their tasks ; for his Ptolemaios hunting, and, 

most famous of all, for his Satyr with a panther's skin, called the 

a7ro<rico7reuwr, or Gazer. 

Aristophon is celebrated for his Ankaios wounded by the boar, Aristo- 

grouped with Astypale, the partner of his woe, and a crowded /'^''»- 

picture containing Priam, Helen, Credulity, Odysseus, Deiphobos 

and Guile. \Androbios painted Skyllos cutting the cables of the 139 

Persian fleet ; \Artemon a Danae and the pirates marvelling at her ; 

Aristophon : brother of Poly- figures, from Quinct. v, 10, 10 ■vulgo- 

gnotos, above, note on § 60. que {inter opifices) faullo numero- 

12. Anoaeo: not the Arkadian sius opus diciiur argumentosum. 
Ankaios, but the Argonaut with his Priamus . . Dolus : from the 
mother Astypale. Kenndorf, Gjolbas- presence of Helen and of Deiphobos 
chi, p. 114 f., inclines to believe the it appears that the pictnre represented 
■wounded hero was supported by his a scene from the siege of Troy subse- 
mother, a Polygnotan scheme, echoes quent to the death of Paris ; on the 
of which seem to have survived on both whole composition cf. ]a.ha,^.Z. 1847, 
the Phigaleian and Gjblbaschi friezes. p. 127. For the personifications of 
The hero being a Samian, the picture Dolus and Credulilas cf. the Sio^oAij in 
was probably at Samos. Apelles' picture (above, note on § 891. 

Astypale; [shortened for Asty- §139. 14. Soyllum : he dived and 

palaia, so Zeuxis commonly for Zeux- cut the cables of the Persian fleet, 

ippos; cf. A. Fick, Die Griechischen Paus. x, 19, i ; cf. Herod, viii, 8. 
Personennamen^ 2nd. ed., p. 35. In 15. D. mirantibus earn prae- 

Hyginus, Fab. 167 (ed. Bimte, 122, donibus: according to the legend, it 

I, 6), Astyphile is unnecessarily was Dictys, a fisherman, who rescued 

restored by Bunte to Astyphalaea. — Danae. There may have been a 

H.L. U.] The reading Astypale is variant tradition or the ^toiS</(?««j may 

also kept by Benndorf (pp. cit.). come from misinterpretation of the 

13. ntunerosa : Bruim, K. C. ii, picture. Helbig, Unlersuchungen, 
p. 53, explains this adjective applied p. 145, brings Wandgemdlde 119 into 
to a picture which contained only six connexion with the ' Danae.' 

M 3 



164 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



mirantibus earn praedonibus, reginam Stratonicen, Herculem 
et Deianiram, nobilissimas autem, quae sunt in Octaviae 
operibus, Herculem ab Oeta monte Doridos exusta mortali- 
tate consensu deorum in caelum euntem, Laomedontis circa 
Herculem et Neptunum historiam. Alcimachus Dioxip- 5 
pum, qui pancratio Olympiae citra pulveris iactum, quod 

140 vocant clkoviti, vicit, Coenus stemmata. Ctesilochus Apellis 
discipulus petulanti pictura innotuit, love Liberum parturi- 
ente depicto mitrato et muliebriter ingemescente inter 
opstetricia dearum, Cleon Cadmo, Ctesidemus Oechaliae 10 
expugnatione, Laodamia, Ctesicles reginae Stratonices 
iniuria. nullo enim honore exceptus ab ea pinxit volutan- 
tem cum piscatore quem reginam amare sermo erat, eamque 
tabulam in portu Ephesi proposuit ipse velis raptus. regina 
tolli vetuit utriusque similitudine mire expressa. Cratinus 15 

141 comoedos Athenis in Pompeio pinxit, Eutychides bigam, 
regit Victoria. Eudorus scaena spectatur — idem et ex 



I . reginam Stratonicen : there 
were several queens of this name ; 
the most celebrated, who may be the 
one intended here, was daughter of 
Demetrios Poliorketes (Plut. Dem. 
liii), married first to Seleukos Nikator, 
then to his son Antiochos (Val. Max. 
V, 7, £xt. l) ; Introd. p. Ix. 

Herculem et Deianiram ; this 
and the following picture seem part 
of a cycle representing the Labours of 
Herakles. Addenda. 

3. Herculem ... in caelum 
euntem : for the Apotheosis of 
Herakles in later art see Furtwangler, 
aj>. Roscher, i, 2250. 

5. historiam : probably in a series 
of pictures. One scene, the freeing of 
Hesione by Herakles, was also the 
subject of a picture by Antiphilos 
(above, § 114). 

Dioxippum ; he was in the army 
of Alexander the Great, and in B.C. 
326, during the Median campaign, 
he overcame in an athletic contest 
the Makedonian Koragos who had 
challenged him. By this feat, how- 
ever, he drew upon himse f the dis- 



pleasure of Alexander, and being 
slandered to the king he finally took 
his own life. Diod. xvii, loo-ioi ; 
Ailian, Hoik. 'lar. n, 22 (see G. H. 
Forster, Sieger in den Olympischen 
Spielen, i, p. 27, 381), 01. 113, 3 = 
326 B.C. 

6. Olympiae : instead of the usual 
construction, Olympia mncere, imi- 
tated from the Greek. 

7. aKoviTi = X'^P^^ Koveois : usually 
because the appointed antagonist 
failed to appear; according to Pans, 
vi, II, 4, Dromeus of Mantineia was 
the first to gain a victory d/covtri; cf. 
id. vi, 7, 4 ; /. G. B. 29. See for 
all possible conditions of such a 
victory K. E. Heinrichs, Ueber das 
Pentathlon der Griechen (Wiirzburg, 
1892), p. 74. For the expression 
situ pulvere, which was proverbial, 
Otto, Sprickworter, p. 290. 

stemmata: portraits fitted into 
some kind of genealogical tree (xxxv, 
§ 6} ; cf. note on cognatio, in § 76. 

§ 140. Ctesilochus : if iden- 
tical, as is generally supposed with 
the KTr/aioxos of Sonidas (s. v. 



/. PAINTING 



165 



a portrait of queen Stratonike ; a Heraldes and Deianeira, and 
the celebrated pictures in the galleries of Octavia : the one repre- 
sents Herakles on Mount Oite in Doris, putting off his mortality 
in the flames, and going up to heaven by consent of all the gods ; 
the other shows the story of Laomedon, Herakles and Poseidon. 
\Alkimachos painted a picture of Dioxippos, who won in the pan- 
kration at Olympia a victory without dust, okowti, as it is called. 
•\Koinos painted family trees. Ktesilochos, a pupil of Apelles, 
became famous by a burlesque painting of Zeus giving birth to 
Dionysos ; the god wears a head-dress and, moaning like a woman, 
is receiving the good offices of the goddesses. ^Kleon owes 
his reputation to a picture of Kadmos, ^Ktesidemos to a siege of 
Oichalia and a Laodameia, while ^Ktesikks is best known by the 
affront he offered to queen Stratonike, who had received him 
without any mark of honour. He in consequence painted her 
lying in the arms of a fisherman, her reputed lover, and had the 
picture exhibited in the port of Ephesos, after he himself had sped 
away with all sails set. The queen, however, would not allow the 
picture to be removed, as both portraits were excellent likenesses. 
•\Kratinos painted comic actors in the Pompeion at Athens, 
Eutychides, a two-horsed chariot driven by Nike. ■\Eudoros, who 

brother of Stratonices iuiuria : cf. on § 

139- 



Alkima- 
chos paints 
a portrait 
of the Fan- 
kratiast 
Dioxippos. 
140 
Ktesilo- 
chos paints 
a grotesque 
picture of 
the birth oj 
Dionysos. 

Ktesikles : 
his venge- 
ance tipon 
Queen 
Stratonike. 



141 



Apelles), he was the 
Apelles. 

8. petulanti piotura : the picture 
was probably intended as a parody. 
Heydemann, Hall. Winckelmannspr. 
X (1885), p. 6ff. 

love . . . mitrato : an absurdity 
because, among Greeks at any rate, 
the yxTpa was only a feminine adorn- 
ment ; above, § 58 capita earum 
(sc. mulierum') mitris versicoloribus 
operuit ; but vi, -idi Arabes mitrati. 

9. inter opstet. dearum : i. e. the 
Eileithyiai. 

10. Ctesidemus : the master of 
Antiphilos, above, § 114. 

Oeolialiae expugn. : by Herakles, 
Strabo, ix, p. 438. 

11. Laodamia : the subject is of 
frequent occurrence (gem Br. Mus. 
Cat. p. 67, no. 327 ; numerous sarko- 
phagi, cp. especially Baumeister, 
Denkm., p. 1422, fig. 1574), but there 
is no ascertained copy of Ktesidemos's 
picture. 



15. Cratiuus eomoedus ; I see 
no need for doubting his identity with 
the writer of comedies (fl. middle of 
fifth cent.). This first meation of 
Kratinos was detached from its con- 
text with Eirene, daughter of Kra- 
tinos (§ 147), in order to be intro- 
duced into the alphabetical list (see 
Miinzer, op. cit. p. 535 ; Introd. p. 
Ixv.). 

16. in Pompeio : at the entrance 
to the Kerameikos, Pans, i, ^,4. 

§ 141. Butyohidea : in xxxiv, 78, 
he is mentioned as a sculptor in 
bronze. 

bigam, regit Victoria ; for the 
subject cf. Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 

938. 939- 

1 7. scaena : i. e. a scenic decoration 
intended to be fastened to the scaenae 
frons ; cf. § 23. 

et ex aere signa fecit : he is how- 
ever not mentioned in xxxiv. 



i66 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



acre signa fecit — Hippys Neptuno et Victoria. Habron 
amicam et Concordiam pinxit et deorum simulacra, Leon- 
tiscus Aratum victorem cum tropaeo, psaltriam, Leon 
Sappho, Nearchus Venerem inter Gratias et Cupidines, 

142 Herculem tristem insaniae poenitentia, Nealces Venerem — 5 
ingeniosus et sellers iste, siquidem, cum proeliuin navale 
Persarum et Aegyptiorum pinxisset, quod in Nilo, cuius est 
aqua maris similis, factum volebat intellegi, argumento 
declaravit quod arte non poterat ; asellum enim bibentem 

143 in litore pinxit et crocodilum insidiantem ei — Oenias 10 
syngenicon, Philiscus officinam pictoris ignem conflante 
puero, Phalerion Scyllam, Simonides Agatharchum et 
Mnemosynen, Simus iuvenem requiescentem, officinam 
fullonis quinquatrus celebrantem, idemque Nemesim egreg- 

144 iam, Theorus se inunguentem, idem ab Oreste matrem 15 

15. se inunguentem] Sillig; emungentem Bamb.; et inungentem Rice; 
erumpentem Detlefsen (coni. Benndorf). 



1. Hippys : the name has been 
conjecturally restored from Polemon, 
ap. Athen. xi, p. 474 d ; cf. above, 
note on anus in § 78. 

2. amicam : simply the portrait 
of a hetaira (cf. Furtwangler, 
Dornauszieher, p. 94, n. 53). Some 
commentators, however, assume a 
misunderstanding on Pliny's part of 
the Greek i^iA.ia, and suggest the 
reading Amicitiam, by analogy with 
Concordia = dfwvoia. 

3 Aratum . . . tropaeo : accord- 
ing to Hardouin {ad loc), to com- 
memorate the victory over Aristippos, 
Plut. Aratus, xxix ; the identification 
with the Sikyonian Aratos (frees 
Sikyon B.C. 251), however, seems 
doubtful, since none of the known 
painters in the list belong to so late a 
period ; below, note on Nealces ; cf. 
Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 292. 

psaltriam : cf. xxxiv, 63 and note. 

J 142. 5. Herculem tristem : i.e. 
after the murder of his children ; cf. 
in sculpture the kindred subject of 
Athamas, xxxiv, 140. A gem, which 
Stephani {Ausruh. Her. p. 145) 



thought he could trace back to the 
picture of Nearchos, has been shown 
by Furtwangler (a/. Roscher, i, 2175) 
to be merely an adaptation by an 
artist of the Renascence of a type 
created for Aias (above, note on § 1 36). 

Ifealoes; MUnzer, op. cit. p. 532, 
note 2, rightly disputes his identity 
with the painter Nealkes, the friend 
of Aratos (Plut. loc. cit. xiii), since 
in that case Pasias, the pupil of Neal- 
kes's own pupil Erigonos (§ 145), 
would belong to the late second 
century, outside the lower limit of the 
lists ; to this consideration may be 
added that the story recounted of 
Erigonos {loc. cit.) is closely connected 
with a number of other stories, which 
cannot have arisen later than the 
commencement of the third century. 
Miinzer's discovery, however, with 
regard to the picture by Nealkes 
(note OD proelium) at once settles the 
question in favour of an earlier painter 
of the name. 

6. ingeniosus : cf. the praise 
bestowed upon Timanthes in § 73. 

proelium . . . asellum. Miinzer 



I. PAINTING 



167 



Nealkes. 



also made statues in bronze, is known by a scene painted for 
a theatre, Hippys by a Poseidon and a Nike, -Mlabron by a 
portrait of his mistress, a picture of Concord and figures of the 
Gods. iZeontiskos painted Aratos as victor with a trophy, and 
a woman playing on the cithara, ■\Leon a Sappho, \Nearchos an 
Aphrodite attended by the Graces and Loves, and a Herakles in 
grief repenting of his madness, ^Nealkes, an Aphrodite. This 142 
Nealkes was a man of ingenious devices ; he had painted a naval ' 
battle between the Egyptians and Persians, and wishing to show 
that it was fought on the Nile (the waters of which are like those 
of the sea) he indicated by a symbol that which art alone could 
not express, painting an ass drinking on the river's brim and 
a crocodile lying in wait for it. -^Oinias painted a family gather- 143 
ing; iPhiliskos an artist's studio with a boy blowing the iire; 
^Phakrion a Sky 11a ; iSimonides an Agatharchos and Mnemo- 
syne; Simos a youth resting, the workshop of a fuller who is 
keeping the festival of Minerva, and a Nemesis of great beauty, '^^^^^j . 
\Theoros painted an athlete anointing himself, an Orestes slaying his picture 



(Joe. cit.^ has had the signal merit 
of fixing the occasion for the picture 
and thereby the date of the artist. 
It must have referred to one of the 
battles by which Artaxerxes III 
Ochos, (b. c. 358-337), successively 
reduced Egypt in B. c. 350. ' Popular 
conceptions of tlie wicked enemy, of 
the ass-shaped Seth Typhon, had won 
for the hated king the nickname of 
the " Ass" amongthe Egyptians, while 
, among the Greeks who fought in 
thousands on either side, the pun 
Sixos — oi/os had quickly spread (cf. 
Deinon, ap. Plut. de Iside, 31 Sid koX 
Toiv TiipaiKoiv $aai\iaiv IxBpaivovTfs 
liAKiara riv 'nx"" ^^ ivayfi xal 
/itapov, ovov knaivdfjiaffav : Ailian, Uotu. 
'IffT. iv, 8). The allusion which Neal- 
kes introduced into his picture was 
clear to his contemporaries and to the 
point ; later its meaning was forgotten, 
and people had recourse to the silly 
explanation recorded by Pliny.' 

§143. II. syngenicon : above, 
§ 136; cf. note on § 76. 

ignem oonflante puero. The 
studio must have been that of a 



painter in encaustic ; cf the picture by 
Antiphilos, in § 138- Introd. p. Ixxi. 

12. Soyllam: uncertain whether 
the sea monster or the daughter of 
Nisos ; cf. Brunn, A'. G. 300 ; a Scylla 
by Nikomachos in § 109. 

13. Mnemosynen : cf the relief of 
Archelaos of Priene in Br. Mus. 

Simus : possibly identical with 
the sculptor Simos of Salamis (in 
Kypros), known from two inscriptions 
(/. G. B. 163, 164), which from the 
character of the epigraphy may be 
dated about the third century B. c, 
Brunn, K. G. i, p. 467 ; H. v. Gaer- 
Xraigea,Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 39. 

iuvenem requiesoentem : [per- 
haps a grave picture, in which the dead 
youth was represented lying down, i. e. 
an avaTTav6fj.tvos (§ 99 and note), an 
expirantis imago (§ 90). — H. L. U.] 

14. quinquatrus ; the feast, which 
was of two kinds, the Greater and the 
Lesser, was kept by all those whose 
trades were under the special protec- 
tion of Minerva. Addenda. 

§ 144. 15. Theorus : the name 
belongs to the class of those given, 



i68 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



et Aegisthum interfici, bellumque Iliacum pluribus tabulis, 
quod est Romae in Philippi porticibus, et Cassandram, quae 
est in Concordiae delubro, Leontium Epicuri cogitantem, 
Demetrium regem, Theon Orestis insaniam, Thamyram 
citharoedum, Tauriscus discobolum, Clytaemestram, Pani- 5 

145 scon, Polynicen regnum repetentem et Capanea. non omit- 
tetur inter hos insigne exemplum. namque Erigonus tritor 
colorum Nealcae pictoris intantum ipse profecit ut celebrem 
etiam discipulum reliquerit Pasian, fratrem Aeginetae 
pictoris. illud vero perquam rarum ac memoria dignum 10 
est suprema opera artificum inperfectasque tabulas, sicut 
Irim Aristidis, Tyndaridas Nicomachi, Mediam Timomachi 
et quam diximus Venerem Apellis, in maiore admiratione 
esse quam perfecta, quippe in is liniamenta reliqua ipsaeque 
cogitationes artificum spectantur, atque in lenocinio com- 15 
mendationis dolor est manus, cum id ageret, exstinctae. 

146 sunt etiamnum non ignobiles quidem, in transcursu tamen 



according to Fick ( Gr.Personcnnamen, 
p. 360), in allusion to the bearer's 
profession (see, however, H.L.Urlichs' 
note on Euchira, in § 152). That 
there is not the slightest evidence for 
following Brunn {K. G. ii, p. 255), in 
charging Pliny with the fabrication of 
Theorus out of a misunderstanding 
of Theon, has been shown by Urlichs 
in Hdlz. Pferd, p. 18, u.. 17. 

se inungeutem : votive portrait 
of an athlete, represented in the 
act of anointing himself, a subject 
familiar in statuary, Furtwangler, 
Masterpieces, p. 257 ff. ; against the 
Benndorf Detlefsen reading erumpen- 
tem see H. L. Urlichs, in Woch. f. 
Klass. Phil. 1895, P- 548- 

ab Oreste matrem et Aegis- 
thum interfici ; cf the construction 
in xxxiv, 59 {fecit) Apollinem ser- 
pentemque eius sagittis configi. For 
the subject cf. the Pompeian picture, 
A. ^. xli, 1883, pi. ix, I (Robert, ib. 
p. 259), and the Sarkophagos in St 
Petersburg, Robert, Sark. Pel. pi. liv, 
p. i6j f. Wickhoff, Wiener Genesis, 
p. 85. 



1. beUumciue Iliacum pluribus 
tabulis : probably one of the oldest 
instances of a serial representation of 
scenes from the Trojan war, such as 
became so fashionable in imperial 
days (cf. the Troiae halosis, Petron. 
87, also the pictures of the Fall of 
Troy, seen by Aineias in the Palace 
ofDido,Virg.j4««. 1,456-493). From 
Pompeii we have a series of pictures, 
which, even if not close imitations of 
the pictures by Theoros (see Helbig, 
Uniersuch. p. 142), serve to illustrate 
how these cycles were conceived ; see 
Briining, Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 164 
{Ueber die I'ildlichen Vorlagen der 
Ilischen Tafelii^. 

2. Philippi porticibus : note on 
§66. 

Cassandram : it may have been 
part of the Trojan series (above), and 
have become separated from it ; more 
probably it was a picture by itself. 

3. Leontium : note on § 99. 

4. Dennetrium : i. e. Poliorketes ; 
cf. note on xxxiv, 42. 

Theon : of Samos ; mentioned by 
Quinct. xii, 10, 6, among the seven 



/. PAINTING 



169 



his mother and Aigisthos, a cycle of pictures of the Trojan war, of 'Orestes 
now in Rome in the Gallery of Philip, a Kassandra, now in the Mother.' 
temple of Concord, Leontion, the pupil of Epikouros, in medita- 
tion, and king Demetrios. Theon painted the madness of Orestes, Theon: his 
and a portrait of Thamyras, a player on the cithara ; Tauriskos -J^^^ "^ad- 
painted the portrait of a quoit - thrower, a Klytaimnestra, a ness of 
Tiafia-Kos or young Pan, a Polyneikes claiming the throne, and ''"' "' 
a Kapaneus. 

Nor must I forget to mention here the noteworthy case of 145 
^Erigonos, who ground the colours of Nealkes, and eventually jj^^°ll°^' 
became so good a painter that he could even train a great artist mfrom ob- 
his pupil ^Fasias, the brother of the painter ■\Aiginetas. Another-i^""'-'' '" 
most curious fact and worthy of record is, that the latest works of sin^dar 

artists and the pictures left unfinished at their death are valued f"^^*^ ««<^ 
, ^,.^.,,.. r i,T-i harm of 

more than any of their finished paintings, for example the Ins by Unfinished 

Aristeides, the children of Tyndaros by Nikomachos, the Medeia "orks. 

by Timomachos and the Aphrodite by Apelles, mentioned above. V 

The reason is that in these we see traces of the design and the/ 

original conception of the artists, while sorrow for the hand that\ 

perished at its work beguiles us into the bestowal of praise. J 

There still remain certain painters whom, though artists of 146 

repute, I can do no more than name in passing, \Aristokydes, frTv- / 

list. 



most important painters of the age of 
Alexander, as praestantissimus . . . 
concipiendis visionibus, quas ipavjaalas 
■vocant ; cf. also Ailian, IIoiK. 'Ictt. ii. 
44, where the warrior charging out of 
a panel is described. 

Orestis iusaniam : ^ifl' 'Opiarov 
fiTjTpoKToviav, Pint, de aud. Poet. 3. 

Tlitiinyram. citliaroedum : cf. the 
Corgosthenes tragoedus, by Apelles, 
in § 93, the tibicina of Lysippos,xxxiv, 
63, the psaltria by Leontiskos, in 
§ 141, &c. 

5. Taurisous : his identity with 
one of the sculptors of the ' Famese 
Bull ' can neither be proved nor dis- 
proved. He is perhaps the same as 
the silver-chaser of xxxiii, 156, whom 
in xxxvi, 33, Pliny is careful to dis- 
tinguish from the sculptor. 

discobolum : votive picture for 
an athletic contest. 



§ 145. *}. tritor oolorum : cf. 
above, § 85 qui colores tererent ; for 
the story of Erigonos's rise from 
poverty to fame, cf. Lysippos, xxxiv, 
61, Protogenes, above, § loi, Introd. 
p. xlix. 

8. BTealoao : above, §§ 104, 142. 
ut disoipulum rel. ; so likewise 

Seilanion, xxxiv, 51, though himself 
a self-taught artist, leaves a celebrated 
pupil in Zeuxiades, Introd. loc. cit. 

9. Aeginetae : for the ethnic as 
proper name cf. Fick, Gr. Personen- 
namen, p. 333. 

12. Aristidis : above, §§ 75, 98, 
108 ; for Nikomachos, § 108. 

Mediam Tlmomaohi : §§ 26, 136. 

13. quam diximus: above, §§ 87, 
91. 

14. quippe . . . extinotae: rheto- 
rical ; for liniamenta reliqua cf. note 
on § 68. 



I70 C. PUN II SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 

dicendi Aristocydes, Anaxander, Aristobulus Sums, 
Arcesilas Tisicratis filius, Coroebus Nicomachi discipulus, 
Charmantides Euphranoris, Dionysodorus Colophonius, 
Dicaeogenes qui cum Demetrio rege vixit, Euthymides, 
Heraclides Macedo, Milon Soleus Pyromachi statuari 5 
discipuli, Mnasitheus Sicyonius, Mnasitimus Aristonidae 
filius et discipulus, Nessus Habronis filius, Polemon 
Alexandrinus, Theodorus Samius et Stadios Nicosthenis 

147 discipuli, Xenon Neoclis discipulus Sicyonius. pinxere 
et mulieres : Timarete Miconis filia Dianam quae in tabula 10 
Ephesi est antiquissimae picturae, Irene Cratini pictoris filia 
et discipula puellam quae est Eleusine, Calypso senem et 
praestigiatorem Theodorum, Alcisthenen saltatorem, Arist- 
arete Nearchi filia et discipula Aesculapium. laia Cyzicena 
perpetua virgo M. Varronis iuventa Romae et penicillo 15 
pinxit et cestro in ebore imagines mulierum maxime et 
Neapoli anum in grandi tabula, suam quoque imaginem ad 

148 speculum, nee uUius velocior in pictura manus fuit, artis 
vero tantum ut multum manipretiis antecederet celeberrimos 
eadem aetate imaginum pictores Sopolim et Dionysium, 20 
quorum tabulae pinacothecas inplent. pinxit et quaedam 
Olympias, de qua hoc solum memoratur, discipulum eius 
fuisse Autobulum. 

§ 146. 2. Aroesilae : from his 7. Habronis: above, 5§ 93, 141. 

date he may be identical with the 8. Theodorus Samius : on the 

Arkesilaos, Paus.i, I, 3, whose picture different painters of this name see 

of Leosthenes and his sons (a aviytvi- Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 285 ; if the identity 

Kov) was in the sanctuary of Athena of his fellow-pupil Stadios with the 

and Zeus in the Peiraieus. The ex- sculptor Stadieus of Pans, vi, 4, 5, 

ploits of Leosthenes, mentioned by the master of Polykles (note on xxxvi, 

Pausanias, took place B.C. 323. 35), were certain, his date would be 

Tisicratis: pupil of Euthykrates towards 01. 150 = 8. c. 180. 

of Sikyon, xxxiv, 83. § 147. 10. Timarete : the account 

Wioomaohi: |§ 108, 145. of the women painters bears strong 

3. Euphranoris : § 128. traces of Duris ; cf. Miinzer, op. cit. 

5. Heraclides: above, § 135. p. 525; Introd. p. Ixv. The names 
Pyromachi : note on xxxiv, § 84. are given in inverted alphabetical 

6. Mnasitheus ; the identification order. In connexion with the lady 
wifli the Mnasilheos of Pint. Arat. painters it is interesting to note the 
vii, suggested by Brunn, K. G. ii, charming Pompeian wall paintings, 
p. 292, is more than doubtful. Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 1443, 1444 = 

Mnasitimos : son of Aristonidas, Bliimner, Techn. iii, p. 226, iv, p. 460, 
/. G. B. 197, above xxxiv, 140. the first of a woman painting a statue. 



/. PAINTING 111 

iAnaxander, ^Aristobouhs of Syria, Arkesilas the son of Teisi- 
krates, \Koroibos the pupil of Nikomachos, •\Charmantides the 
pupil of Euphranor, ■\Dionysodorus of Kolophon, '\Dikaiogenes 
who lived at the court of king Demetrios, \Eutkymtdes, iHera- 
kleides of Makedon and \Milon of Soloi, both pupils of Pyro- 
machos the statuary, ■^Mnasitheus of Sikyon, Mnasitimos the son 
and pupil of Aristonidas, iNessos the son of Habron, \Pokmon 
of Alexandria, Theodoras of Samos and Stadias, pupils of +Niko- 
sthenes, and •\Xenon of Sikyon, the pupil of Nealkes. 

Women too have been painters: \Tmarete the daughter of 147 ~~ 
Mikon, painted an Artemis at Ephesos in a picture of very archaic ^^^-^^^j.^. 
style. Eirene, the daughter and pupil of the painter Kratinos, Timarete. 
painted a maiden at Eleusis, \Kalypso painted portraits of an old j^alypso. 
man, of the juggler Theodores, and of the dancer Alkisthenes ; 
•fAristarete, the daughter and pupil of Nearchos, painted an Askle- Aristarete. 
pios. \Iaia of Kyzikos, who remained single all her life, worked laia of 
at Rome in the youth of Marcus Varro, both with the brush and -''" °^' 
with the oestrum on ivory. She painted chiefly portraits of women, 
and also a large picture of an old woman at Naples, and a portrait 
of herself, executed with the help of a mirror. No artist worked 148 
more rapidly than she did, and her pictures had such merit that 
they sold for higher prices than those of tSopolis and Dionysios, 
well-known contemporary painters, whose works fill our galleries. 
\Olympias also was a painter; of her we only know that ^Auto- Olymfias. 
boulos was her pupil. 

the second of a woman seated at her laia Oyzioena : the alphabetical — 

easel. order is broken to insert a passage 

Miconis filia : § 59 ; Eirene and taken from Varro, Introd. p. Ixxxiii. 
Aristarete likewise figure both as daugh- 16. oestro in ebore ; i.e. inencau- 

ters and pupils ; cf. MUnzer, loc. cit. stic on ivory (below, § 149), as opposed 

1 1 . antiquiss. pioturae : the exact to penicillo in the ordinary method of 
meaning is difficult to comprehend ; tempera. 

Brunn suggests that she affected an 1 7. in grandi tabula : on a wood 

archaicising style. panel of course, and presumably with 

Irene : 'Siprivqv Ti)v Kparivov 61/70- the brush ; cf. BlUmner, Technol. iv, 

T^pa, Clemens Alex, (quoting from p. 445, note 1. 

Didymos) ^/rffOT. iv, 134, p.620, Pott; §148. 20. Sopolim : the name is 

cf. § 140. still known only from Pliny, for in 

12. puellam : translation of the Cic. fl(/. ^«. iv, 18, 4, it seems certain 
Greek Kipa, so first Raoul Rochette, that solidis pecloribus is the reading, 
Peint. Inidites, p. 222 ; cf. Brunn, and not e Sopolidis pictoribus (see 
K. G. ii, p. 299. Baiter & Kayzer's critical apparatus). 

13. praestigiatoreiu . . . saltato- Dionysium : § 113. 

rem: chiastic order. 21. inplent : rhetorical, cf. xxxiv, 

14. Uearchi: above, §141. 36, reflevit urbem. 



r 



172 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



149 encausto pingendi duo fuere antiquitus genera, cera et in 
ebore cestro, id est vericulo, donee classes pingi coepere. 
hoc tertium accessit resolutis igni ceris penicillo utendi, 
quae pictura navibus nee sole nee sale ventisque cor- 
rumpitur. 5 



§ 149. I. Sncausto pingendi : 
§ 122. Owing to Pliny's obscure 
wording of the following passage the 
whole subject of ancient encaustic is 
beset with the gravest difficulties. For 
the literature up to 1887 see Bliimner, 
Technol. iv, pp. 442 ff. ; a good ri- 
sumi, with new suggestions, by Cecil 
Smith, art. Pictura, in Smith's Diet, 
cf Ant. ii, pp. 392 ff. ; cf. also A. S. 
Murray, Handbook, pp. 394 ff. ; a highly 
important contribution has lately been 
made by the painter Berger, Bei- 
trdge zur Entwickelungsgeschickte der 
Malertechnik, i, ii (1893 and 1895), 
who has succeeded in proving painting 
in encaustic to be a totally different 
process from the xavais of walls 
painted with an admixture of olive-oil 
and Punic wax (Plin. xxi, 83), de- 
scribed by Vitruvius (vii, 9). This 



discovery has freed the subject from 
some of its worst difficulties. 

duo genera ; (i) cera et cestro on 
the usual materials, i.e. wood. (2) 
cera et cestro, on ivory, a less common 
material, so that Pliny mentions it 
specially. Of the first method, the 
portraits from the Fayoum now afford 
numerous examples (see Berger, ii, 
pp. 50 ff. ; Cecil Smith, loc. cit., &c.). 
The second method remains obscure, 
but cf. the painted ivory fragments 
mentioned by Berger, i, p. 41 (in Pal. 
Conserv. at Rome) and the ivory panel 
in the British Museum with figure of 
a nymph, Murray, Handbook, p. 396, 
fig. 117. It is notewortliy that the 
lady painter laia (§ 147) is the only 
artist known to have employed this 
technique. 



/. PAINTING 



173 



From the earliest times two methods of painting in encaustic 149 
existed — one with wax, the other further on ivory — by means of ^^'^^"^ 
a oestrum or sharp point. When it became the fashion to paint 
ships of war, a third method was introduced, of melting the wax 
by fire and using a brush. Paint applied to ships in this way 
cannot be destroyed either by the action of the sun or of the 
brine or wind. 



2. cestro . . . verioulo : it is 
Berger's merit {Beiirdge, i, p. 35 ff.) 
to have identified the cestrum among 
the instruments found in the grave of 
St. Medard {ib. figs. 2, 3; Bliimner, 
Technol. iv, figs. 66, 67), and among 
the Naples bronzes {Beitr. i, p. 43 ff.). 
The one end is shaped like a spoon : 
with it the colours are held to melt 
over the cauierium or fire-pan (the 
misnamed hotte h couleurs of the 
St. Medard grave), and then poured 
over the panel ; the long handle 
thickens at the upper end, which is 
used to level the colours. 

donee classes pingl ooepere : 
Berger, i, p. 38, explains the introduc- 
tion of the brush for ship painting to 



have been necessitated by the impossi- 
bility of pouring fluid colour from the 
cestrum on to the vertical sides of a 
ship. This explanation seems correct, 
in so far at least as the meaning of 
the writer of the Plinian passage 
is concerned. It would be in the 
manner of certain ancient art-writers 
to imagine a conventional develop- 
ment of technique from cestrum to 
brush, and then to prove the point 
by appeal to practice. 

3. resolutis eeris : i.e. in a 
separate, preliminary process, whereas 
in the first two methods the colours 
were both heated and applied by means 
of the cestrum. 



//. PL AST ICE. 



151 De pictura satis superque. contexuisse his et plasticen 
conveniat. eiusdem opere terrae fingere ex argilla simili- 
tudines Butades Sicyonius figulus primus invenit Corinthi 
filiae opera quae capta amore iuvenis, abeunte illo peregre, 
umbram ex facie eius ad lucernam in pariete lineis circum- 5 
scripsit, quibus pater eius inpressa argilla typum fecit et 
cum ceteris fictilibus induratum igni proposuit, eumque 

A.u.c. 608. servatum in Nymphaeo, donee Mummius Corinthum ever- 

152 terit, tradunt. sunt qui in Samo primes omnium plasticen 
invenisse Rhoecum et Theodorum tradant multo ante ro 

A.u.c. 97. Bacchiadas Corintho pulsos, Damaratum vero ex eadem 
urbe profugum, qui in Etruria Tarquinium regem populi 
Romani genuit, comitates fictores Euchira, Diopum, Eugram- 
mum, ab iis Italiae traditam plasticen. Butadis inventum 



§ 151. 2. eiusdem opere terrae : 
with these words Pliny harks back to 
his main theme in § i {Resiant terrae 
ipsius genera lapidumqtie) of which 
the History of the Painters has been 
but an episode ; so again in § 1 66 he 
begins Verum et ipsius terrae ; see 
Frbhner, in Rhein. Mus. 47, 1892, 
p. 294. 

2. similitudines primus inve- 
nit : Boutades ' invents ' (i) faces in 
relief, (2) faces applied as tile-ends, 
(3) how to take the cast of the model 
for a statue, whereas Lysistratos (4) 
shows, finally, how to take the cast 
from a living model. The whole de- 
velopment has a strong Xenokratic 
tinge ; see Introd. p. xxxiv. f. 

3. Butades Sioyonius : the fol- 
lowing anecdote is told with slight 
variations by Athenagoras, Hfta^tia, 



17 ed. Schwartz, p. 18 (see App. xi). 

Corinthi ; cf. § 16 ; Corinth and 
Sikyon now appear as the cradles 
of the art of modelling. As Cecil 
Smith points out {Pictura, p. 401), 
the legend that the Sikyonian Bou- 
tades worked at Corinth, suggests 
an attempt to compromise the rival 
claims of both cities to artistic priority. 

4. abeunte illo peregre: accord- 
ing to Athenagoras, the youth was not 
going away, but asleep. 

8, donee Mummius Corinthum: 
the sack of Corinth in B.C. 146 had 
evidently become a conventional date 
with which to connect the disappear- 
ance or destruction of works of art in 
Greece. 

9. sunt qui : introduces paren- 
thetically a valiant version of the 
origin of TrKaaTiicii ; from the mention 



II. MODELLING. 

Of painting I have said enough and more than enough, but it 151 
may be well to add some account of clay modelling. It was by ^s^yon""^ 
the service of the selfsame earth that \Boutades, a potter of Sikyon, discovers 
discovered, with the help of his daughter, how to model portraits f^f/,!^"^ 
in clay. She was in love with a youth, and when he was leaving 
the country she traced the outline of the shadow which his face 
cast on the wall by lamplight. Her father filled in the outline 
with clay and made a model ; this he dried and baked with the 
rest of his pottery, and we hear that it was preserved in the 
temple of the Nymphs, until Mummius overthrew Corinth. 146 b.c. 
According to some authorities clay modelling was first introduced 152 
in Samos by Rhoikos and Theodoras, long before the expulsion of Rhoikos 
the Bacchiadai from Corinth, and when Damaratos fled from that ^^^^j, i°' 
city to Etruria, where his son Tarquinius, afterwards king of Rome, Samos. 
was born, he was accompanied by three potters, Eucheir, \Diopos, iq-^^{^\ 
and \Eugrammos, who introduced the art of modelling into Italy. Greek fot- 
Boutades first added red ochre or modelled in red clay, and j^amaratos 

to Etruria. 
of the followers of Damaratos this (evxeip), and the skilled draughtsman 
alternative account seems taken from (eiiy/ra/i/jos), while Diopus = Siottos is 
Cornelius Nepos (above, § 17, Introd. connected with Si<5?rTj;s or SiSirrpa, an 
p. Ixxxv). The subject of Boutades is instrument for taking levels, the in- 
resumed belo^v at ^i!«/afl'w «We«?«»«, vention of which (vii, 198) is attri- 
and again at idem et de signis. buted by Pliny to Theodores, Urlichs, 

10. Khoeoum et Theodorum: Cfirestom. p. 373. [A. Fick, Die 
xxxiv, 83. Griechischen Personennamen, 2nd ed. 

11. Damaratum; above, § 16. p. 254, believes these names to be 
13. fictores: nXaoTai, fingere like given with regard to the bearer's trade 

TtXaaaai being used of the artist who or occupation, and in many cases to 

works in soft substances such as earth have supplanted the real name (of. 

or wax, also who fashions by the hand note on Theorus, in § 144). They 

(cf. the fingitque fremendo of Vergil, seem to me more likely to have 

Aen. vi, 80); see on xxxiv, 7, and been favourite names in artist families, 

below, on § 153. and to have been given at birth. — 

EuoMra . . . Eugrammum : re- H. L. U.] For Eucheiros see Coram, 

spectively the skilled handicraftsman on p. 220. 



176 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



est rubricam addere aut ex rubra creta fingere. primusque 
personas tegularum extremis imbricibus inposuit, quae inter 
initia prostypa vocavit, postea idem ectypa fecit, hinc et 
fastigia templorum orta. propter hunc plastae appellati. 

153 Hominis autem imaginem gypso e facie ipsa primus 5 
omnium expressit ceraque in eam formam gypsi infusa 
emendare instituit Lysistratus Sicyonius, frater Lysippi de 
quo diximus. hie et similitudines reddere instituit, ante 
eum quam pulcherrimas facere studebatur. idem et de 
signis effigies exprimere invenit, crevitque res in tantum ut ^^ 
nulla signa statuaeve sine argilla fierent. quo apparet anti- 
quiorem banc fuisse scientiam quam fundendi aeris. 

154 Plastae laudatissimi fuere Damophilus et Gorgasus, idem 
pictores, qui Cereris aedem Romae ad circum maximum 



2. personas tegularum: numbers 
of these tile-faces from Etruria are to 
be seen in almost every Museum ; cf. 
also the terra-cotta fragments from 
the treasuries at Olympia ( Olympia ii, 
Baudenhmdler, taf. cxx). 

4. fastigia : in Pliny used as a rule 
of the figures of the akroteria, and 
not of the actual pedimental figures, 
cf xxxvi, 1 3 ; xxviii, i6 ; xxxvii, 14 ; 
xxxvi, 6, &c., below § 157 ; this mean- 
ing is borne out (i) by Vitruv. iii, 3, 
5 ornantque signis Jictilibus aut 
aereis inauratis earum fastigia Tusca- 
nico more, uti est ad Circum maxiTnum 
Cereris, et Herculis Pomfeiani, item 
Capitolii, (2) by Cicero, de Divin. i, 
10, 16 cum Summanus in fastigio 
lovis opt. max., qui turn erat fictiliSj 
e caelo ictus esset, etc., (3) by Festus, 
s.v. Ratumena. Further, in Plut. 
Caesar\)sx\\, d/cpcuTi^pioy corresponds to 
the fastigium of Suet. Jul. 81 ; see 
Furtvvangler, A. Z. 1882, p. 346; 
Fowler in Amer. Journ. of Archaeol. 
idii, 1893, p. 385. 

orta : because the figured akroteria 
aro|e out of the earlier tile-faces. 

§ 153. 5. Hominis . . . studeba- 
tur : the proper place for the ' inven- 
tion ' of Lysistratos is after the third 
invention of Boutades, below (B. dis- 



covered how to make models of 
statues ; Lysistratos, however (autem), 
found out how to take casts of living 
people, see note on § 151). The dis- 
placement arose, doubtless, from con- 
fusion of notes ; it may be due to Pliny 
himself, or to his nephew when he pre- 
pared the last books of the Hist. Nat. 
for publication ; cf. Brunn, K. G. i, 
p. 403, Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 59 f., 
Mlinzer, op. cit. p. 510. 

e facie ipsa: i.e. from the living 
model ; the invention attributed to 
Lysistratos has nothing whatever to 
do with the custom of taking masks 
from the face of the dead. 

8. ante eum q. pulcberrimas : 
the observation is correct ; by the time 
of Lysippos realistic portraiture had, 
if not superseded ideal or typical re- 
presentation, yet asserted its right to 
co-existence. It was, in a word, the age 
when an athlete could be idealized as 
the ' Apoxyomenos,' or portrayed with 
the brutal realism of the bronze boxer 
from Olympia (Olympia iv, Bronzen, 
taf. ii), cf. the note on xxxiv, 16. 

9. idem et ; refers back to Bou- 
tades. 

1 1 . sine argilla : Pliny means that 
to make a bronze statue without a clay 
model is impossible, though he — or 



//. MODELLING 



177 



placed masks as tile-fronts on the eaves of buildings, originally 
called TTpi.'o-Tima, or low reliefs ; later on he made eKrvira, or high 
reliefs, and these led to the ornamentation of the gables of temples. 
Since the time of Boutades artists who worked in clay have been 
called modellers. {Lysistratos of Sikyon, brother of the Lysippos 153 
whom I have mentioned in an earlier book, was however the first ^V^^.^''^"^ 

. . . ' of Sikyon 

who obtamed portraits by making a plaster mould on the actual takes casts 

features, and introduced the practice of taking from the plaster /'^"^ *H 

a wax cast on which he made the final corrections. He also first 

rendered likenesses with exactitude, for previous artists had only 

tried to make them as beautiful as possible.) The said Boutades Boutades 

discovered how to take casts from statues, a practice which was ^"^"r/fg^ 

extended to such a degree that no figure or statue was made statues. 

without a clay model. Hence it is clear that the art of clay 

modelling is older than that of bronze casting. 

Most highly praised among modellers were \Damophilos and 154 

iGorgasos ; they were also painters, and united both arts in the i^"^nd '' 

decorations of the temple of Ceres at Rome near the Great Gorgasos 

decorate 
the Temple 
scription {versibus inscriptis Graece) of Ceres. 



his author — ^have used an ambiguous 
expression, which might imply that 
there had been previous bronze statues, 
but made without a clay model, cf. 
furtwangler, Plinius, p. 60. The use 
of clay models for marble statues seems 
to have been of altogether later date, 

cf. § 155- 

antiquiorem : so in xxxiv, 35, 
prior (sc. plastic^ quatn statuaria 
fuit. 

§154. 13. Damophilus: [although 
Damophilos is the Doric form of 
Demophilos, and both represent the 
same name, it is yet impossible to de- 
duce from this fact the identity of the 
Damophilus mentioned here with the 
Demophilus Himeraeus who appears 
in§ 61, the master of Zeuxis. Himera 
was an Ionic city, and it is out of the 
question that one of its citizens should 
ever have called himself by a Doric 
form of his name. Yet we cannot 
on the other hand doubt the form 
Damophilus given here by Pliny ; for 
he evidently had it from an authority 
who was familiar with the actual in- 



Thus if we get rid of the false assump- 
tion that this Damophilus could be 
identical with the master of Zeuxis, 
we get rid of all the far-fetched com- 
binations necessary to reconcile the 
date of D. of Himera (whose pupil 
Zeuxis fl. about B.C. 404) with the 
date of the temple of Ceres, B. c. 493. 
— H.L.U.]. The difficulty of re- 
conciling Demophilus and Damophilus 
has been perceived by Freeman, Hist, 
of Sicily, ii, p. 411 : 'It is a little 
startling to hear that the master of 
Zeuxis, with his colleague Gorgasos, 
painted the Roman temple which was 
vowed by Aulus Postumius, victor at 
Regillus.' Freeman, however, inclines 
to a conciliation : ' Chronology may 
be appeased by the easy conjecture 
that the painting of the temple, and 
the Greek letters which recorded the 
names of the artists, came a generation 
or two later than the temple itself.' 

14. Cereria aedem : note on xxxiv, 
15, and the passage from Vitruvius 
quoted above \mder fasiigia. 



N 



178 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



utroque genere artis suae excoluerant versibus inscriptis 
Graece quibus significarent ab dextra opera Damophili esse, 
ab laeva Gorgasi. ante banc aedem Tuscanica omnia in 
aedibus fuisse auctor est Varro, et ex hac, cum reficeretur, 
crustas parietum excisas tabulis marginatis inclusas esse, 5 

155 item signa ex fastigiis dispersa. fecit et Chalcosthenes 
cruda opera Athenis, qui locus ab officina eius Ceramicos 
appellatur. M. Varro tradit sibi cognitum Romae Possim 
nomine, a quo facta poma et uvas alitem nescisse aspectu 
discernere a veris. idem magnificat Arcesilaum, L. Luculli 10 
familiarem, cuius proplasmata pluris venire solita artificibus 

156 ipsis quam aliorum opera ; ab hoc factam Venerem Gene- 
tricem in foro Caesaris et prius quam absolveretur festina- 
tione dedicandi positam, eidem a Lucullo HS. |X| signum 
Felicitatis locatum, cui mors utriusque inviderit ; Octavio 15 

9. alitem nescisse] Traube ; item piscis (pisces, Bamb.) codd. ; item pisces 
non possis Jan, Detlefsen. 



1. utroque genere artis: i.e. the 
decorations consisted of painted terra- 
cottas ; fine examples (from T. of 
Jupiter Capitolinus ?) exist at Rome 
in Pal. Conserv., Helbig, i, p. 447 f. 

2. ab dextra . . . ab laeva : cf. the 
similar inscription, Anth. Pal. ix, 75S : 

HjIXoiv lypaif/e t^v Bipav rilv Se^iiv, 
T^v 5' €^i6vTa)v Sf^idr Atovvffios. 

4. cum reficeretur ; after the fire 
of B.C. 31; restored by Augustus, B.C. 
27, re-dedicated B.C. 17 (Tac. Ann. 
ii, 49). 

5. crustas : for reliefs cf. xxxiii, 
157, crustarius. 

excisas : cf. Vitruv. ii, 8, 9, a 
typical instance of the care taken in 
the first century B. C. to preserve 
archaic works. 

tabulis marginatis : below, § 

173- 

6. ex fastigiis: above, note on 

§ 152- 

* § 155. Chalcosthenes : more 
correctly Kaikosthenes ; see on xxxiv, 
87. From a basis {Af\Tiov, 1891, 
p. 35 f. and p. 84) found in the actual 
Kerameikos, we leam that K. was 



of the deme Thria. Lolling (loc. 
cit.) dates the inscr. towards the close 
of the third century B.C. 

7. cruda opera : these have been 
identifiedbyMilchh6fer(.4rir/4..S';«i/«e», 
Jif. Brunn dargebr. 1893, p. 50 £f.) 
with the arjkKiuxra ia wti\ov, represent- 
ing Dionysos feasting in the house of 
Amphiktyon, which adorned a chapel 
— oiKriim — of the god's ri/ievos, in the 
Kerameikos (Pans, i, .i, 5) ; the monu- 
ment was presumably the votive offer- 
ing of a guild of Dionysiac artists. 
The Italian work of the Delia Robbias 
may help us to a notion of what the 
group or relief looked like. 

8. appellatur : the etymological 
attempt suggests Varroniau author- 
ship ; cf. note on xxxiv, 1 1, on xxxvi, 
14 {Jychniteri). 

9. poma et uvas : cf. the excellent 
carvings of fruit, leaves and flowers on 
areliefoftheMuseod.Terme.Wickhoff, 
Wiener Genesis, p. 23, figs. 7, 8, 9, 
10, and the beautiful garlands of fruit 
and flowers that adorned the Ara 
Pads of Augustus. 

alitem nescisse : cf., in con- 



//. MODELLING 



179 



Circus, placing on it a metrical inscription in Greek to say that on 
the right hand were the works of Damophilos, on the left the works 
of Gorgasos. Varro tells us that in all earlier temples decorations 
in the Etruscan style only were to be found, and that when this 
temple was restored the ornamentation of the walls was cut out 
and framed, and the statues that crowned the roof were dispersed. 

Chalkosthenes also modelled in unbaked clay in the Potter's 155 
Quarter at Athens, so called after his workshop. Marcus Varro ^^^^^ 
says that at Rome a man named \Possis was known to him who Possis. 
made clay apples and grapes which the very birds could not 
distinguish from nature. He also praises \Arkesilaos, the friend Arkedlaos. 
of Lucius LucuUus, for whose clay models artists would pay more ^/j ^i^J 
than was given for the finished works of others ; he made the ifiodeh. 

156 

statue of Venus the Mother in the forum of Caesar, which was 
set up before it was really finished, so eager were his patrons 
to dedicate it. He also accepted a commission from Lucullus to 
make a statue of Good Fortune for 1,000,000 sesterces [^^8750 
circ.]. Death, however, cut them both off before the statue was 
completed. Arkesilaos also made a plaster model for a talent 
[;£'2io circ.J for a Roman knight named Octavius, who proposed 



firmation of Traube's reading, above, 

§§ 23, 6.'), 66- 

10. idem magnifloat : cf. inxxxvi, 
41 Arcesilaum quoque magnificat 
Varro, hence the identity of authorship 
for both passages. 

Aroesilaum : for his marble works 
see xxxvi, 33, 41 ; his Venus Genitrix 
and his Felicitas are mentioned here 
because they apparently remained at 
the stage of clay models. 

L. LucuUi familiarem: Urlichs 
{Ariesilaos, p. 4) suggests that Lucullus 
brought backArkesilaos with him from 
Athens when he visited that city in 
B.C. 88-7, cf. above, § 125. 

11. proplasmata : see the ex- 
cellent remarks of Wickhoff, Wiener 
Genesis, p. 25 f. and p. 41, on the 
extensive use of the clay model in the 
first century B. c, and its influence on 
the technique of marble ; cf. above, on 

§ 153- 
§ 156. 12. ■VeneremG-enetricem: 

from the Roman coins which most 



probably reproduce the statue, it ap- 
pears that the Genetrix of Arkesilaos 
was adapted from a Greek statuary 
type which recent criticism has traced 
back to the 'Aphrodite in the gardens ' 
of Alkamenes (note on xxxvi, 16) ; 
cf. Furtwangler, ap. Roscher i, p. 

413- 

14. signum Felicitatis : the tem- 
ple of Felicitas had been built by 
C. Licinins Lucullus, xxxiv, 69 ; 
xxxvi, 39. 

15. mors utriusque: Marcus 
Lucullus died B. c. 58, and his 
brother only survived him a. short 
time (Plut L%u. xliii) ; hence since 
Arkesilaos was still at work for Caesar 
in B. c. 46 (below), we must either 
imagine that he left an order of his 
patron unattended to for fifteen years, 
or follow Urlichs {op. cit. p. 5), in 
supposing that it is the young 
Lucullus {clarissimus adulescens, Cic. 
Phil. X, 48), whose death (at Philippi 
in B. c. 42) is alluded to here. From 



Na 



i8o 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXV 



equiti Romano cratera facere volenti exemplar e gypso 
factum talento. laudat et Pasitelen qui plasticen matrem 
caelaturae et statuariae scalpturaeque dixit et, cum esset in 
omnibus his summus, nihil umquam fecit antequam finxit. 

157 praeterea elaboratam hanc artem Italiae et maxime Etru- 5 
riae, Vulcam Veis accitum cui locaret Tarquinius Priscus 
lovis effigiem Capitolio dicandam, fictilem eum fuisse et 
ideo miniari solitum, fictiles in fastigio templi eius quadrigas, 
de quibus saepe diximus, ab hoc eodem factum Herculem 
qui hodieque materiae nomen in urbe retinet. hae enim lo 
turn effigies deorum erant lautissimae, nee poenitet nos 
illorum qui tales decs cpluere, aurum enim et argentum ne 

158 diis quidem conficiebant. durant etiamnum plerisque in 
locis talia simulacra, fastigia quidem templorum etiam 
in urbe crebra et municipiis, mira caelatura et arte suique 15 
firmitate, sanctiora auro, certe innocentiora. 



xxxiv, 93 (where see note) we learn 
that he rededicated a statue of 
Herakles originally set up by his 
father ; it is therefore not surprising 
to find him commissioning Arkesilaos, 
an old friend of his family, with 
a statue for the temple built by his 
grandfather. 

Ootavio eq.uiti : according to Ur- 
lichs, Arkesilaos, p. 17, perhaps identi- 
cal with the upstart {per rae films') who 
pestered Cicero with invitations to 
dinner, Cic. Fam. vii, 9, 16. 

2. Pasitelen: xxxiii, 156; xxxvi, 
40. 

3. scalpturae : here = sculptura 
[so also Plin. the Y. Ep. i, 10, has 
scalftor for sculptor. — H. L. U.] ; the 
term is generally used of the graver's 
art, as an equivalent of the Greek 

§ 157. 5. maxime Etruriae : the 
remark is fully confirmed by the 
splendid remains of large terra-cotta 
(figures, discovered in Italy; cf. 
especially the pedimental figures from 



the temple at Luni, Milani, Mus. d. 
Ant. Classica, i, 1884, pp. 89-112; 
where see further literature. 

7. lovis efagiem . . fictilem : 
cf. Juv. xi, lie, ficHlis et nulh vio- 
latus lupiter auro. From Servius' 
(on Edog. X, 27) description of the 
Roman iriumphatores, who were 
adorned lovis optimi maximi ornatu 
we learn that the god was represented 
standing with the thunderbolt in his 
right (cf. Ovid Fast, i, 202 inque 
lovis dextra fictile fulmen erat) and 
the sceptre in his left. This ancient 
image was destroyed B.C. 83, in the 
fire which laid the temple in ashes. 
It was replaced by a gold-ivory 
Jupiter — the work of an ApoUonios 
— after the model of the Olympian 
Zeus of Pheidias (cf. Chalcidius on 
Plato's Timaios, 338 C, p. 361, ed. 
Wrobel, and Loewy on /. G. B. 343, 
p. 242). 

Capitolio : note on xxxiv, 38. 

8. miniari solitum : enumerat 
auctores Verrius quibus credere ne- 



//. MODELLING iSt 

to have a goblet cast from it. Varro further praises Pasiieks, Pasiteles. 

who said that modelling was the mother of chasing, statuary and ^'P''"- 

sculpture, and who, though he excelled in all these arts, never „pon the 

executed any work without first making a clay model. The art ^^7 . 

/•in. . o y value of 

ot modellmg, agam, accordmg to Varro, was developed in Italy, the day 

and more especially in Etruria, and Tarquin the Ancient summoned ™'"^^^- 

an artist called tVulca from Veil to make a statue of Jupiter for 

the Capitol. This statue was of clay and was therefore painted 

red ; the four-horse chariots on the gables of the temple, which 

I have mentioned so often, were also of clay. Vulca further 

made the Hercules still known at Rome as ' the clay Hercules.' 

These were the most magnificent statues known in those days, and 

we have no reason to be ashamed of the men who worshipped 

deities of clay, and would not, even for their gods, change gold 

and silver into images. Effigies of clay still exist in different 158 

places, while gable ornaments in clay are still to be seen even at 

Rome as well as in provincial towns. The admirable execution Beauiyand 

of these figures, their artistic merits and their durability make "r^"''^ 

them more worthy of honour than gold, and they are at any rate andentday 

more innocent. images. 

cesse .sit lovis ipsius simulacri faciem was richly adorned with painted 
diehus festis minio inlini solitam . . . decorations ; cf. Q\c.deDiv.\, lo, i6; 
Plin. xxxiii, iii ; see also Servius on J-iv.per. 14; and see note on § 154 
£d. vi, 62 ; X, 27 ; cf. in Greece the for possible remains of these decora- 
painting with white, at her festival, of tions. 
the image of Athena Skirrophoria. 9. saepe diximus ; viii, 161; xxviii, 

flotiles . . . quadrigas : also the 16. 

work of Valentine artists, Plut. Poplic. Herculem : often identified (but 

xiii ap\ia Karci Kopvcp^v (sc. vitij on the very slightest grounds) with 

Tou KoTT. Ai.) kni(TTT](7ai K€pafL€ovv the Hercules jictilis of Martial xiv, 

e^iSaiKe (sc. d TapKovivtos) TvppTjvois 178. 

Ttatv If Oiijfwv SrjiuovpyoTs. These 10. hae enim turn efflgies: this 

are the chariots whose miraculous rhetorical tribute to the simplicity of 

swelling in the potter's furnace was theancientRomanimageswas asoldas 

interpreted as an omen of the future — Cato, or as Cato reported by Livy 

greatness of Rome (Plin. xxviii, 16 {7iViyi\v,^,^)infesta,mihicredite,signa 

cum in fastigium eiusdem delubri ab Syracusis illata sunt huic urbi. 

(Jup. Cap.) fraefaratae quadrigae iam nimis midtos audio Corinthi et 

fictiles in fornace crevissenf). These Athenarum ornamenta laudaniis 

chariots were replaced in B. C. 296 niirantisque et antejixafidilia deorum 

by a lovem in culmine cum quadrigis, Romanorum ridentis. ego hos malo 

apparently of bronze (Liv. x, 23, 12). fropitios deos et iia spero futuros, si 

The roof of the temple of the Tarquins in suis manere sedibus patiemur. 



C. PLINII SECUNDI 
NATURALIS HISTORIAE 

LIBER XXXVI, §§ 9-44 
{SCULPTURA) 



Lib. 
XXXVI. 



10 



SCULPTURA. 

Marmore scalpendo primi omnium inclaruerunt Dipoenus 
et ScylHs geniti in Creta insula etiamnum Medis imperan- 
tibus priusque quam Cyrus in Persis regnare inciperet, hoc 
est olympiade circiter quinquagensima. hi Sicyonem se 
contulere, quae diu fuit officinarum omnium talium patria. 5 
deorum simulacra publice locaverant iis Sicyoni, quae prius 
quam absolverentur artifices iniuriam questi abiere in 
Aetolos. protinus Sicyonem fames invasit ac sterilitas 
maerorque dirus. remedium petentibus Apollo Pythius 
respondit: si Dipoenus et Scyllis deorum simulacra per- 10 
fecissent, quod magnis mercedibus obsequiisque impetratum 



5. talium] metallnm omnes praeter Bamb. 



§ 9. 1. Marmore scalpendo: with 
the exception of the a-yaX/ia of the 
Lindian Athena €« \i6ov afiapdySov, 
mentioned on the doubtful authority 
of George Kedrenos (Overbeck, 
Schriftqu. 337 ; cf. Brunn, K. G. i, 
p. 44), Dip. and Skyllis seem only to 
have made wooden images, Pans, ii, 1 5, 
1 ; 22, 5 ; Clement of Alex. TrpoT-pcTrT. 
X157. Iv, p. 42 ; the gilt bronze images 
mentioned by Moses of Chorene 
{Schriftqu. 336) were more probably 
of gilt wood. It is evident that in the 
original Greek authority (Xenokrates 
from the character of the passage 
and the stress laid on Sikyon ; see 
Intvod. p. xxv) these artists had been 
discussed in connexion with the 
beginnings of bronze statuary; 
Munzer, Hermes, xxx, 1895, p. 523 ; 
cf. Robert, Arch. March, p. 22. 



2. geniti in Creta: contains a 
trace of the legend preserved in Paus. 
ii, 15, I, that they were the sons of 
the Athenian Daidalos and a woman 
of Gortyn. By representing artists 
bom in Crete as active in Sikyon, 
a similar compromise between the 
rival claims of ancient art centres is 
effected to that noted in the case of 
Boutades, xxxv, 151; cf. Miinzer, loc. 
cit. 

Medis imperantibus ; the Ar- 
menian historian Moses of Chorene 
recounts that Ardashir ( — Kyros) took 
away from Kroisos three statues of 
Artemis, Herakles and Apollo by 
Dipoinos and Skyllis. The date 
assigned to the artists seems calcu- 
lated with reference to this event as 
follows : Kyros could take away 
works by D. and S. at the time of his 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE. 



Book 
XXXVI. 



As sculptors in marble, the first to win fame were Difoinos 9 
and Sky His, born before the fall of the Median empire, and -^^"^ ''*' , 
before Cyrus began to reign in Persia, that is about the fiftieth sculpture. 
Olympiad [580-577 b.c.J, in the island of Crete. They migrated 
to Sikyon, which was long the home of all such crafts. The 
state of Sikyon gave them a commission for certain images of the 
gods, but before these were completed the artists, aggrieved at 
the treatment they met with, departed into Aitolia. Sikyon soon 10 
afterwards was visited by famine, failure of the crops and dire 
affliction. The inhabitants sought relief from the Pythian Apollo, 
and received the answer that the evil would cease when Dipoinos 
and Skyllis should complete their statues of the gods, a concession 
which was hardly won from them by money and by personal defer- 



conqnest of Kroisos (b. c. 546), there- 
fore the artists must have been of 
repnte even before the accession of 
Kyros (b. c. 556), Robert, op. cit. 
p. 18 f. 

4. oirciter : cf. xxxiv, 49 : cir- 
eiier CCC urbis nostrae annum. 

Sicyonem . . . patria : cf. xxxv, 
127 diuque (Sikyon) ilia fuit f atria 
picturae. 

6. prius quam absolv. : the 
following anecdote, whose artificial 
character is obvions, has been shovm 
by Petersen, de Cerere Phigalensi, 
p. 13 ff., to be a mere adaptation 
of the local myth recorded Pans, ii, 

7,7- 

7. iniuriam guesti : fivojiivov 
Zk <T(ptn (Apollo and Artemis) 
SfifmTos . . . 01 t^ev Is Kp-qTTju . . . dire- 
TpdirovTO, Faus. loc. cit. 



in Aetolos : named by the 
legend as the artists' place of refuge 
because there existed in that region 
works by D. and S., i. c at Ambra- 
kia (§ 14), which, though not in 
Aitolia, was towards the close of the 
third century the most prominent city 
of the Aitolian league. A Greek 
writer of that date (Antigonos ? cf. In- 
trod. p. xxxvii) might say indifferently 
ih 'AfJ-^paKiav or ds AItqj\ovs ; Miin- 
zer, op. cit. p. 524. 

§ 10. 8. protinua . . . dirus : tous 
5^ avdp^-novs . . . vdaos kn4\a^€v, Paus. 
loc, cit. 

9. remedium . . . impetratum 
est : Koi ff(pas inkKsvov ot p-avreis 
'AiT6Wan'a t\aaaaSai «ai 'Apre/uv . . . 

(paffLV Is T^V dKp6TT0XlV k\OitV. 



i86 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

est. fuere autem simulacra ea Apollinis, Dianae, Herculis, 
Minervae quod e caelo postea tactum est. 

11 Cum hi assent, iam fuerat in Chio insula Melas scalptor, 
dein filius eius Micciades, ac deinde nepos Archermus, cuius 
filii Bupalus et Athenis vel clarissimi in ea scientia fuere 5 
Hipponactis poetae aetate, quern certum est LX olympiade 
fuisse. quodsi quis horum familiam ad proavom usque 
retro agat, inveniat artis eius originem cum olympiadum 

12 initio coepisse. Hipponacti notabilis foeditas voltus erat, 
quamobrem imaginem eius lascivia iocorum hi proposuere lo 
ridentium circulis, quod Hipponax indignatus destrinxit 
amaritudinem carminum in tantum ut credatur aliquis ad 
laqueum eos conpulisse. quod falsum est, conplura enim 
in iinitimis insulis simulacra postea fecere, sicut in Delo, 
quibus subiecerunt carmen non vitibus tantum censeri 15 
Chion sed et operibus Archermi filiorum. ostendunt et 

13 lasii Dianam manibus eorum factam. in ipsa Chio narrata 
est operis eorum Dianae facies in sublimi posita, cuius 
voltum intrantes tristem, abeuntes exhilaratum putant. 
Romae eorum signa sunt in Palatina aede Apollinis in 20 

17. lasii] Riccard.; 'Lasii Samb., Detlefsen; lasi Voss. 

1. Apollinis . . . Minervae : the Melas (Me[A.]a[i']os iraTpiiiov aa\Tv 

list is alptiabetical ; the statues there- ye/ioi'Tes]) of the third line is pre- 

fore were no part of a group but single sumably not the father of Mikkiades, 

works, H. L. Urlichs in GSrlitz. but, as SchoU and Robert pointed out 

Verhandl. p. 330, note 2. {Arch. March, p. 116 f.), a local hero 

Dianae : possibly identical with cf Chios, son of Oinopion ; Ion ap. 

the ibavov of Artemis Munychia Paus. vii, 4, 8. The account in Pliny 

mentionedby Clement, irpoTpeirr. X.6yos, rests upon this or a similar inscription ; 

iv, p. 43 : cf. Urlichs loc. cit. ; Robert, the blunder with regard to Melas may 

Arch. March, p. 22. have been committed early by a Greek 

§ 11. 3. Cum hi essent : to the writer ; cf. note on Demarate in 

account of D. and S. is now opposed xxxiv, 88. 

(from another source) that of the soalptor = sculptor ; cf note on 

Chian school. Introd. p. xxvi. xxxv, 156. 

Melas . . . Micciades . . . Archer- 4. Archermus : besides the Delos 

mus : the three names appear on inscription, the name occurs on a later 

the famous inscription from Delos inscr., m the Ionic alphabet, from the 

{/.G.B.i; best restored by Lolling, Athenian Akropolis, C. I. A. iv, 373, 95. 
'mp. dpx. 1888, p. 71 ff. ; cf. E. A. 5. Bupalus et Ath. ; the fact 

Gardner in Class. Rev. 1893, p. 140), that they were sons of Archermos 

where 'Apxepi^os (2nd line) appears was doubtless also taken fi-om an 

as son of Mi«/no8i;s (1st line). The inscription; Miinzer, op. cit. p. 524. 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 187 

ence. The statues in question were of Apollo, Artemis, Herakles, 
and Athene : this last was afterwards struck by lightning. 

Before their day, however, the sculptor Melas had already lived 11 
in the island of Chios, succeeded by his son Mikkiades and his 5^^/^/"' 
grandson Archermos, whose sons, Boupalos and Athenis, were 
masters of great renown in their craft in the time of the poet 
Hipponax, who certainly lived in the sixtieth Olympiad [540-537 
B.C.]. Thus counting four generations backwards to their great 
grandfather, the birth of sculpture is found to coincide with the 
first Olympiad [776-773 B.C.]. Hipponax was conspicuous for 12 
his ill-favoured countenance, which incited the sculptors in wanton 
jest to display his portrait to the ridicule of their assembled 
friends. Incensed at this Hipponax lampooned them so bitterly 
that, as some believe, they were driven to hang themselves. This, 
however, cannot be true, for they afterwards made in the neigh- 
bouring islands, as for example, in Delos, a number of images of 
the gods, under which they carved verses saying that Chios was 
not honoured for her vines alone but for the works of the sons of 
Archermos. lasos too can show an Artemis made by their hands, 13 
while in Chios itself we hear of a mask of Artemis by them, 
which is placed at a height in the temple, and presents a gloomy 
countenance to those who enter the temple, a cheerful one to 
those who are leaving. At Rome statues by them are to be seen 
on the summit of the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, and 

6. LX olympiade : the Parian March. ■^. w^ i. 
Chronicle gives his date as 01. 59, 3 = 12. ad laaueum : this portion of 

B. C. 54^. the story is the doublette of the story 

8. olymp. initio : the calculation of Lycambes and Archilochos. The 

is based on the false assumption that a credatur aliquis introduces it as 

generation=theaveragefullIifeofsixty apocryphal, while in the following 

years ; cf. Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 17. sentence it is proved an invention. 

§ 12. 9. notabilia foeditaa : cf. 14. in Delo : like their father 

Metrodoros of Skepsis, ap. Athen. xii, Archermos. 

552 c. The only ascertained factor 17. laaii: in the neighbourhood 

in the whole anecdote is the poet's of Chios. The words ostendunt . . . 

attacks {acer koslis Bupalo) upon the ^a/a«; betray mere periegetic curiosity 

two artists (Bergk, Lyr. Gr. ed. 4, (Furtwangler,i%»i«f,p.6i); theyare 

fr. 10-14; Colligaon, Jlist. Sculpi. i, from a different source to the earlier 

p. 141); it is probable that when part of the account, which is based 

the real cause for these attacks had upon a. study of inscriptions. Since 

been forgotten, a new one was elabo- Mucianus visited lasos (ix, 33) it is 

rated out of the statues of Boupalos reasonable to attribute this infonna- 

and Athenis, the archaic character of tion to him ; Introd. p. Ixxxix. 
which struck later generations as § 13. 30. inPalatinaaede : xxxiv, 

simply grotesque; cf. Robert, ArcA. 14. 



i88 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

fastigio et omnibus fere quae fecit divus Augustus, patris 
quoque eorum et Deli fuere opera et in Lesbo insula. 

14 Dipoeni quidem Ambracia, Argos, Cleonae operibus re- 
fertae fuere. omnes autem candido tantum marmore usi 
sunt e Paro insula, quern lapidem coepere lychniten appel- 5 
lare, quoniam ad lucernas in cuniculis caederetur, ut auctor 
est Varro, multis postea candidioribus repertis, nuper vero 
etiam in Lunensium lapidicinis. sed in Pariorum mirabile 
proditur glaeba lapidis unius cuneis dividentium soluta 

15 imaginem Sileni intus extitisse. non omittendum banc lo 
artem tanto vetustiorem fuisse quam picturam aut statua- 
riam, quarum utraque cum Phidia coepit octogensima tertia 
olympiade, post annos circiter CCCXXXII. et ipsum Phi- 
dian tradunt scalpsisse marmora, Veneremque eius esse 

16 Romae in Octaviae operibus eximiae pulchritudinis. Al- i.^ 
camenen Atheniensem, quod certum est, docuit in primis 
nobilem, cuius sunt opera Athenis complura in aedibus 
sacris praeclarumque Veneris extra muros quae appellatur 
Aphrodite Iv KriTToii. huic summam manum ipse Phidias 

in fastigio : 1. e. the si^na were Cleonae : for which they made 

akroterial figures (see note on xxxv, the image of Athena ; Paus. ii, 

152), the pedimental and other decora- 15, i. 

tions also consisting of archaic sculp- refertae : rhetorical : of. in xxxv, 

ture ; of. the archaic Amazon published 1 48 quorum tabulae pinacothecas 

by Petersen, Rom. Mitth. iv, 1889, imphnt. 

p. 36 f. 4. omnes autem ; i. e. the Chian 

I . et omnibus fere : rhetorical sculptors as well, 

exaggeration : cf. the ex omnibus 5. lychniten : the etymology is 

clarissima quaeque in xxxiv, 84, H. L. thoroughly Varronian, cf. notes on 

\3TViA\%, Rhein. Mus. 1889, p. 487. xxxiv, 11; xxxv, 155; according to 

I 14. 3. Dipoeni : harks back Lepsius, Griechische Marmorstudien, 

to § 10. p. 45, it rests on fact : the marble 

Ambracia: see note on Aetolos came from the underground quarries 

in §9; the foundation of Am- about five miles N.E. of the ancient 

brakia by Gorges son of Kypselos city of Pares ; Lepsius noticed here 

(Strab. X, 452) affords us an upper a number of holes cut obliquely into 

limit for the activity of D. and S. in the walls of the rock, the purpose of 

that city. The Ambrakiot works which he believes was to suspend the 

of art were taken away to Rome by workmen's lamps by their hooked 

Fulvius Nobilior, B.C. 189. handles. 

Argos: for which D. and S. 10. imaginem Sileni : cf the simi- 

made of ebony wood a group of the lar story, Cic. Div. i, 13, 23 : fingebat 

Dioskouroi and their families ; Paus. Cameades in Chiorum lapicidinis 

ii, 22, 5. saxo diffiso caput exstitisse Panisci. 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 189 

indeed in almost all the temples built by the god Augustus. 
Works by their father Archermos existed at Delos and in the 
island of Lesbos. Ambrakia, Argos, and Kleonai Avere filled full 14 
of the works of Dipoinos. All these artists used none but white 
Parian marble, called lychnites \\vxviTr]s], as Varro says, because Marble of 
it was quarried by lamplight in underground passages. Since P'^''"^- 
then many marbles of a purer white have been discovered, and 
again quite recently in the quarries of Luna. A marvellous story 
tells how in the quarries of Paros a block which was being split 
with wedges, opened and disclosed a figure of Seilenos. 

Nor must I forget to say that the art of sculpture is much 15 
older than that of painting or of bronze statuary, both of which ^/^/^"^^^ 
began with Pheidias in the eighty-third olympiad [448-445 b. c.\ painting 
some 332 years later. It is said that Pheidias also worked in '''^atimrv^" 
marble, and that an Aphrodite by him of surpassing beauty is 
at Rome in the gallery of Octavia. It is certain at all events 
that he taught Alkamenes of Athens, a sculptor of the first rank, 16. 
many of whose works are in the temples of Athens, while out- ,„^„'^j 
side the city is his famous statue, known as ' Aphrodite eV (cijTrois-,' 
or ' in the gardens.' Pheidias himself, according to tradition, 

§ 15. hano artem : sc. sculp- Parthenon and the whole tendencies 

turam by implication, although the of his school, and from the express 

kind of art has not been previously testimony of Aristotle, Eth. Nicom. 

mentioned ; cf. notes on xxxiv, 56 vi, 7 • '^^ S^ trotpiav iv tc rais rex^o^s 

{hanc scientiam')', xxxv, 153 [Jianc toT^ a.Kptl3eaT&T0is rcis rexvas ciTTodiSo- 

scientiaTfC) . /icy, oXov ^eiSiav \iQovy6v aotpbv ital 

12. quarum utraqtie : xxxiv, 49 ; HoXvtcXinov dvSpiavroTroLdvj evravOa 

xxxv, 64; as regards painting Pliny piiv oZv oiiSiv aWo arjftaipovTes rf/v 

forgets that he had himself argued ao(piav, ^ on aperri rixvjjs idTiv. 

that its beginnings were still earlier 15. Octaviae operibus: cf. § 35, 

than Pheidias. Introd. p. xxx. where another Aphrodite {aliam 

14. tradunt : [tradition as opposed VenerenC) by Philiskos is mentioned 

to real fact, i. e. whether he was a as being in the same gallery, 

sculptor in marble or not, it is certain § 16. Alcamenen : xxxiv, 49 and 

{quod certum est) that he taught 72. The only dateable work by Alka- 

Alkamenes. So in xxxv, 54, tradatur menes is his group of Athena andHera- 

is opposed to in confesso sit ; in xvii, kles, dedicated in the Herakleion at 

49, sunt qui . . . adspergant. quod Thebes after the downfall of the Thirty 

certum est . . . sol confert, H.L. U.] Tyrants in 403 B. c. (Paus. ix, 11, 6). 

scalpsisse marmora : Pliny's Pliny's account of Alkamenes and 

Greek authors had laid chief stress on Agorakritos seems borrowed from 

the bronze works of Pheidias, xxxiv, Antigonos, Introd. p. xlii. 

54 ; that he must have been equally 1 7. Athenis : see note on xxxiv, 

celebrated for his works in marble 49, Olymp. Ixxxiii. 

is evident from the sculptures of the 19. hi ktittois: on the Ilissos, Paus. 



I90 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

17 inposuisse dicitur. eiusdem discipulus fuit Agoracritus 
Parius et aetate gratus, itaque e suis operibus pleraque 
nomini eius donasse fertur. certavere autem inter se ambo 
discipuli Venere facienda, vicitque Alcamenes non opere 
sed civitatis suffragiis contra peregrinum suo faventis. 5 
quare Agoracritus ea lege signum suum vendidisse traditur, 
ne Athenis esset, et appellasse Nemesin. id positum est 
Rhamnunte pago Atticae, quod M. Varro omnibus signis 
praetulit. est et in Matris magnae delubro eadem civitate 

18 Agoracriti opus. Phidian clarissimum esse per omnes gentes lo 
quae lovis Olympii famam intellegunt nemo dubitat, sed ut 
laudari merito sciant etiam qui opera eius non videre, pro- 
feremus argumenta parva et ingeni tantum. neque ad hoc 
lovis Olympii pulchritudine utemur, non Minervae Athenis 
factae amplitudine, cum sit ea cubitorum XXVI, — ebore haec is 
et auro constat — sed in scuto eius Amazonum proelium 
caelavit intumescente ambitu, in parmae eiusdem concava 
parte deorum et Gigantum dimicationes, in soleis vero 
Lapitharum et Centaurorum, adeo momenta omnia capacia 

i. 19, i. According to a generally Alkamenes recorded by John Tzetzes, 

accepted theory of Furtwangler, the -j^yXm^fs, 931. 

Alkamenian statue is reproduced in the 7. iCfeinesin : Wilamowitz {Anti- 

statues of the ' Venus Genitrix ' type gonos v. Karystos, p. 11) points out 

(Louvre, Giraudon, 1176; Florence that the story of the Nemesis having 

Alinari, 1331). been intended for an Aphrodite 

huio snmiuain manum : the originated in the fact that the 

words almost imply that the same Rhamuusian Nemesis differed from 

reproach attached to Alkamenes as the type usual at a later date. Cf. 

to Agorakritos, namely, that Pheidias Paus. i, 33, 7 : Hrcpd 8' tx"" ""''f 

allowed his own work to pass off as tovto tA ayaXixa 'Sifiiixeas oiiT€ aWo 

his pupil's, cf. Pallat in Jahrb. ix, TreiroirjTai rSiv d,px<>.iaiv ... 01 S\ varepov, 

1 894, p. 14. im(paivea9ai yap t7)v 9ebv pAMara lirl 

§ 17. 1. Agoracritus: Overbeck, t£ ipav kSeXovaiv, im. Toira 'Sein.iaa 

Schriftquellen, 829-843. irTe/ick llia-nep "Eptori iroioSai; cf. Am- 

3. nomini . . . donasse: the mianus Marcellinus, xiv, 11, 25-26 

scandal recorded here vrithout special (ed. Gardthausen, p. 42), and Kalk- 

allusion to any one work was used mann, Pattsanias der Perieget, p. 206. 

by Polemon {ap. Zenobios f, 82) 8. Hhanmunte : a fragment of 

as an argument wherewith to vin- the colossal head of the Nemesis was 

dicate for Pheidias the authorship of discovered here, and is now in the 

the Agorakritan Nemesis. lutrod. Brit. Mus. {Cat. Sculpt, i, 460). 

p. xxxix. Numerous fragments of the basis (Leda 

certavere : cf. the story of the bringing Helen to Nemesis, Paus. loc. 

competition between Pheidias and «V.) were recovered in 1890, and are 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 191 

put the last touches to this work. He also taught Agorakritos of 17 
Paros, whom he so loved for his youthful grace, that he allowed krit^'. 
several of his own works to pass under his name. The two 
pupils made statues of Aphrodite for a competition, and Alka- 
menes received the prize, not from the merit of his work, but 
because the Athenians voted for their fellow-citizen against 
a foreigner. The story runs that Agorakritos thereupon sold his 
statue, imposing the condition that it should not be set up at 
Athens, and called it Nemesis. It now stands in Rhamnous, 
a deme of Attica, and Marcus Varro esteems it above all other 
statues. There is another statue by Agorakritos in the same city, 
in the shrine of the Great Mother. 

The renown of Pheidias among all peoples who realize the 18 
glory of his Olympian Zeus cannot be brought in doubt ; yet so ^^isfn^ 
that even those who have not seen his works may know that his ventive 
praises are well deserved, I shall cite those minute details in which ^^^i^ ''" 
it was only left to him to display the resources of his inventive 
faculty. For this purpose I shall not appeal to the beauty of his 
Olympian Zeus, nor to the size of his Athena at Athens, though 
she is 26 cubits [37 ft. 10 in.] in height, made all of gold and 
ivory ; but I shall instance her shield, on the convex face of which 
he represented the battle of the Amazons, and on the concave 
surface the conflict between the gods and giants, while on the side 
of her sandals were the Lapithai and the Kentaurs. So true was 
it that in his eyes every tiny space afforded a field for art. The 

published, Jahrb. ix, 1894, pi. 1-7, numerous references in other authors 

pp. 1-22 (Pallat). Pausanias, who is coll. by Overb. A'Ary^yae//. 693-754. 
never curious in the matter of ascrip- 14. Minervae : xxxiv, 54 ; Pans, 

tions, simply attributes the work to i, 24, 5 ; Overbeclc, 645-696 ; a rough 

Pheidias, as he likewise did the Roman copy in the statuette from the 

' Mother of the Gods ' by Agorakritos, Varvakeion (Athens, Central Mus. ; 

and the Athena by Kolotes (see cast in Br. Mus., Cat. Sculpt, i, 300 ; 

note on xxxv, 54). cf. 301). 

9. Matris magnae del, : MjjrpSs 16. scuto : a small late copy is 

Biwv Upov, Pans, i, 3, 5, where preserved in the ' Strangford ' shield, 

the statue is erroneously ascribed to Brit. Mus. Cat. Sculpt, i, 303 ; for the 

Pheidias himself. For the type of the latest discussion of the style of the 

goddess seethe fine relief of undoubted reliefs and of the supposed portraits 

Pheidian style, ^. Z. 38, 1880, pi. i; of Pheidias and Perikles, see Furt- 

Roscher, ii, p. 1663, fig. 5. Addenda. wangler, Masterpieces, p. 48. 

§18. II. lovis Olympii : xxxiv, 18. soleis: cf. inthe Mus. Conserv. 

49 ; 54 ; full description of the statue in at Rome the colossal foot wearing 

Pans. V, 10, 2 : beneath the feet of a sandal adorned along the edge with 

Zeus was the artist's inscription, *ei5ias a train of Tritons (Helbig, Class. Ant. 

XapiiiSov vBs 'ABijvcuSs /J,' liroitjixe : the 596). 



192 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

19 artis illi fuere. in basi autem quod caelatum est Pandoras 
genesin appellant : dii adsunt nascenti XX numero. Victoria 
praecipue mirabili periti mirantur et serpentem ac sub ipsa 
cuspide aeream sphingem. haec sint obiter dicta de artifice 
numquam satis laudato, simul ut noscatur illam magnifi- 5 

20 centiam aequalem fuisse et in parvis. Praxitelis aetatem 
inter statuarios diximus, qui marmoris gloria superavit 
etiam semet. opera eius sunt Athenis in Ceramico, sed 
ante omnia est non solum Praxitelis verum in toto orbe 
terrarum Venus quam ut viderent multi navigaverunt lo 
Cnidum. duas fecerat simulque vendebat, alteram velata 
specie, quam ob id praetulerunt quorum condicio erat Coi, 
cum eodem pretio detulisset, severum id ac pudicum arbi- 
trantes. reiectam Cnidi emerunt inmensa differentia famae. 

21 voluit eam a Cnidiis postea mercari rex Nicomedes, totum 15 
aes alienum quod erat ingens civitatis dissoluturum se pro- 
mittens, omnia perpeti maluere, nee inmerito, illo enim 
signo Praxiteles nobilitavit Cnidum. aedicula eius tota 
aperitur ut conspici possit undique effigies dea favente ipsa, 

I. caelatnin est — Pandoras genesin appellant — dii Gerhard, Detlefsen, 
2. adsunt nascenti] Urlichs in Chrest.; sunt nascentis ^?Vot;-i/. ; sunt nascentes 
reliqui; sunt adstantes Detlefsen. 3. z.z\post verbum aeream /w. Panofka, 

Detlefsen. 4. a.a^!L-nx\ Bamb., reliqui; aureum Urlichs, Detlefsen. 

§ 19. I . Pandoras genesin : Paus. Pausanias, p. 98) . We have there 

i, 24, 7 : from the hesitating manner fore retained the MSS. reading, which 

in which the statement is introduced can be construed though the sense is 

by appellant, it appears that either not absolutely clear. The confusion, 

Pliny or his Latin author had not however, is more likely due to Pliny's 

thoroughly grasped the meaning of hurrying over details, than to the 

the Greek; cf. Jahn, Kunsturtheile, copyists. Sub ipsa I take to mean 

p. 127. 'about on a level vnth'; aeream is 

i. dii adsunt: the composition evidently correct, for had the sphinx — 

is preserved on the basis of the Perga- according to Pliny— been of gold, like 

mene copy of the Athena Parthenos, the rest of the statue, there would 

ya/5;-3. V, 1890, p. 114, fig. 9. have been no need to mention its 

Victoria : koX Nifcrjv oaov tc material. 

reaaapcuv -mixaiv . . . Ix". Paus. lac. § 20. 7. diximus : xxxiv, 69-70. 

"^' 8. in Ceramico : refers to grave 

3. ac sub ipsa . . : sphingem : statues by Praxiteles in the Athenian 

tjie reading adopted by Detlefsen cemetery. Pausanias (i, 2, 3) mentions 

brings Pliny into agreement with a grave kmerjim ex'"" a-rpaTiimjV 

Pausanias («ai TrX-qaiov toC Soparos iiriT(ii vapearr]x6Ta- ovTtva filv ovk olSa, 

Spaxuv iaTiv), but does intolerable Upa^neKris Si xai tov 'iirirov koX tov 

violence to the MSS. (cf. Gurlilt, aTpnTtarriv kiroiriaev (notes on xxxiv, 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 193 

relief on the base is known as the yeVcrit of Pandora; the 19 
gods present at the birth are twenty in number. The Victory is 
most wondrous, but connoisseurs admire also the serpent and 
further the bronze sphinx beneath the spear of the goddess. Let 
these passing remarks on a sculptor whose praises can never end, 
serve at the same time to show that even in the smallest details 
the opulence of his genius never fell short. 

Praxiteles, whose date I gave among the bronze workers, outdid 20 
even himself by the fame of his works in marble. Statues by his P''"'^^'^^"- 
hand exist at Athens in the Kerameikos, while famous not only 
among the works of Praxiteles, but throughout the whole world, 
is the Aphrodite which multitudes have sailed to Knidos to look Aphrodite 
upon. He had offered two statues of Aphrodite for sale at the ^-'^ '^ ""'"■'• 
same time, the second being a draped figure, which for that 
reason was preferred by the people of Kos with whom lay the 
first choice ; the price of the two figures was the same, but they 
flattered themselves they were giving proof of a severe modesty. 
The rejected statue, which was bought by the people of Knidos, 
enjoys an immeasurably greater reputation. King Nikomedes 21 
subsequently wished to buy it from them, offering to discharge 
the whole of their public debt, which was enormous. They, how- 
ever, preferred to suffer the worst that could befall, and they 
showed their wisdom, for by this statue Praxiteles made Knidos 
illustrious. It stands in a small shrine, open all round so that 

70, 71, and on ias ex pir. imagines oi 11. velata specie: this second 

Apelles in xxxv, 90). For tlie Plinian Aphrodite is still to seek ; for a pos- 

phrase, cf. Cicero, de Leg. ii, 26, 64 : sible echo of the work, see Furt- 

amplitudines sepulcrorum, quas in wangler, op. cit. p. 322 f. 

Ceramico videmus; Wolters, Aiken. § 21. 15. voluit . . . mercari ; at 

Mitth. xviii, 1893, p. 5 f. and note i. the close of the first Mithridatic war, 

10. Venus . . . Cnidum: the B. C. 84, when Nikomedes III (King of 

statue is represented on coins of Bithynia B. c. 90-74), who had been 

Knidos, Gardner, Types, xv, 21; for expelled from his kingdom by Mithri- 

a revised list of the marble copies, see dates, was reinstated by the Romans. 

Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 322, 16. aes alienmn ; for the heavy 

note 3 ; the best known is in the contributions exacted by Sulla from 

Vatican, Helbig 316 (good cast with- the Greek states of Asia Minor, cf. 

out drapery in South Kensington Applan, Mi9/]i8. 63. 

Museum). The notices in ancient 18. aedioula: for a detailed de- 

vreiters coll. by Overbeck, Schriftquell. scription of the statue and its shrine, 

1227-1248. The information as to cf. Lucian, 'Epwrcs, 13. 

the Knidian Aphrodite is from Muci- 19. deafavente ipsa: in allusion 

anus. Introd. p. Ixxxvii. to the legend that the goddess herself 

O 



194 



C. PLINII SECVNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 



ut creditur, facta, nee minor ex quacumque parte admi- 
ratio est. ferunt amore captum quendam, cum delituisset 
noctu, simulacro cohaesisse, eiusque cupiditatis esse indicem 

22 maculam. sunt in Cnido et alia signa marmorea inlustrium 
artificum, Liber pater Bryaxidis et alter Scopae et Minerva, 5 
nee mains aliud Veneris Praxiteliae specimen quam quod 
inter haec sola memoratur. eiusdem est et Cupido obiectus 
a Cicerone Verri, ille propter quem Thespiae visebantur, 
nunc in Octaviae scholis positus, eiusdem et alter nudus in 
Pario colonia Propontidis, par Veneri Cnidiae nobilitate et i° 
iniuria, adamavit enim Alcetas Rhodius atque in eo quoque 

23 simile amoris vestigium reliquit. Romae Praxitelis opera 
sunt Flora, Triptolemus, Ceres in hortis Servilianis, Boni 
Eventus et Bonae Fortunae simulacra in Capitolio, item 
Maenades et quas Thyiadas vocant et Caryatidas, et Sileni ^S 
in PoUionis Asini monumentis, et Apollo et Neptunus. 

24 Praxitelis filius Cephisodotus et artis heres fuit. cuius 
laudatum est Pergami symplegma nobile digitis corpori 



served the artist as model. Clement of 
Alexandria, ■npoTpfirT. \6yos 53, names 
the courtesan Kratina as model. 

2. amore captum : cf. below, 
§ 22, § 39. Similar stories were told 
also of a Hebe by Ktesikles, Adaios, 
ap. Athen. xiii, p. 606 a, of an 'AyaOi) 
Tvxrj near th Prytaneion in Athens, 
Ailian, noi/c. lar. ix, 39. 

§ 22. 5. Bryaxidis: below, § 30; 
xxxiv, 42, 73. 

Soopae : below, §§ 25, 28, 30, 31 ; 
xxxiv, 49. 

7. Cupido : given as a present to 
Phryne, Pans, i, 20, i ; cf. Athen. xiii, 
p. 591 b. The Eros was brought from 
Thespiai to Rome by Gains Caligula, 
restored to Thespiai by Claudius, and 
finally brought back to Rome by 
Nero ; it was destroyed in u, fire, in 
the reign of Titus (Pans, ix, 27, 3). 
Furtwangler (Masterp. p. 314 ff.) 
follows Visconti in recognizing copies 
of the statue in the ' Eros of Cento- 
celle ' (Helbig, 185) and its numerous 
replicas. 



obieotus : Verreshad robbed Heius 
of Messana of another Eros by 
Praxiteles ; Cicero's allusion to the 
Thespian statue was to impress upon 
the judges mirum quendam dolorem 
accipere eos^ ex quorum urbibus haec 
auferantur. 

8. propter . . . visebantur : Cic. 
Verr. II, iv, 2, 4: Cupidinem fecit 
(Praxiteles) ilium qui est Thespiis, 
propter quem Thespiae visuniur; nam 
alia visendi causa nulla est; cf. ib. 

60, 135- 

9. Octaviae scholis : part of the 
complex of buildings known as the 
Opera Octaviae ; these were probably 
rooms opening on to the gallery or 
porticus itself 

alter nudus : the type was first 
identified by Furtwangler on coins 
of Parion {ap. Roscher, i, 13? 8); 
later Benndorf {Bull, delta Comm. 
Arch. 1886, p. 74) recognized a mar- 
ble copy in the ' Genius Borghese ' 
of the Louvre (phot. Giraudon, 
1201). 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



195 



the statue, which was made, as is believed, under the direct 
inspiration of the goddess, can be seen from every side, nor is 
there any point of view from which it is less admirable than from 
another. 

There are in Knidos other marble statues by great sculptors, 22 
a Dionysos by Bryaxis, another Dionysos, and also an Athena by 
Skopas, and there is no more forcible panegyric of the Aphrodite 
of Praxiteles than the fact that among all these it alone is 
remembered. Praxiteles also made the Eros with which Cicero Eros of 
taunted Verres, that Eros for whose sake men travelled to ^ 
Thespiai. It is now in the ' schools ' of Octavia. He made 
a second nude Eros in the colony of Parion, on the Propontis, 
a figure as celebrated as the Aphrodite of Knidos. 

At Rome the works of Praxiteles are : Flora, Triptolemos and 23 
Demeter in the gardens of Servilius, the images of Good Luck 
and Good Fortune in the Capitol, further the Mainads, the 
figures known as Thyiades and Karyatides, the Seilenoi in the 
gallery of Asinius PoUio, and an Apollo and Poseidon. 

Kephisodotos, the son of Praxiteles, was also the heir to his 24 
gepius. Greatly admired is his celebrated group at Pergamon of ^^f^""' 



in Pario oolonia : v, 141 ; xxxiv, 
78 ; it was the seat of a very ancient 
cult of Eros, Paus. ix, 27, i (Furt- 
wangler, ap. Roscher, i, 1342). 

§ 23. 12. Eomae : at this point 
begins a description of works of art in 
Rome, which is continued with only 
a few interruptions to the close of the 
history of the marble sculptors in § 43. 

13. Flora, Tript., Ceres: pre- 
sumably in a group ; Flora must be 
the Greek K(i/>a, and owes her Latin 
name to the wreath she was holding as 
on the relief. Overbeck, Kunst. Myth. 
pi. xiv, 3, 4 ; 'E(f7;/i. dpx- 1893, P- 35- 

hortis Servilianis : from Suet. 
Nero, 47, this must have been 
on the Via Ostiensis ; cf. Tacitus, 
Ann. XV, .^$ ; Bist. iii, 38 ; C. I. L. 
vi, 8673, 8674. 

Boni Ev. et Bonae I'ort.= 
'A7aflis laifuiiv and 'A7a9^ Ttixi/ ; for 
the received Attic type of these divi- 
nities see the votive relief in the Brit. 
Mus. {Mus. Marbles, xi, pi. 47). 



15. Maenades: for Attic fourth- 
century types of the maenads see 
Rapp ap. Roscher, ii. 2270. 

Thyiadas : •pivatKis iiiv elaai 
*ATT(«ai, ^oirSiaai 5^ Is riv THapvachv 
napa €Tos . . . dyovffLv opyia Aiovvirqi, 
Paus. X, 4, 3. KapvaTidcs, maidens 
of Karyai, who danced at the festival 
of Artemis, Pans, iv, 16, 9. 

16. PoUionis Asini mon. : in the 
Museum connected with the famous 
library, Plin. vii, 115 ; both apparently 
adjomed the Atrium Libertatis, which 
was restored by Asinius PoUio, cf. 
Suet. Aug. 29; Ovid, Tristia, iii, i, 
72 ; Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 338, note 2. 

§ 24. 17. Cephisodotus : xxxiv, 

51. 87- 

18. Pergami: the information is 
from Mucianus, Introd. p. Ixxxix. 
[From Tac. Ann. xvi, 23, it appears 
that a number of works of art were still 
at Pergamon in the reign of Nero. — 
H.L.U.] 

symplegma : [probably here of 



O 3 



Ig6 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 



verius quam marmori inpressis. Romae eius opera sunt 
Latona in Palati delubro, Venus in Pollionis Asini monu- 
mentis et intra Octaviae porticus in lunonis aede Aescula- 

25 pius ac Diana. Scopae laus cum his certat. is fecit 
Venerem et Pothon, qui Samothrace sanctissimis caerimonis 5 
coluntur, item Apollinem Palatinum, Vestam sedentem 
laudatam in Servilianis hortis duosque campteras circa eam, 
quorum pares in Asini monimentis sunt, ubi et canephoros 

26 eiusdem. sed in maxima dignatione delubro Cn. Domitii 
in circo Flaminio Neptunus ipse et Thetis atque Achilles, 10 
Nereides supra delphinos et cete aut hippocampos sedentes, 
item Tritones chorusque Phorci et pistrices ac multa alia 
marina, omnia eiusdem manu, praeclarum opus, etiam si 
totius vitae fuisset. nunc vero praeter supra dicta quaeque 
nescimus Mars etiamnum est sedens colossiaeus eiusdem 15 
manu in templo Bruti Callaeci apud circum eundem, prae- 

7. campteras] Bamb.; camiteras reliqui; lampterasya«, Detlefsen. 



an erotic couple, cf. Martial, xii, 
43 ; Amobius, vii, 33 (ed. Reiffer- 
scheid, p. 267), and for this use of 
aviiirXfyna, Soph. Fr. 556, Plato, 
Symp. iQi, Aeta.— H. L. U.] That 
this symplegma had an erotic signi- 
ficance is proved by the comparison 
with the group of Pan and Olympos 
(I 36) quod est alterum in terris sym- 
plegma nobile. i 

digitis . . . inpressis ; cf. HSrondas, 
iy, 59 f. (ed. Crusius) : 

rhv irarSa 6^ (^■hv') yvfivdv ijv Kviaoj 

TOVTOV 

2. Iiatona: Crusius (German transl. 
of Herondas, p. xiv, note) suggests 
possible identity with the Leto which 
had stood in Kos, Herondas, ii, 98. 

Falati delubro ; below, § 32. 

3. luuonis aede: below, §35; 

§42- 

Aesculapius : according to Cru- 
sius (loc. cit.), possibly identical 
with the Asklepios by 'the sons of 
Praxiteles' (01 Tlpri^nikfoi imrSes) in 
the temple of Kos ; Herond. iv, 20 ff. 



§ 25. 4. Scopae laus : § 22 ; § 30. 

5. Venerem et Pothon : the Samo- 
thrakian cult seems to have developed 
out of that of Demeter and Hermes 
Kadmos ; cf. Crusius, Fleckeiseti s 
Jahrb. 128, p. 298; Beitrdge z. 

Griech. Myth. p. 15. For the temple 
of Aphrodite at Megara, Skopas had 
made statues of Eros, Himeros, and 
Pothos ; Pans, i, 43, 6. 

Samothrace : Mucianns, who had 
visited Samothrake, is again Pliny's 
authority here, Introd. p. xc. 

6. ApoU. Palatinum ; for the 
temple, cf. xxxiv, 14 ; above, § 24 ; 
below, § 32. Propertius, ii, 31, 15, 
describes the statue as follows : — 

deinde inter matrem deus ipse in- 

terque sororem 
Pythius in longa carmina neste 

sonat. 
(The Apollo referred to in 1. 5 f. of 
the same elegy has been shown by 
Hiilsen, Rom. Mitth. ix, 1894, p. 
240 f, to refer to a quite distinct statue 
which stood in the courtyard of the 
temple.) The Skopasian Apollo, the 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 197 

figures interlaced [o-ij/ijrXe-yfia], in which the fingers seem to press 
on flesh rather than on marble. At Rome his works are: the 
Leto in the temple on the Palatine, an Aphrodite in the gallery 
of Asinius Pollio, and the Asklepios and Artemis in the temple of 
Juno within the portico of Octavia. 

The praise of Skopas vies with theirs. He made the Aphrodite 25 
and rioSor, or Desire, which are worshipped in Samothrake with ^™P'^^- 
the holiest ritual, also the Apollo on the Palatine and, in the 
gardens of Servilius, a seated Hestia which is praised, and beside 
her two pillars whose pendants are in the galleries of Asinius, 
where also is his Kavrjcjiopos [basket-bearer]. But most highly 26 
esteemed of all his works is the group in the temple built by 
Gnaeus Domitius in the Circus of Flaminius : it comprises Posei- 
don himself with Thetis and Achilles, Nereids riding on dolphins 
and sea monsters or on sea horses, and Tritons and the train of 
Phorkos, with sea beasts and a tumult of creatures of the deep, 
the whole by the same hand, a wondrous work, even were it that 
of a life-time. Yet in addition to the works I have named and 
those which are unknown to us, we have by the same artist an 
Ares, a colossal seated figure, now in the temple built by Brutus 
Callaecus close to the Circus of Flaminius, besides a nude 

Kitharoidos, is represented on coins Poseidon at Astakos-Olbia (Uriichs, 

of Nero (Overb. J^olL Munztaf. v, Skopas, p. 130). 

47,48, 50, 51). 10. oiroo Plaminio: cf. Gilbert, 

7. campteras : i. e. goals or Rom, iii, p. 89. 

columns marking in the stadium the ipse : i.e. the temple-statue; Becker, 

turning-point for runners or chariots Top. p. 619, note 13; cf. simulacrum. 

(Kaii-uTuv) ; cf. the metae on the sar- ipsum in xxxiv, 66. 

kophagos, Helbig, Class. Ant. 339 ; Thetis . . . marina : the group 

these columns might be profusely represented the passing of Achilles to 

adorned with sculpture. the Isles of the Blest; Uriichs, Skopas, 

§26. 9. delubro; i. e. of Neptune. p. 133 ff. ; cf. Fleischer ap. Roscher, 

It is imcertain which of the Domitii i, p. 53. Pliny's description is tinged 

built it ; Uriichs ( Griechische Statuen by reminiscences of Virgil, Aen. v, 

im Rep. Rom, p. 19) inclines to attri- 240. 

bute the original building to the consul 15. Mars . . . sedens : the Ares 

of B. c. 121, who celebrated with great Ludovisi (Helbig, 883) — a statue dis- 

splendour his triumph over the Ar- tinctly Skopasian in style— is probably 

verni, and its restoration to his great- a reduced copy of this work ; see 

grandson, the consul of B.C. 32 ; this Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 304. 

later Domitius now placed in the 16. Bruti Callaeoi : (D. Junius) 

temple the great SI<opasian group, cos. B.C. 138; celebrated his triumph 

presumbly brought from Bithynia, over the Callaici B. c. 1 32 ; the archi- 

of which he was governor B. C. 40-35, tect of the temple was Hermodoros of 

and where was a famous temple of Salamis, Nepos ap. Priscian, Fragm. 



igS 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST XXXVI 



terea Venus in eodem loco nuda Praxiteliam illam ante- 

27 cedens et quemcumque alium locum nobilitatura. Romae 
quidem multitudo operum, etiam obliteratio ac magis offi- 
ciorum negotiorumque acervi omnis a contemplatione tamen 
abducunt, quoniam otiosorum et in magno loci silentio talis 5 
admiratio est. qua de causa ignoratur artifex eius quoque 
Veneris quam Vespasianus imperator in operibus Pacis suae 

28 dicavit antiquorum dignam fama. par haesitatio est in 
templo Apollinis Sosiani, Niobae liberos morientes Scopas 
an Praxiteles fecerit, item lanus pater in suo templo dicatus 10 
ab Augusto ex Aegypto advectus utrius manu sit, iam 
quidem et auro occultatus. similiter in curia Octaviae 
quaeritur de Cupidine fulmen tenente. id demum adfirma- 

29 tur, Alcibiaden esse principem forma in ea aetate. multa 
in eadem schola sine auctoribus placent : Satyri quattuor, 15 
ex quibus unus Liberum patrem palla velatum umeris 
praefert, alter Liberam similiter, tertius ploratum infantis 



Hist. Rom. 13, p. 227; cf. Gilbert, 
Rom, iii, p. 88. 

§ 27. 2. Bomae quidem : for the 
sentiment of the whole passage, cf. 
Hor. Ep. i, 10. [It became a common- 
place of silver Latinity to contrast the 
noise of the city with the quiet of the 
villas, see also Pliny's Introd. to Bk. 
xiv ; Pliny, Ep. iii, 1 8, 4 nunquamporro 
aut valde vacat Romae, aut com- 
modum est audire recitantem ; Ep. 
iii, 5, 13 haec inter medios labor es 
urbisque fremitum ; and Ep. i, 9 ; 
cf C. F. Herrmann iiber d. Kunstsinn 
der Romer, p. 46.^ — H. L. U.] 

7. operibus Paois : connected 
with the Temple and Forum of Peace, 
xxxiv, 84. 

§ 28. 9. ApoUinis Sosiani: xiii,53, 
the surname from C. Sosius (the legate 
of Antony), who brought the sacred 
cedar-wood image of the god from 
Seleukia, and restored the temple ; 
note on xxxv, 99. 

liiobae : if the group was identical 
with the original of the Florence 
statues, the style — especially of the 
heads — can leave no doubt that it 



was by Skopas (cf Amelung, Basis 
des Praxiteles, p. 67). The ancient 
critics evidently confused Skopas 
and Praxiteles, precisely as do the 
moderns. 

10. lanus pater: a bearded double 
terminal bust, rechristened at Rome as 
Janus. [What divinity it originally 
represented is impossible to tell, for 
the Romans were absolutely with- 
out scruple in renaming statues; cf. 
Pseud. Dio Chrys. xxxvii, 42 Kopiv0. 
for a Poseidon rededicated as Jupiter. 
— H. L. U.] According to Wernicke, 
Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 148, this 'Janus' 
may be identical with the Skopasian 
herm {not Hermes), Anth. Plan. 192. 

in suo templo : the shrine in the 
Forum (xxxiv, 33) can scarcely have 
been spacious enough to hold a second 
statue: it is slill doubtful which 
temple is meant ; Roscher, {Lex. ii, 
26 f.) suggests a temple of Janus 
belonging to the Forum Augustum, 
while Jordan {Hermes, iv, p. 239) 
thought of the temple in the Forum 
Holitorium; cf. Peter, Ovid's Fasti, 
ii, p. II. 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 199 

Aphrodite now in the same place, which surpasses even the 
Praxitelean goddess, and would suffice to make famous any other 
spot. At Rome indeed the works of art are legion ; besides, one 27 
effaces another from the memory, and above all, beautiful as they ^^^^^^" /„ 
are, people are distracted by the overpowering claims of duty and Jiome ob- 
business, for to admire art we need leisure and profound stillness, ^i^^^ ' '"^ 
For this same reason we are ignorant of the sculptor of the 
Aphrodite dedicated by the emperor Vespasian in the galleries of 
his temple of Peace, a work worthy of the old masters. It is likewise 28 
uncertain whether Skopas or Praxiteles made the dying children 
of Niobe in the temple of the Apollo of Sosius, and again which 
of them made the Father Janus brought by Augustus from Egypt 
and dedicated in his own temple ; the Janus, moreover, is now 
disguised by gilding. The same difficulty arises in the case of 
the Eros holding a thunderbolt, in the Council Chamber of 
Octavia ; this only is certain, that it is the portrait of Alkibiades, 
the handsomest man of his day. Many groups by unknown 29 
artists attract us in this gallery ; such as the four Satyrs, one of 
whom is carrying on his shoulders a cloaked Dionysos, the second 
carries Ariadne in the same way, the third is soothing a crying 

11. ex Aegypto : cf. xxxv, 131, portrait — andaportrait of Alkibiades; 
28, and notes. I take no responsibility in the matter, 

iam quidem : in exculpation. but thus far is certain, that Alkibiades 

12. aurooocultatus : the gilding is was the most beautiful man in the 
specially mentioned, as unusual in the period to which the statue belongs, 
case of a marble statue ; cf. Wunderer, 14. Alcibiaden : the statue had 
Manibiae, p. 10 ; note on xxxiv, 63. most probably nothing to do with 

similiter . . . quaeritur : from Alkibiades, but the connexion in the 

works as to which it was doubtful popular mind arose from the well- 

whether they were by Skopas or known liriffij/ioy on his shield (Plut. 

Praxiteles Pliny passes on to general Alkib. 16). 

doubts, and thence to statues by § 29. 15. eadem sehola : Gilbert, 

unknown masters {sine auctoribus) ; loc. cit. 
Wernicke, op. cit. p. 150. 16. Liberum . . . palla velatum ; 

in curia: certain rooms of the the description of the fully draped figure 

opera Octaviae served occasionally for suggests the Dionysos supported (not 

meetings of the Senate ; Dio Cassius, carried) by a Satyr in the ' Ikarios' 

Iv, 8 ; Josephus, Bell. Jud. vii, 5, 4 ; relief (Schreiber, Hell. Reliefs, xxxvii). 

Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 249, note i. palla = iiiTi\os, usually understood of 

13. fulmentenentei'EpousKcpawo- the cloak worn by women, though 
rf,(Spos. practically identical with the lix&nov. 

id . . . adfirmatur: Wernicke {loc. 17. Liberara similiter : a Maenad 

cit.) explains Pliny's meaning to be as carried by a Satyr, misunderstood as 

follows : the individuality of the fea- an Ariadne ; cf. Furtwangler, Flinius, 

tures leads people to suppose this is a p. 10. 



C. PLINII SECUNDl NAT. HIST. XXXVI 



cohibet, quartus cratere alterius sitim sedat, duaeque Aurae 
velificantes sua veste. nee minor quaestio est in saeptis 
Olympum et Pana, Chironem cum Achille qui fecerint, 
praesertim cum capitali satisdatione fama iudicet dignos. 
30 Scopas habuit aemulos eadem aetata Bryaxim et Timo- 5 
theum et Leocharen, de quibus simul dicendum est, quoniam 
pariter caelavere Mausoleum, sepulchrum hoc est ab uxore 
Artemisia factum Mausolo Cariae regulo, qui obiit olympia- 
dis CVII anno secundo. opus id ut esset inter septem 
miracula hi maxime fecere artifices, patet ab austro et 10 
septentrione centenos sexagenos ternos pedes, brevius a 

II. centenos] Urlichs in Chrest., Detlefsen ; om. Bamb., reliqui. 



ploratum iufautis cohibet : re- 
calls the well-known group in the 
Louvre (phot. Giraudon, 1182) and 
its numerous replicas (Rome, Helbig, 
11; phot. Alinari, 6673) of Seilenos 
nursing the babe Dionysos. 

1 . duaeque Aurae : cf. the so- 
called ' Nereids ' of the Xanthian tomb 
(Brit. Mus.), which have been shown by 
Six,y. H. S. xiii, p. 131, to represent 
the ABpoi ; Pindar, 01. ii, 70, ftaxapav 
vdffos wKeaviSc^ trept-nv^oiaiv ; see also 
Max. Mayer ap. Roscher, ii, 2147 ff. 

2. neo minor quaestio : above, 
note in § 28 on similiter . . . quaeritur. 

in saeptis : i. e. in the galleries 
which surrounded the voting-place 
of the Comitia, after the luxurious 
alterations planned by Caesar (Cic. 
Att. iv, 16, 14) and completed by 
Augustus ; cf. Dio Cassins, liii, 23. 

3. Olympum et Pana : the group 
in Naples of the bearded Pan teaching 
a young boy the syrinx (Friederichs, 
Bausieine, 654; Helbig, Untersuch. 
p. 156) is commonly thought to 
reproduce this work. 

Chironem oum Aohille : the 
subject is preserved in wall-paintings 
(Helbig, Wandgem. 1291-1295), of 
which the best preserved and most 
famous is Helbig 1291. A head 
from a. marble copy is in the Pal. 
Conservat. ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 572. 



4. capitali satisdatione : xxxiv, 
38. 

§ 30. 5. Scopas : the dates for 
his activity are comprised between 
his work for the temple of Athena 
Alea at Tegea (after the fire B. c. 
394, Pans, viii, 45, 4) and his work 
for the Mausoleion (about B. c. 353) 
and for the Artemisiou of Ephesos 
(after the fire of B. c. 356, below § 95). 

aemulos : cf. xxxiv, 49, aemuli ; 
XXXV, 64. 

Bryaxim: xxxiv, 73; for his signa- 
ture Bp^a^is k-noTjaiv on the basis 
adorned with reliefs of horsemen see 
AeXriov, 1891, p. ^e,; Bull. Corr. Hell., 
XV, 1891, p. 369, plate vii ; 'Etpr/ix. apx. 
1893, plates 6, 7. The inscription is 
of about the date of the Mausoleion 
(cf. plates 4, 5, for a torso of Nike 
foimd not far from the basis, and 
which Kavvadias, ii. p. 46, supposes 
to have crowned the monument). 

Timotheum : xxxiv, 91 ; he 
may have been already advanced in 
years when he worked upon the 
Mausoleion ; the inscription (Kav- 
vadias, Fouilles cVEpidaure, no. 241, 
1. 36 f.) recording his contract for fur- 
nishing models and sculptures for the 
Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, 
Paus. ii, 32, 4, is dated by Kavvadias 
(p. 85) at the commencement of the 
fourth century, while Foucart, Bull. 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



child, and the fourth quenches the thirst of another child out of 

a goblet ; further, the two wind goddesses spreading their robes as 

sails. It is equally uncertain who made the groups in the voting 

enclosures of Olympos and Pan, and of Achilles and Cheiron, and 

yet such is their renown that the custodians are obliged to pledge 

their lives for their safety. 

Bryaxis, Timotheos, and Leochares were rivals and contempor- 30 

aries of Skopas, and must be mentioned with him, as they TheMauso- 

Ictoti 
worked together on the Mausoleion. This is the tomb erected 

by Artemisia in honour of her husband Mausolos, prince of 

Karia, who died in the second year of the hundred and seventh 

Olympiad [351 B.C.], and its place among the seven wonders of 

the world is largely due to these great sculptors. The length of 

the south and north sides is 163 feet ; the two fagades are 



Corr. Hell, xiv, 1890, p. 589 ff., 
places it at about B. c. 375. 

6. tieocharen : for his date see on 
xxxiv, 50. 

7. Mausoleum: a history of its 
discovery, a discussion of the restora- 
tions proposed, and the chief literature 
up to 1891 are given by Newton in 
Smith's Z)eV/. ^«/. ii, p. I56ff. Students 
will read with interest the latest 
restoration, attempted by E. Oldfield, 
Archaeologia, 1895, pp. 2715-362. 
But it is as useless and unsatisfactory 
as others so far as the Plinian text is 
concerned. Mr. Oldfield starts by 
rejecting in ioto the variant readings 
of cod. Bamb., and does this without 
adequate knowledge of the character 
of this MS. Especially unsatisfactory 
is his rejection of circumitum, for the 
besetting sin of the Bamb. is not the 
introduction of words or syllables, but 
their omission (cf. H. L. Uilichs' note 
on xxxiv, 69 Liberum patrem). Fur- 
ther, the facts that Mr. Oldfield writes 
in ignorance of anything more recent 
than Sillig's second edition, that he 
is unacquainted either with Detlefsen's 
edition, or with his article on the 
PlinianMSS. in th.tPkilologus{i. xxviii), 
or with the Chrestom. of Urlichs, and 
that he confuses Ottojahn (p. 2 84 and p. 
290) with Ludwigvonjan, show how 



little trust can be placed in his criticism 
of the text. — On architectural grounds 
alone, Mr. Oldfield's reconstruction 
may have merits of which the present 
writer feels incompetent to judge. We 
have translated faithfully from cod. 
Bamb., and in the notes I attempt no 
harmonizing of the Plinian description 
with monumental evidence, nor can 
I point out discrepancies, for the 
simple reason that any impartial 
student must admit that the real shape 
of the Mausoleion and distribution of 
its parts remain as much a riddle 
now as before. — The whole description 
of the Mausoleion is taken from Muci- 
anus, Introd. p. Ixxxviii. 

8. Mausolo . . . regulo: he was, 
as a fact, only a satrap under the king 
of Persia ; Diodoros, xvi, 36, gives 
B. c. 353 as the date of his death. 

9. inter septem miracula : it 
figures in the oldest canonical lists. 
7 he various lists of the ' Seven Won- 
ders ' are conveniently printed together 
by Orelli in the Appendix to his 
edition of Philo Byzantius, pp. 141- 
150. lb. pp. 192-194 will be found 
all the ancient descriptions of the 
Mausoleion. 

II. centenos: this addition is 
unavoidable if we are to accept the 
total 440 feet as correct. 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVl 



frontibus, toto circumitu pedes CCCCXXXX, attollitur in 
altitudinem XXV cubitis, cingitur columnis XXXVL pteron 

31 vocavere circumitum. ab oriente caelavit Scopas, a septen- 
trione Bryaxis, a meridie Timotheus, ab occcisu Leochares, 
priusque quam peragerent regina obit, non tamen recesse- 5 
runt nisi absoluto iam, id gloriae ipsorum artisque moni- 
mentum iudicantes, hodieque certant manus. accessit et 
quintus artifex. namque supra pteron pyramis altitudine 
inferiorem aequat, viginti quattuor gradibus in metae 
cacumen se contrahens. in summo est quadriga marmorea 10 
quam fecit Pythis. haec adiecta CXXXX pedum altitudine 

32 totum opus includit. Timothei manu Diana Romae est in 
Palatio Apollinis delubro, cui signo caput reposuit Avianius 
Evander. in magna admiratione est Hercules Menestrati 
et Hecate Ephesi in templo Dianae post aedem in cuius 15 

I. CCCCXXXX] ^ffimi5. ; quadringentos undecim ?-«//^«j. 2. XXXV 

Detkfsen. 11. aXiitaimt] Bamb., Riccard., Lips. ; altitudinem, Z'«//«/J««. 



2. pteron vocavere : cf. in § 19, 
XlavhCjpas yeveffiv appellant. 

§ 31. 3. ab oriente . . . Scopas 
. . . Leocliares : the endeavours to 
identify the styles of each sculptor 
in the extant slabs have up to now 
been unsatisfactory. The dominant 
thought and design seem Skopasian. 
Vitruvius {viupraef. 1 2), in his account 
of the Mausoleion, names Praxiteles 
as one of the sculptors (on this point 
see Amelung, Die Basis des Praxiteles 
aus Mantinea, p. 55 f.). 

9. inferiorem: Newton, loc. cit., 
rightly points out that, according to 
ordinary rules, the word to be supplied 
would he pyramidem, which, however, 
he considered inadmissible, as he 
found no evidence for a pyramidal 
substructure. On the other hand, 
Detlefsen's altitudine[m] does un- 
warranted violence to the text. 

10. quadrigamarmorea: arestora- 
tion of the extant fragments may now 
be seen in the Mausoleion room of 
the Brit. Mus. That the so-called 
' Artemisia ' and ' Mausolos ' can, 
however, never have been placed in 



the chariot has been made clear by 
P. Gardner, /. .ff: ^. xiii, p. 188 fF. 

II. Pjrthis: Vitruvius, fe. «V., gives 
the name Phyteus (MSS.), but the 
identity is not certain. 

§ 32. 12. Timothei manu : the style 
of this artist can now be satisfactorily 
studied in the sculptured decorations 
of the Asklepieion at Epidauros ; from 
the inscription (above, note on § 30, 5) 
we learn that he contracted (fXiro) to 
construct (Ip'^&aaaBm') and provide 
(ira/)e;^€i/) models {rv-noi') — presumably 
for the pedimental sculptures — and for 
the akroteria or angle figures of one of 
the gables {wrepov aurSv'). From the 
relation of the akroterial figures of 
the west front (Centr. Mus. Catal. 
'55~I57) to one another and to the 
figures of the Amazon battle from the 
corresponding west pediment, there 
is every ground for regarding them as 
the work of one artist, i. e. of 
Timotheos; Amelung, ^a«'.f(/«/Vft;cj- 
teles, p. 69 f., where the kinship of 
the group of Leda and the Swan (best- 
known replica in the Capitol ; Helbig, 
469) to the Epidaurian sculptures is 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



203 



shorter, and the whole perimeter is 440 feet; its height is 
25 cubits [371^ feet], and it has thirty-six columns. This colon- 
nade is called a nrfpov. The sculptures of the eastern front are 31 
carved by Skopas, those on the north by Bryaxis, on the south by 
Timotheos, and on the west by Leochares. The queen died 
before the work was finished, but the artists carried it through to 
the end, deeming that it would be an abiding monument of their 
own glory and of the glory of art, and to this day they compete 
for the prize. A fifth sculptor also worked on the monument. 
Above the colonnade is a pyramid, of the same height as the 
lower structure, consisting of twenty-four retreating steps rising 
into a cone. On the apex stands a chariot and four horses in 
marble made by Pythis. Including this the height is 140 
feet. 

In the temple of Apollo on the Palatine at Rome stands an 32 
Artemis by Timotheos, the head of which has been restored by 
Avianius Evander. Greatly admired is a Herakles by \Menestratos, 
and a Hekate at Ephesos in the temple of Artemis, behind the 



pointed out (the likeness noted 
simultaneously by Winter, Ath. Mitth. 
xix, 1894, p. 157 ff.). Add. 

1 3. Avianius Evander : cf. Hor. 
Sat. i, 3, 90 :— 

Comminxit lectum potus mensave 
catillum 

Evandri manibus tritum deiecit ; 
where the scholiast Porphyrio remarks 
that Evander was both chaser and 
sculptor i^plastes statuaruni), that 
Alexander brought him from Athens 
to Alexandria, whence he was taken 
to Rome inter capiivos, doubtless 
on the capture of the city by Augustus 
in 25 B.C. ; cf. further Cic. Fam. xiii, 
2 ; 21 ; 2 7, and vii, 2 3, where Avianius 
figures rather as art- dealer than as 
artist ; cf. Brann, K. G. i, p. 547. 

14. in magna admirations : 
these words introduce the fifth 
parenthetical mention of works else- 
where than in Rome. [The constmc- 
tion of the passage down to incluta is 
curious ; we get (i) admirable works 
(in magna adm.) ; (ii) works equally 
admirable {non postferuntur) ; (iii) a 
work of which nothing need be said, 



for all the world understands the 
greatness of the drunken old woman 
by Myron — this last work being 
abruptly introduced by a nam, which 
implies an ellipse of the preceding 
sentence, according to a usage noted 
in xxxiv, 7, xxxv, 137. H. L. U.] 

Menestrati : possibly identical 
with the sculptor of a statue of the 
unknown poetess Learchis ; Tatian, 
ir/)^j ''EKK. p. 34, ed. Schwartz. 

15. Hecate Ephesi : the informa- 
tion, like that on the Mausoleion, ap- 
pears derived from Mucianus {Introd. 
p. Ixxxviii). 

post aedem : interpreted by Sillig 
{Diet, of Artists, s. v. Menestratos) 
as 'the back part of the temple,' 
i.e. the 6nia96So;.ios. But it is doubt- 
ful whether /oi/ can be susceptible of 
such a meaning. It therefore seems 
more reasonable to suppose that the 
Hekate of M. was contained in a 
separate shrine, within the precinct 
{in templo), but behind the great 
temple (^post aedem). That the Hekate 
was in a closed locality, and not merely 
outside the temple in the open air, as 



204 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 



contemplatione admonent aeditui parcere oculis, tanta 
marmoris radiatio est. non postferuntur et Charites in 
propylo Atheniensium quas Socrates fecit alius ille quam 
pictor, idem ut aliqui putant. nam Myronis illius qui in 
aeie laudatur anus ebria est Zmyrnae in primis incluta. 5 

33 Pollio Asinius, ut fuit acris vehementiae, sic quoque spectari 
monumenta sua voluit. in his sunt Centauri Nymphas 
gerentes Arcesilae, Thespiades Cleomenis, Oceanus et lup- 
piter Heniochi, Appiades Stephani, Hermerotes Taurisci, 

34 non caelatoris illius sed Tralliani, luppiter hospitalis Papyli 10 
Praxitelis discipuli, Zethus et Amphion ac Dirce et taurus 

9. Heniochi] Jan ; eniochi Bamb. ; enthochi Riccard., Voss, ; Antiochi 
Urlichs in Chrest, Detlefsen. 



some authorities suppose, is evident 
from the story of the marmoris 
radiatio ; the mysterious gleam of the 
marble can only be understood if the 
statue was seen in the half-light of a 
shrine, and becomes nonsense if the 
Hekate was out of doors. 

I. aeditui : the fact that the 
statue was shown by temple attendants 
is another argument in favour of its 
being in a closed locality. 

i. marmoris radiatio : the face 
of the statue, like the hands and feet, 
would be left in the original colour 
of the marble, or just toned by wax 
(see in xxxv, 133 note on circumli- 
tioni) ; the white face would be seen 
gleaming through the dusk of the 
shrine — the imagination being doubt- 
less stimulated by a sense of the 
mysterious personality of Hekate. — 
M. S. Reinach kindly points out to 
me that we seem to detect in the 
legend traces of the old belief that 
mortals might not look in the face of 
the gods without being struck blind ; 
cf. Teiresias and the mysterious 
Epizelos of Herodotos. 

Charites : the type is known from 
two reliefs in Rome (most famous 
in the Vatican, H elbig, 83) and three 
in Athens, two of which were found on 
the Akropolis {Ath. Mitth. iii, 1878, 



p. 181 ff., Furtwangler). They are all 
after an original of the period ab. B. c. 
470; cf. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, 
p. 23, note I, Introd. p. 1, note 2. 

in propylo Athen. . Pans. 1, 22, 
8 : /card 6 6 Ti\v etroSov ai/T^v ijS^ 
rfjv ey djcp6iro\iv 'EppLTJv, hv XlpovvXuLOV 
dvopi&^ovffL Kal XapiTas ^oJlcpaTijy 
TTOiijffat T^v ^OKppoviaKov \eyovat ; cf. 
note on xxxv, loi for the unusual form 
propylon, and Introd. p. 1. 

3. Socrates fecit : it is curious 
to note that Pliny knows nothing of the 
popular identification of the sculptor 
Sokrates with the philosopher, 
accepted by Pausanias, loc. cit., and 
a number of other authorities (Overb. 
S. Q. 907-914), Introd. loc. cit. 

alius . . . idem ; contains the 
trace of a similar controversy to that 
noted in the case of Pythagoras, 
xxxiv, 60 ; Intiod. p. 1. 

4. Myronis illius : xxxiv, 49 ; 

67-S9- 

5. anus ebria : the identification 
of the work with the well-known 
statue of an old woman nursing an ivy- 
crowned wine-jar (Helbig, Class. Ant. 
431) p. 318, where see list of replicas 
and literature) is nothing less than 
certain. Nor do the grounds for 
attributing the work, on account of 
the subject, to a later Myron seem 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



205 



shrine, in looking at which the temple guardians advise visitors 
to be cautious, so dazzling is the lustre of the marble. Not 
inferior are the Charites in the gateway at Athens ; the Sokrates 
who made them is to be distinguished from the painter, though 
some believe in their identity. As to Myron, the celebrated Myron. 
bronze caster, his statue at Smyrna of an intoxicated old woman 
ranks among the most famous works. 

Asinius Pollio with his characteristic enterprise was eager that his 33 
galleries should attract attention. They contain Kentaurs with Galkiy of 
nymphs on their backs by ^Arkesilas, Thespiades by Kleomenes, PolHo. 
figures of Okeanos and Zeus by '\Heniochos, nymphs of the Appia 
by Stephanos, terminal busts of Eros by Tauriskos (not the famous 
chaser, but Tauriskos of Tralles), a Zeus of strangers by iPapylos 34 
the pupil of Praxiteles, and Zethos and Amphion, with Dirke, the 



reasonable. The figures from the angle 
of the west pediment of the temple at 
Olympia show that the presentation 
of aged women was not alien to the art 
of the early fifth century. The epithet 
ebria, like the temulenta applied to 
the flute-player of Lysippos in xxxiv, 
63, rests perhaps on some slight 
misapprehension of the motive, or 
mistranslation from the Greek. 

§ 33. 7. monvunenta : above, note 
on § 23. 

Centauri liTymph. gerentea : 
for the subject cf. the wall-painting, 
Helbig, Wandgem. 499; cf. also the 
Kentaurs (bearing Erotes) of Aristeas 
and Papias (Capitol, Helbig, 512,513). 

8. Arcesilae:xxxv, 155; below, §41. 

Thespiades : same subject by 
Teisikrales, xxxiv, 66; by Praxiteles, 
below, § 39. 

Cleomenls : his identity with — 
or relationship to — the sculptor of the 
so-called ' Germanicus ' in the Louvre 
(/. G. B. 344), or of the altar with 
sacrifice of Iphigeneia in Florence 
(/. G. B. 380), is quite uncertain. 
(/. G. B. 573, from Medicean Venus, 
is a modern forgery.) 

9. Henioohi : [von Jan's reading 
may be considered certain, the names 
Arcesilae . . . Taurisci being in 
alphabetical order. — H. L. U.]. 



Appiades : so called doubtless 
from their resemblance to the statues 
of the nymphs of the Appian 
aqueduct which adorned a fountain 
of the Forum Julinm ; cf. Ovid, Ars 
Amat. i, 79 ; iii, 45 1 ; cf. Rem. Atnor. 
660 ; Gilbert, Rom, iii, p. 226, note i. 

Stephani : probal)ly identical with 
the pupil of Pasiteles, whose in- 
scription is read on the statue of an 
athlete in the Villa Albani, /. G. B. 
574; cf. ib. 375, where he is named as 
the master of Menelaos, the artist of 
the famous group in the Museo 
Boncompagni (Helbig, 887). 

Hermerotes : terminal busts of 
Eros ; for extant instances in statuary 
see Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 69 
(Eros), p. 60 (Athena), p. 234 ff. 
(Herakles\ The old interpretation 
that the several divinities were com- 
bined with Hermes in a double ter- 
minal bust is without support from the 
monuments, though it is favoured by 
Cicero, Att. i, iv. 3 : quod ad me de 
Hermathena scribis, per mihi gratum 
est : est ornamentum Academiae pro- 
prium meae, quod et Hermes commune 
omnium et Minerva singulare est eius 
gymnasii. Add. 

10. caelatoris : xxxiii, 156. 
§ 34. hospitalis = f cVios. 

11. Zethus . . . taurus : a group 



ao6 



C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 



vinculumque ex eodem lapide, a Rhodo advecta opera 
Apolloni et Taurisci. parentum hi certamen de se fecere, 
Menecraten videri professi, sed esse naturalem Artemidorum. 
eodem loco Liber pater Eutychidis laudatur, ad Octaviae 
vero porticum Apollo Philisci Rhodi in delubro suo, item 5 
Latona et Diana et Musae novem et alter Apollo nudus. 
35 eum qui citharam in eodem templo tenet Timarchides fecit, 
intra Octaviae vero porticus aedem lunonis ipsam deam 
Dionysius et Polycles, aliam Venerem eodem loco Philiscus, 
cetera signa Pasiteles. idem Polycles et Dionysius Timar- 10 

9. Polycles aliam, Venerem DetUfsen. 



('Toro Famese,' Naples, Friederichs- 
Wolters, 1402), which is generally 
accepted as the identical one men- 
tioned by Pliny, was discovered in 
1546 in the Thermae of Caracalla. 
I. ex eodeiu lapide ; cf. below, 
§ 36 ; § 37 ; § 41 ; the ' Bull ' and 
the 'Laokoon' are however constructed 
of several pieces, and the same was 
most likely the case with the 'Lioness' 
of Arkesilaos, and the chariot-group of 
Lysias. With regard to the ' Laokoon ' 
and the ' Lioness ' Robert, Arch. 
March, p. 143, note, had suggested 
that ex uno lapide meant a group 
disposed on one basis, in opposition 
to groups composed of statues set 
each upon a separate basis. But the 
grammatical propriety of this interpre- 
tation is doubtful, cf. Urlichs, 
Arkesilaos, p. 16, note 2. FoBster 
{Gbrlitz. Verhandl. p. 298) believes 
that Pliny in saying that the Bull and 
the Laokoon were ex uno lapide had 
been deceived by the appearance of 
the groups. As a fact, the expression 
seems, in all four cases, to imply little 
beyond the desire to heighten the 
impression of technical difficulty, by 
adding one of those details which 
readily appeal to popular imagina- 
tion ; cf. Anth. ix, 759 (eis 6ip/ja 
XiiaiQV) : — 
EFs Xi'flos, n/>/t', (\aTrip, i-rrwoi, (vyov, 



lb. 760 : — 
E's Si<j>pos, apfi, i\arrjp, 'i-rnroi, ^vyds, 
•fjviaj vUtj. 

Ehodo : much light has recently 
been thrown on the dates of the 
Rhodian school by two papers of 
Maurice Holleaux (J?ez/. de Phil. 
xvii, 1893, pp. 171-185), and H. von 
Gaertringen {Jahrb. ix, 1894, pp. 23- 
43). According to the latter, the 
inscriptions fall into two periods : (i) 
from close of third century to B. c. 
163 (Pydna) ; (ii) from B. c. 88, at 
the close of the Mithridatic war, to 
the total reduction of the Rhodian 
state by Cassius Longinus and Cassins 
of Parma in B. c. 43 (Appian, 'E/i(^. 
iv, 60-74; V, 2). It was then that 
many a Rhodian work of art was taken 
to Rome. 

2. ApolloBi et Taurisci : a 
basis found in the theatre of Magnesia 
on the Maiander bears the inscription 
' AlToXKiiVLOs Tavpifffcov [TpaKXtavbs] 
iiToiu : it is published by H. v. Gaer- 
tringen {Aihen. Mitth. xix, 1894, 
p. 37 ff.), who dates it from early 
Imperial times, so that the TavpiaKos 
of the inscription (though of course not 
the 'AtroKKdjvios) may be one of the 
sculptors of the Bull, which would be 
executed previous to B. c. 43 (see pre- 
vious note). The names were probably 
recurrent in a family of artists. 
parentum hi certamen : the 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



207 



bull and the cord, all carved out of one block. It is the joint 
work of Apollonios and Tauriskos, and was brought from Rhodes. 
These two sculptors occasioned a controversy as to their 
parentage, by declaring that Menekrates was their nominal, 
Artemidoros their real father. In the same collection is a fine 
Dionysos by Eutychides. Near the gallery of Octavia in the Other 
temple of Apollo stands a statue of the god by Philiskos o^ galleries 
Rhodes, together with Leto, Artemis, and the nine Muses and 
another nude Apollo. Timarchides made the Apollo with the 
cithara in the same temple, and Dionysios and Polykles the statue S5 
of Juno within her temple in the portico of Octavia. A second 
Aphrodite in the same place is by Philiskos, and the other statues 
by Pasiteles. The same Polykles and Dionysios, the sons of 



words are rhetorical, or rest on a 
Roman misunderstanding of the Greek 
inscription. According to a custom of 
■which the Rhodian inscriptions afford 
numerous instances (cf. inter alia, 
I. G. B. 174, 181), the artists had 
added to their signature not only the 
name of their real father, but that 
of their father by adoption. H. v. G. 
suggests the following restoration : 
'AtroW^vtos KalTavpiffKOs'ApTffttSupov, 
«a0' voBeaiay Se MeveKparcos, TpaK- 
Xiayol ewo'iT](rav. 

4. Eutyohidis : probably not the 
pupil of Lysippos (xxxiv, 78), who 
was a bronze statuary ; the name was 
common ; see Loewy in /. G. B. 143. 

5. in delubro suo : i. e.the temple 
of Apollo Sosianius; notes on xxxv, 
99, above, § 28. 

6. Musae novem : Amelung {Basis 
des Praxiteles, p. 44 f. and Ap- 
pend.) shows that this is probably 
the group which inspired the artists 
of the Muses on the basis from 
Halikamassos (Trendelenburg, Der 
Musen Chor, Winckelmannspr. xxxvi, 
1876) and of the Muses on the relief 
of the Apotheosis of Homer (Brunn- 
Bruckmann, plate 50), both in the 
Brit. Mus. It is significant that both 
works are fiom Southern Asia-Minor, 
i. e. from the neighbourhood of 
Rhodes. 



§ 35. 7. Timarchides : son of 

Polykles of Athens, xxxiv, 52, and 
brother of Timokles, ib. ; his two sons, 
Polykles II and Dionysios, are men- 
tioned below ; together with his brother 
(oi no\u«A6ovs TrarScy) he made for 
Olympia the statue of the pugilist 
Agesarchos of Triteia, and for Elateia 
statues of Asklepios and of Athena 
(Pans. vi. 1 2, 9 ; x, 34, 6 ; 8). 

8. aedem lunonis : erected to- 
gether with the adjacent temple 
{proxima aedes) of Jupiter by Q. 
Caecilius Metellus after his triumph 
of B. c. 149; Veil. Paterc. i, n. 

ipsam deam: the temple statue; 
cf. Neptunus ipse, above, § 26 ; simu- 
lacrum ipsum Trophonii, xxxiv, 
66. 

9. Dionysius et Polycles : iden- 
tical with the Polycles et Dionysius 
TimarcMdis filii, below. 

aliam Venerem: Urlichs {Quel- 
lenreg. p. 8) has shown that these 
words refer back to § 15, where an 
Aphrodite by Pheidias, in the. porticus 
Oct., had already been mentioned. 

10. Pasiteles : note on § 39. 
Dionysius : together with his 

nephew Timarchides II, he made the 
statue of C. Ofellius, found in Delos ; 
it bears the inscription Aioi/iiffios 
Ttf.Lapxi^ov leal TipapxiSTjs Tlo\vi{\eovs 
*A8r]vatoi, 1. G. B, 242. 



2o8 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

chidis fill lovem qui est in proxima aede fecerunt, Pana et 
Olympum luctantes eodem loco Heliodoius, quod est 
alterum in terris symplegma nobile, Venerem lavantem se 

36 *sedaedalsas* stantem Polycharmus. ex honore apparet 
in magna auctoritate habitum Lysiae opus, quod in Palatio 5 
super arcum divus Augustus honor! Octavi patris sui dicavit 
in aedicula columnis adornata, id est quadriga currusque et 
Apollo ac Diana ex uno lapide. in hortis Servilianis reperio 
laudatos Calamidis Apollinem illius caelatoris, Dercylidis 
pyctas, Amphistrati Callisthenen historiarum scriptorem. lo 

37 nee deinde multo plurium fama est, quorundam claritati in 
operibus eximiis obstante numero artificum, quoniam nee 
unus oceupat gloriam nee plures pariter nuneupari possunt, 
sicut in Laoeoonte, qui est in Titi imperatoris domo, opus 
omnibus et picturae et statuariae artis praeferendum. ex 15 
uno lapide eum ac liberos draconumque mirabiles nexus de 
consili sententia fecere summi artifices Hagesander et Poly- 

4. Sesedaedalsas stantem Bamb. ; sesededalsa stantem Rice, Voss. ; se sad et 
aliam stantem Sillig; sese Daedalus, aliam stantem Detlefsen. 

I. lovem; above, note on aedem § 36. 6. super arcum: the arch was 

lunonis. part of the Propylaea which formed 

Pana et Olympum : the names the entrance to the area of Apollo, 

are significant as showing that these Gardthausen Augustus I, p. 962 ; ib. 

avfnr\cyfiaTa were mostly erotic //, p. 575. 

groups, composed perhaps in the Ootavii patris : Suet. Aug. 3. 

scheme familiar from the groups in 8. ex uno lapide : note on § 34. 

Dresden. hortis Servilianis : above, § 23. 

Heliodorus : xxxiv, 91 ; the sig- 9. illius caelatoris : xxxiii, 155 ; 

..^ nature of his son (n\ovTapxos xxxiv, 47 ; he is presumably identical 

'KKtoSiipov 'F6S10S iiToirjai) closes the with the bronze statuary, xxxiv, 71. 
great inscription, discovered in Rhodes 10. Amphistrati : known also 

by Hiller v. Gaertringen, which since from Tatian {irphs 'EWriv. p. 34, ed. 

it contains the names of L. Murena Schwartz) as sculptor of the portrait 

and L. Lucullus has been dated by of an unknown poetess Kleito. 
Mommsen at B.C. 82-74 (Ja&rb. ix, Callisthenem : of Olynthos, pupil 

1894, p. 25 ff. ; cf. also Maurice and nephew of Aristotle ; according 

Holleaux, Rev. de Philol. xvii, 1893, to Diodoros, xiv, 117, his 'Hellenika' 

p. 173; and/. G. B. 194-196). were a history of the years B.C. 

3. alterum: harks back to thesimi- 387-357 (Peace of Antalkidas to the 

lar group by Kephisodotos in § 24. Phokaian war). 
' Venerem lavantem se : the § 37. 14. in Laoeoonte : the origi- 

' Venus Accroupie' in the Louvre nal group was found on Jan. 14, 1506, 

(Friederichs-Wolters 1467) is looked near the Baths of Titus, whither it may 

upon as a copy of this work, but have been mo-ved from his Palace at 

see Add. a date posterior to Pliny (on the cir- 



A. THE FAMILY OF POLTKLES. 

[Stadiens of Athens] 
Pays, vi, 4, s. 

I 
POLYKLES I OF ATHENS ( Plin. xxxiv, 52. 
Jl. about 156 B. c. \ Pans, vi, 4, s. 

I [l.G. InsulX 855? 

I 



I 
TiMOKLES ( Plin. xxxiv, 52. 
Jl. ab. \ Pans, vi, 12, 9. 
156 B.C. I „ X, 34, 6; 8. 



POT-YKLES II {Plin. xxxvi, 35) 
after 140 B. c. 



TiMARCHIDES II {vfi/Tcpos'j 

OF Athens (Oopi'mos) : 
/. G. B. 242 and the inscr. 
Allien. Mitth. xx, 1895, 
p. 216. 



TiMARCHIDES I Plin. XXXIV, 91 ? 
fl. after 140 B.C. [ „ xxxvi, 35. 
Pans, vi, 12, 9. 
{ „ x,34,6;8. 
l/.G.B. 328? cf. 
M//(. Af?Vrt. XX, 
1891;, p. 219. 



I 
DiONYSIOS OF ATHF.NS 
140-90 B. C. {Plin. 
XXXV, 35, and /. G.B. 
242), 



B. THE FAMILY OF ATHANODOROS. 

Atiia.nouorij'; I ■ Paton iii'.cr. 

( 

I 
HAfiK'^'VNDROs T Paton iiisoi'. I.indian decree, &i 



HAnEKANDROS IT* 



1*117. VIJUBllS* 



I 



AriTANODOROS II* 

(adopted by Dloiiy^ii 
Lindian inacr.) 



* The sculptors of the Laokoon . 



[To face p. 208.] 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 209 

Timarchides, made the Zeus in the adjoining temple, where are 

also the Pan and Olympos interlaced by Heliodoros, second in 

renown among such groups in all the world, an Aphrodite bathing 

standing by '^ Poly char mos. The 36 

distinction conferred on the work of Lysias shows how highly it 

was esteemed, inasmuch as the god Augustus dedicated it in 

honour of his father Octaviusj it was placed within a small 

building adorned with columns upon the arch on the Palatine. 

It consisted of a team of four horses, a chariot, Apollo and 

Artemis, all carved out of one block of marble. I find that in 

the gardens of Servilius are an Apollo by Kalamis, the well-known 

silver chaser, boxers by \Derkylidas, and a portrait of Kallisthenes 

the historian by Amphistratos, all of which are mentioned with 

praise. 

Not many celebrated artists remain to be named ; in the case 37 

of certain masterpieces the very number of the collaborators is an Collabo- 
ration of 
obstacle to their individual fame, since neither can one man take different 

to himself the whole glory, nor have a number so great a claim J"^"^'""- 

to honour. This is the case with the Laokoon in the palace of 

the Emperor Titus, a work superior to all the pictures and bronzes 

of the world. Out of one block of marble did the illustrious 

artists Hagesander, Polydoros, and Athanodoros of Rhodes, after 

taking counsel together, carve Laokoon, his children, and the 

cumstances of the find see Michaelis, 16. de oonsili sententia: that 

Jahrb. v, 1890, p. 16); it is now in these words mean neither ' by decree of 

the Vatican (Helbig, 153). The full the Emperor's Privy Council' (Lach- 

literature from 1755 to 1879 is given mann, A. Z. 1848, p. 2i6 = Kleme 

by Bliimner, Comm. to Lessing's Schriften, p. 273), nor ' by decree of 

Laokoon, 2nd ed. p. 722 ; cf. also the Council of Rhodes,' nor yet 

Friederichs-Wolters, 1422, and the ' after consultation of the artists with 

three papers by Ftirster, (l) in Gor- their friends' (Mommsen, /r«?-»««x,xx, 

litz. Verhandlungen, pp. 75-94, and 1885, p. 268), but are to be under- 

293 to 307 ; (2) Jahrb. vi, 1891, p. stood in the simple sense given to 

i?7ff-; (S)/'^'^^^- ix, 1894, p. 43ff. them above, has been brilliantly 

in Titi imp. doiuo ; xxxiv, 55. proved by Forster in Gorlitz. Ver- 

15. statuariae : note on xxxiv, 54 handl. pp. 75 ff. ; for the usage, cf. 

{toreuticen). Cicero Fisr«j, 11, iii, 1 8 ; v,i2,53,54, 

ex uno lapide : note above on 114; /ro ^a/^;;, 11, 19, 38, and often; 

§34: Michelangelo Buonarotti and Caesar, ^. C.iii, 16 ; Livy, xlv, 26 and 

Giovanni Cristofano, ' che sono i primi 29 ; Plin. Ep. v, i, 6 ; 3, 8 ; vi. 31, 12. 
scultori di Roma, negano ch'ella sia 17. Hag. et Pol. et Ath. Bhodi: 

d'un sol marmo, e mostrano circa the name of Athanodoros occurs on 

a quattro commettiture ' ; Trivulzio, seven inscriptions published in fac- 

quoted by Michaelis, loc. cit. note 49, simile by Forster, Jahrb, vi, 1891, pp. 



3IO C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVl 

38 dorus et Athenodorus Rhodi. similiter Palatinas domos 
Caesarum replevere probatissimis signis Craterus cum Py- 
thodoro, Polydeuces cum Hermolao, Pythodorus alius cum 
Artemone, et singularis Aphrodisius Trallianus. Agrippae 
Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis, in columnis 5 
templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut 
in fastigio posita signa sed propter altitudinem loci minus 

39 celebrata. inhonorus est nee in templo ullo Hercules ad 
quem Poeni omnibus annis humana sacrificaverant victima, 
humi stans ante aditum porticus ad nationes. sitae fuere 10 
et Thespiades ad aedem Felicitatis, quarum unam amavit 
eques Romanus Junius Pisciculus, ut tradit Varro ; admirator 

12. admirator] Bainb.; admiisdui religui, Detlefsen. 



1 91-195. Ofthese,theLindian decree 
in honour of Athanodoros, son of 
Hagesander, has been lately fully 
published by H. t. Gaertringen 
{Jahrb. ix, 1894, p. 34), and shown to 
be not earlier, but possibly somewhat 
later, than the Ploutarchos-Helio- 
doros inscription (b. C. 82-74) men- 
tioned above. With the help of lines 
16, 17 of the inscription published 
by Paton, B. C. H. xiv, p. 278, 
['A7^{r]avS/)os * AyTjffdvSpov [toO] 
'A9ai'oS[c&]po[u], H. von Gaertringen 
(0/. cit.) reconstructs the annexed 
table. The Hagesander who worked 
on the Laokoon would more probably 
be the elder brother than the father of 
the other two sculptors. The present 
writer can see nothing in the technique 
or style of the Laokoon to prevent our 
accepting for it the date suggested by 
the inscriptions. Helbig however 
has again quite lately {Class. Ant., loc. 
cit.) maintained that the Laokoon 
belongs to the period previous to the 
Pergamene altar, and that the Athano- 
doros inscriptions belonged to copies 
of his works. 

§ 38. 2. replevere; rhetorical, cf. 
refertae in § 14 ; imflent, xxxv, 148, 
&c. 

Craterus . . . Aphrodisius : Pliny's 



contention is quaintly confirmed, 
since not a single one of these artists 
is known outside his text (see however 
7. G. B. 427). 

4. Agrippae Fantheum : xxxiv, 

13- 

5. Diogenes: identity with the 
Diogenes of the inscription found at 
Nineveh (Brit. Mus., I. G. B. .,61 ; 
A. S. Murray iny. H. S. iii, p. 240 ff.) 
is possible, but doubtful. 

in columnis . . . Caryatides : the 
late discoveries in connexion with 
the Pantheon have, unfortunately, 
thrown no light on the architectural 
function performed by these Carya- 
tides. Stark, Arch. Zeit. xviii, 1866, 
p. 249 f., supposes in col. to mean 
down among the columns as opposed 
to the statues in fastigio; in this case 
the Kar. would be not architectonic, 
but dancing figures like the Karyatides 
of Praxiteles ; above, § 23. Addenda. 

§ 39. 8. inhonorus est : rhe- 
torical indignation ; cf. in xxxiv, 89, 
the passage on the Bull of Phalaris. 

Hercules : a Phoenician or Tyrian 
Melkart, presumably brought from 
Carthage by the yoimger Scipio B. C. 
146 (cf. Peter, ap. Roscher, i, 246 ; 
Urlichs, Griech. Statuen im Rep. 
Rom, p. 13). 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 



wondrous coils of the snakes. So, too, on the Palatine, \Krateros 38 
and his colleague \Pythodoros, \Polydeukes and \Hermolaos, a 
second iPythodoros and \Ariemon, and ^Apkrodisios of Tralles, 
who worked alone, have filled the mansions of the Caesars with 
excellent statues. The sculptures of the Pantheura of Agrippa are Pantheon. 
by \ Diogenes of Athens ; the Karyatides of the temple columns 
are in the very first rank, and so are the statues of the pediment, 
though less well known because of the great height at which they 
stand. Dishonoured and without a shrine is the Hercules to 39 
whom the Carthaginians offered annual human sacrifice; it 
stands on the ground in front of the entrance to the Gallery 
of the Nations. By the temple of Felicity stood also the 
Thespiades, of one of which, according to Varro, a Roman knight, 
Junius Pisciculus, was enamoured. Varro likewise admires 



10. humi stans : i. e. the statue 
was without pedestal or basis. 

port, ad nationes : Serv. on 
Aen. 8, 721: forticum Augustus 
fecerat in qua simulacra omnium 
gentium collocaverat, quae porticus 
adpellabatur ad nationes ; it must not 
be confused with Pompeius' porticus 
of the fourteen nations, below, § 41. 

11. Thespiades: Cic. Verr.\l,vf, 
4 : atque ille L. Mummius, cum, 7'hes- 
piadas, quae ad aedem Feliciiatis sunt, 
ceteraque profana ex illo opfido \Thes- 
piis~\ signa tolleret,hunc . . . Cupidinem 
(above, §22)... non attigit. The 
statues must have been among those 
which L. LucuUus borrowed from 
Mummius, to adorn the temple up to 
the day of his election, and cleverly 
managed not to return (Strabo, viii, 
p. 381; cf. Dio Cassius, fr. 75). From 
Varro {Ling. Lat. vi, 2) we learn that 
the Thespiades = Musae. It is usually 
assumed that the Thespiades are iden- 
tical with the signa quae ante aedem 
Pel. fuere, by Praxiteles, cf. xxxiv, 69, 
where see note ; but the fact that the 
latter were of bronze sufficiently dis- 
poses of the identification. The pro- 
venance, however, of the Thespiades, 
their celebrity, the subject and the 
story of Pisciculus, show them to have 
been Praxitelean works. The famous 

P 



group of the Muses found at Tivoli, 
now in the Vatican (Helbig, 268-274), 
may be looked upon as copies ; their 
Praxitelean character has been search- 
ingly analysed by Amelung, Basis 
des Prax. aus Mantinea, 1895, pp. 

2.'5-49- 

aedem Pelioitatis : xxxiv, 69 ; 
built by L. Lucullus to commemorate 
his Spanish campaigns of B.C. 150- 
151 (Urlichs, Arkesilaos, p. 7), ded. 
142 B. c, Dio Cass. fr. 75. On the 
temple-statue, see xxxv, 156. 

12. ut tradit Varro: V. is evi- 
dently the authority for the whole 
passage from sitae fuere . . . auctorest 
in § 41. His name is brought in at 
this point because Pliny looks upon 
the story of Pisciculus as of doubtful 
authenticity, and therefore lays all 
responsibility upon his author. 

admirator et Pasitelis : the 
reading is proved by the context 
Arcesilaum quoque magn. Varro in 
§ 41, where the quoque has no sense 
unless Varro's admiration of some 
other artist had been previously re- 
corded ; Furtwangler, Plinius, p. 41 ; 
cf. the citations from Varro in xxxv, 
155-157 : Varro tradit sibi cognitum 
Possim , . . idcTn magn. Arcesil . . . 
laudat et Pasitelen. On Pasiteles, see 
Introd. p. Ixxvii. 



212 C. PLINJI SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

et Pasitelis, qui et quinque volumina scripsit nobilium 

40 operum in toto orbe. natus hie in Graeca Italiae ora et 
civitate Romana donatus cum his oppidis lovem fecit ebo- 
reum in Metelli aede qua campus petitur. accidit ei, cum 
in navalibus ubi ferae Africanae erant per caveam intuens 5 
leonem caelaret, ut ex alia cavea panthera erumperet non 
levi periculo diligentissimi artificis. fecisse opera complura 

41 dicitur, quae fecerit nominatim non refertur. Arcesilaum 
quoque magnificat Varro, cuius se marmoream habuisse 
leaenam aligerosque ludentis cum ea Cupidines, quorum 10 
alii religatam tenerent, alii cornu cogerent bibere, alii calci- 
arent soccis, omnes ex uno lapide. idem et a Coponio 
quattuordecim nationes quae sunt circa Pompeium factas 
auctor est. invenio et Canachum laudatum inter statuaries 

42 fecisse marmorea. nee Sauram atque Batrachum obliterari 15 
convenit qui fecere templa Octaviae porticibus inclusa na- 
tione ipsi Lacones. quidam et opibus praepotentes fuisse 
eos putant ac sua inpensa construxisse inscriptionem spe- 
rantes, qua negata hoc tamen alio modo usurpasse. sunt 

I. fraxiteles 5o»z^. ; passitelis re/2y«j ; VasiXAes, Detkfsen. 

I. nobilium operum: the Greek 9. se . . . habuisse: xxxiii, 154, 

title would be Tufl kvSS^av tpyaiv. where Varro is likewise cited as owner 

§ 40. 3. civitate . . . oppidis : and authority. His works of art were 

during the social war of B.C. 90-89, scattered in the proscriptions of B. c. 

when by the Leges lulia and Plautia 43. Introd. p. Ixxxiv. 

Papiria the right of citizenship was marmoream . . . leaenam : the 

extended to all the cities of Italy. subject recalls the beautiful relief in 

4. in Metelli aede: i.e. the tern- Vienna of a lioness (Schreiber, .ff«//. 
pie of Jupiter mentioned above, § 35. Rel., pi. i), which, with its com- 

qua campus : sc. Martius, there- panion (sheep suckling a lamb), can 

fore the temple was on the north side help us to recover the style of sculp- 

oi the porticus Octaviae. tnresofanimals executed by Arkesilaos 

5. navalibus ; the naval docks and Pasiteles, Wickhoff, Wiener 
of the Campus Martius, on the Tiber, Genesis, p. 26. 

over against Vas. prata Quinctia; cf. 13. quattuordecim nationes: to 

Liv. iii, 26, 8, and xlv, 42, sub fin. ; correspond to the number of nations 

Gilbert, Rom, pp. 146-150. The event subjugated by Pompeius (Plut. Pomp. 

referred to may have happened in B.C. xlv ; cf. Veil, ii, 40 ; Plin. vii, 98 

* 65> ■w'lien wild beasts were brought mentions only thirteen nations; the 

from Africa for the games of Pom- fourteenth statue was apparently added 

peius ; Plin. viii, 53, 64. to commemorate the triumph over the 

8. non refertur: i.e. by Varro. pirates, a mention of which closes 

§ 41. Arcesilaum: xxxv, 155, the Act. Triumph, for the year 693 ; 

where see notes. Gilbert, Rom, p. 326, note 2). These 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 213 

Pasiteles, the author of five books on the celebrated works of art Pasiieles. 
in all the world. This artist was born on the Greek coast of 40 
Italy, and received the Roman citizenship when it was given to 
the cities of that district. He made the ivory statue of Jupiter 
in the temple of Metellus on the way to the Field of Mars. It 
happened that once at the docks where were the wild beasts from 
Africa, as he was looking into a den to make a study of a lion on 
a relief, a panther broke out of another cage, to the great peril of 
the conscientious artist. His works are said to be numerous, but 
they are nowhere mentioned by name. ^Arkesilaos also is highly 41 
esteemed by Varro, who possessed a marble group by his hand ^''kesilaos. 
of a lioness with winged Loves sporting about her ; some are 
holding her by a cord, others are forcing her to drink out of 
a horn, and others are putting shoes upon her ; the whole is carved 
out of one block. Varro is again my authority for saying that 
■\Coponius made the fourteen statues of the nations which stand 
round the theatre of Pompeius. I find too that Kanachos, famous 
for his bronzes, worked also in marble, nor must I overlook 
•\Sauras and \Bafrachos, Lakonians by birth, who built the temples 42 
enclosed by the galleries of Octavia. Some say that they were •^''"'''^•f ''"'^ 

, L ■, , , , ■ , • , Batrachos. 

rich men who built the temples at their own cost, hoping that 

their names would be inscribed upon them. Foiled in this, they 

yet achieved their object in another way, so it is said, and it is 

statnes are the earliest instances of for C. Tullius Vilnius (Fabretti, Inscr. 
those personifications of conquered p. 187). By an extension of this 
peoples so conspicuous in Roman custom, the architects S. and B. might 
art. It is noteworthy that the artist carve a frog and a lizard in lieu of 
was aRoman (Brunn, .ST. G. i, p. 602). signature among the ornaments of 
These may be the statues concerning a column. The serious objection to 
the placing of which Atticus advised the story is that Vitruvius (iii, i, 5) 
Pompeius, Cic. Att. iv, 9. names Hermodoros of Salamis as the 
circa Pompeium : Suet. Nero, architect of the temples. We must 
46. therefore conclude either that the 
14. Canaohum ; xxxiv, 50, 75. story is aitiological — the ornaments 
§ 42. 15. Sauram atque Batra- of the columns giving rise to a story 
chum: names of animals were familiar to which the custom of allusive em- 
in Greece as proper names (cf. TaSpos, blems noted above lent plausibility — 
SKVfivoi; TexTif, Mils, and the long or that S. and B. were architects- 
lists in Fick, Gr. Personennamen, adjoint, or perhaps merely donors of 
p. 314 ff.). Moreover, it was a usual the said columns, whom at a later 
Roman custom to introduce — on grave- date legend turned into architects of 
reliefs — some allusive emblem to the the temples. 

name of the deceased : a boar for 1 8. insoriptionem sperantes : 

Titus Statilius Aper (C /. L. vi, this portion of the anecdote is, in any 

1975 ; Helbig, Class. Ant. 423); a calf case, apocryphal. 



214 C. PLINII SECUNDI NAT. HIST. XXXVI 

certe etiamnum in columnarum spiris inscalptae nominum 

43 eorum argumento lacerta atque rana. in lovis aede ex iis 
pictura cultusque reliquus omnis femineis argumentis con- 
stat, erat enim facta lunoni, sed, cum inferrentur signa, 
permutasse geruli traduntur, et id religione custoditum s 
velut ipsis diis sedem ita partitis. ergo et in lunonis aede 
cultus est qui lovis esse debuit. sunt et in parvolis marmo- 
reis famam consecuti Myrmecides, cuius quadrigam cum 
agitatore operuit alis musca, et Callicrates, cuius formicarum 
pedes atque alia membra pervidere non est. ro 

44 Haec sint dicta de marmoris scalptoribus summaque 
claritate artificum. 



2. lacerta atque rana : cf. the 
lizard and frog carved on the capital 
of one of the colnmns of San Lorenzo 
fnori le niura, transferred from some 
ancient building. 

§ 43. in lovis aede : above, § § 
35, 40 ; according to Veil. Paterc. 
i, II, vifho states that the temple of 
Jupiter was the first in Rome to be 
built of marble ; the temples being 
sine inscriptione, legend naturally 
soon became active on the subject. 

7. parvolis marmoreis : a con- 
fusion of Pliny's, who in vii, 85, 
Mentions Myrm. and Kail, as virorkers 
in ivory. 

8. Myrmecides : of Athens, ac- 
cording to Choiroboskos (quoted by 
Schol. to Dionysios Thrax = Overb. 



Schriftquell. 2194), or of Miletos 
(Ailian, 7roi«. Xar. i, 17). He is gene- 
rally represented as making the chariot 
conjointly with K. Another marvel 
of their /uKpoTCx"'" was a grain of 
sesame engraved with an elegiac 
distich (according to Plutarch, adv. 
Stoicos, xiv, 5, two lines of Homer). 
There is no clue to the date of either 
artist. 

quadrigam : in vii, 85 it is 
mentioned as of ivory, while Choiro- 
boskos (above) says iron ; and the 
grammarian Theodosios [S. Q. 2201), 
bronze ; it looks suspiciously as if the 
quadriga were apocryphal. Yet the 
execution of a microscopic chariot was 
quite within the power of the ancient 
goldsmith, cf. the tiny chariot led by 



SCULPTURE IN MARBLE 215 

undeniably true that a lizard and a frog, typifying their names, are 
still to be seen carved on the bases of the columns. Of these 43 
two temples the one dedicated to Jupiter contains only paintings 
and decorations relating to women^ for as a matter of fact it was 
built for Juno ; but the porters made a mistake, it is said, when 
they brought in the statues, and superstition consecrated the error, 
as though this division of their shrines were due to the gods 
themselves. In the same way the temple of Juno has the orna- 
ments appropriate to Jupiter. 

Miniature works in marble likewise secured renown for Myrme- Miniature 
hides, whose four-horse chariot and charioteer could be covered '^orks. 
by the wings of a fly, and for Kallikrates, whose ants have feet 
and limbs too small to be distinguished by the human eye. 

This closes what I have to say of workers in marble and of the 44 
most famous sculptors. 

a Nike, with Erotes at each side, 9. Callierates : of Lakedaimon 

belonging to the ear-pendant, Ant. du (Ailian and Choiroboskos). 

Bosphore Cimmirien, ed. Reinach, formioarum ; the fashioning of 

pi. xii, 5, 5". Reinach (p. 4) justly ants and bees is attributed by Cicero 

sees in it a confirmation of the praises {Acad, prior, ii, 38, 120) to Myrme- 

bestowed by the ancients on the tuKfo- kides — rightly, to judge from the 

TV)(yia of Theodores, Myrmekides, man's name, which is doubtless a 

and Kallikrates. Perhaps, therefore, nickname won for him by his skill, 

we should look upon all these artists 10. pervidere non est; cf. Varro 

as practising the art of goldsmiths {Ling. Lat. vii, i), who says of the 

by the side of the greater art of sta- works of Myrmekides that they could 

tuary in bronze or marble (see note only be properly seen when placed on 

on xxxiv, 83). black silk. , 



APPENDIX. 



I. 

Lib. VII. 

125 Idem hie imperator edixit ne quis ipsum alius quam 

Apelles pingeret, quam Pyrgoteles scalperet, quam Lysip- 
pus ex acre duceret, quae artes pluribus inclaruere exemplis. 

126 Aristidis Thebani pictoris unam tabulam centum talentis 
rex Attalus licitus est, octoginta emit duas Caesar dictator, 5 
Mediam et Aiacem Timomachi, in templo Veneris Gene- 
tricis dicaturus. Candaules rex Bularchi picturam Magne- 
tum exiti, baud mediocris spati, pari rependit auro. Rhodum 
non incendit rex Demetrius expugnator cognominatus, ne 
tabulam Protogenis cremaret a parte ea muri locatam. lo 

127 Praxiteles marmore nobilitatus est Gnidiaque Venere prae- 
cipue vesano amore cuiusdam iuvenis insigni, sed et Nico- 
medis aestimatione regis grandi Gnidiorum aere alieno 
permutare eam conati. Phidiae luppiter Olympius cotidie 
testimonium perhibet, Mentori Capitolinus et Diana Ephesia, 15 
quibus fuere consecrata artis eius vasa. 



II. 

198 Normam autem et libellam et tornum et clavem Theo- 
dorus Samius (sc. invenit). 

VII, 125. 2. Apelles : xxxv, 85 ; of Corinth this sum was offered by 

ci.'H.OT:. Ep.W, i.,21^; Ediciovetuit, Attalos, or rather by Philopoimen 

ne quis se praeter Apellen \ Pingeret, on his behalf, for the ' Dionysos and 

aut alius Lysippo duceret aera \ Fortis Ariadne ' of Ariiteides ; npon which 

Alexandri vultum simulantia . . . Mummins, staggered at the value set 

Pyrgoteles : xxxvii, 8. npon the picture, retained it (xxxv, 24 

Jjysippus : see note on xxxiv, and note). 

63- 6, Mediazn et Aiacem Timom. : 

§ 126. 4. Aristidis Thebani : xxxv, 26 ; 136. 

xxxv, 98. 7. Bularchi picturam : xxxv, 55 

centum talentis : after the sack and note. 



I. 

„ , Book VII. 

The emperor Alexander also issued an edict that none but 125 

Apelles might paint his portrait, none but Pyrgoteles engrave it, 

and none but Lysippos cast his statue in bronze. Several famous 

likenesses of him exist of these three kinds. 

King Attalos bought a single picture by Aristeides of Thebes 126 

for a hundred talents [^21,000 circ], and the dictator Caesar 

gave eighty [;^i6,8oo circ] for two by Timomachos, a Medeia 

and an Aias, which he intended to dedicate in the temple of 

Venus the Mother. King Kandaules paid its weight in gold for 

a picture of no small dimensions by Boularchos, representing the 

destruction of the Magnetes. King Demetrios, surnamed the 

Destroyer of Cities, refrained from setting fire to Rhodes, for fear 

he should burn a painting by Protogenes which was near the 

part of the city wall threatened. Praxiteles owes his fame to his 127 

marble sculptures and to his Aphrodite at Knidos, which is best 

known by the story of the youth who fell madly in love with it, 

and also by the value King Nikomedes set on it when he offered 

to take it in acquittal of the heavy state debt of the Knidians. Zeus 

of Olympia daily bears testimony in honour of Pheidias, as for 

Mentor do Jupiter of the Capitol and Artemis of Ephesos, to 

whom the cups made by his hand have been consecrated. 



I. 

The rule and line, the lathe and lever, were invented by 198 
Theodoros of Samos. 

8. Bhodum non incendit : 49, 54; xxxvi, 18. 

XXXV, 104. 15. Oapitolinus . . . Bphesia: 

§127. II. marmore nobilitatus: xxxiii, 154 and note, 

xxxvi, 20; cf. xxxiv, 69 Prax. % 198. 17. Theodorus Samius : 

quoque marmore felicior. xxxiv, 83 and note. 

14. luppiter Olympius : xxxiv, 



220 APPENDIX 

III. 

205 Picturam Aegypti et in Graecia Euchir Daedali cognatus 
ut Aristoteli placet, ut Theophrasto Polygnotus Atheniensis 
{sc. condere instituerunt). 

IV. 

Lib. XVI. , ^ , , , 

213 Maxime aeternam putant hebenum et cupressum cedrum- 

que, claro de omnibus materiis iudicio in templo Ephesiae 5 
Dianae, utpote cum tota Asia exstruente CXX annis per- 
actum sit. convenit tectum eius esse e cedrinis trabibus. 
de simulacro ipso deae ambigitur. ceteri ex hebeno esse 
tradunt, Mucianus ter cos. ex his qui proxime viso scrip- 
sere vitigineum et numquam mutatum septies restitute 10 

214 templo, banc materiam elegisse Endoeon, etiam nomen 
artificis nuncupans, quod equidem miror, cum antiquiorem 
Minerva quoque, non modo Libero patre, vetustatem ei 
tribuat. 

V. 
Lib. XXL 

4. Arborum enim ramis coronari in sacris certaminibus 15 

mos erat primum. postea variare coeptum mixtura versi- 
color! florum, quae invicem odores coloresque accenderet, 
Sicyone ingenio Pausiae pictoris atque Glycerae coronariae 
dilectae admodum illi, cum opera eius pictura imitaretur, 
ilia provocans variaret, essetque certamen artis ac naturae, 20 
quales etiam nunc exstant artificis illius tabellae atque in 
primis appellata stephaneplocos qua pinxit ipsam. 

II. Endoeon] Sillig; eandem con codices. 

§ 205. I. Aegypti: xxxv, 15. 2. Theophrasto: on the mis- 

Euchir: in XXXV, 152 he figures as understanding involved here see 

one of the Corinthian modellers Vfho Introd. p. xxx. 

accompanied Damaratos to Italy; in XVI, 213. 5. templo Ephesiae: 
Paus. Ti,4,4asthemasterof Klearchos below,xxxvi, 95. 
of Rhegion, the master of Pythagoras. g. Mucianus: Introd. p. Ixxxv ff. 
At least it seems probable that it is 11. Endoeon : the name was re- 
one and the same personage to whom stored by Sillig from Athenag. npe<r/3. 
different parts are assigned in various 17 (below, App. xi) for the corrupt 
apocryphal traditions concerning the eandem con of the MSS. Besides 
beginnings of the several arts, cf. Ephesos, Endoios also worked in 
"R-ohext Arch. March.'g. 131, note 2. Asia Minor at Eruthrai (Paus. vii. 
For an artist of the name in late 5, 9) ; further, in one of his two in- 
historic times see xxxiv, 91. scriptions (/. G. B. 8, stele of 



APPENDIX 



III. 



Painting was first invented by the Egyptians, and introduced 205 
into Greece, according to Aristotle, by Eucheir, a kinsman of 
Daidalos, but according to Theophrastos by Polygnotos of Athens. 

IV. 

Book XVI. 
Ebony, cypress, and cedar wood are thought to be the most 213 

durable, every wood having been signally tested in the temple of 

Artemis at Ephesos, which all Asia joined to build, and which was 

completed in a hundred and twenty years. While all agree that 

the roof is made of cedar beams, we have varying accounts of the 

image of the goddess. All other writers say that it is of ebony, 

but among those who have written after close inspection, Mucianus, 

who was thrice consul, declares that it is of vine-wood, and has 

remained unchanged though the temple has been restored seven 

times. The material, he says, was the choice of Endoios, the 214 

maker, whose name he gives somewhat to my surprise, since he 

holds the image to be not only earlier than the Dionysos, but 

also than the Athene. 



V. 

BookXXI. 

Branches of trees were originally used for crowns in the sacred * 
games. Later on the fashion of intertwining flowers of different 
hues, to strengthen each other's scent and colour, was invented 
and introduced at Sikyon by the painter Pausias and Glykera, 
a wreath-seller whom he loved. He imitated her wares in painting, 
and she varied them to challenge him, thus making art and nature 
vie together. Pictures by Pausias in this style are still extant, the 
most noteworthy being the a-TE^aj/j/jrXoKor, or wreath-binder, a por- 
trait of Glykera herself. 

Lampito) he uses the Ionic dialect, latest discussion of Endoios and his 

while in the other ('Apx. AeXr., 188S, date see Lechat in Rev. des Etudes 

p. 208) he uses the Ionic alphabet. It Grecques, v, 1892, p. 385 ff. The most 

is probable, therefore, that he was an famous work of Endoios was the 

Ionian, whom the later art-historians seated Athena (below, App. xi ; Pans, 

turned into an Athenian, as they did i, 26, 4) dedicated on the Athenian 

Alkamenes and others (see Add. to Akropolis by one Kallias. 

Introd. p. 232). From their epi- XXI, 4. 18. Pausiae . . . Gly- 

graphy the inscriptions must he dated oerae : xxxv, 125 and note, 
between B.C. 532 and 508 ; for the 



222 APPENDIX 

Lib. VI. 

XXXVI 

90 Lemnius [sc. labyrinthus) similis illi columnis tantum 

CL memorabilior fuit, quarum in officina turbines ita librati 

pependerunt ut puero circumagente tornarentur. architecti 

fecere Zmilis et Rhoecus et Theodorus indigenae. 

VII. 

95 Graecae magnificentiae vera admiratio exstat templum 5 
Ephesiae Dianae CXX annis factum a tota Asia, in solo 
id palustri fecere, ne terrae motus sentiret aut hiatus timeret, 
rursus ne in lubrico atque instabili fundamenta tantae molis 
locarentur, calcatis ea substravere carbonibus, dein velleribus 
lanae. universe temple longitude est CCCCXXV pedum, 10 
latitude CCXXV, columnae CXXVII a singulis regibus 
factae LX pedum altitudine, ex is XXXVI caelatae, una 
a Scopa. eperi praefuit Chersiphron architectus. 

VIII. 

177 Elide aedis est Minervae in qua frater Phidiae Panaenus 
tectorium induxit lacte et croco subactum, ut ferunt, idee, 15 
si teratur hodie in eo saliva pollice, oderem croci sapo- 
remque reddit. 

IX. 

184 Pavimenta originem apud Graecos habent elaborata ante 
picturae ratione donee lithestrota expulere earn, celeberri- 

1 2. una a] Bamb. ; una Rice, Voss. 

XXXVI, 90. I. Lemnius (lab.) : almost as grave difficulties as that of 

by error for the Samian labyrinth, the Mausoleion, but see the interesting 

see note on xxxiv, 83. attempt lately made by A. S. Murray, 

§ 95. 5. templum Ephesiae Di- Journal of the R. Inst, of Brit. 

auae : the description seems borrowed Archit.,\%ijc„ p. 41 ff. The ancient 

from Mucianns, Introd. p. Ixxxviii ; literature is fully given and discussed 

cf. xvi, 313, but the account is very by Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 345 ff. 

confused, referring partly to the first 8. ne in lubrico . . . lanae : this 

temple (begun close of seventh century was done by the advice of Theodoros, 

B.C.andburnt3S6B.c.byHerostratos, Diogenes Laertios, ii, 8, 103. 

Strabo, xiv, p. 640) and partially to 10. universo templo ; i. e. mea- 

the second, upon which Skopas would suring the length along the lowermost 

be employed. The reconstruction of step of the platform, see A. S. Murray, 

the Ephesian Artemision is beset with op. cit. p. 44. 



APPENDIX 223 

"VI Book 

XXXVI. 
The labyrinth of Lemnos is like that of Krete, but is dis- oo 

tinguished by its columns, a hundred and fifty in number. Their 

drums were raised from the ground in the stone-yard and balanced 

on a pivot, so that a boy could set them spinning round and 

smooth their surface. The architects who built it were Smilis, 

Rhoikos, and Theodoras, natives of the island. 



VII. 

Our genuine admiration for the magnificence of the Greek genius 05 
is roused by the temple of Artemis at Ephesos, which was built in 
a hundred and twenty years by the exertions of all Asia. The 
temple was placed on a marshy site, that it might not suffer from 
earthquakes, or be in danger from the cracking of the ground, 
while on the other hand, to prevent any insecurity or shifting in the 
foundation on which the massive weight of the temple was to 
rest, a substratum was laid of pounded charcoal covered with 
fleeces. The full length of the temple is 425 feet, and its breadth 
225; there are 127 columns 60 feet high, each made by a 
different king. Of these 36 are carved, one of them by Skopas. 
The chief architect was Chersiphron. 

VIII. 

There is at Elis a temple of Athena in which we are told that 177 
Panainos, the brother of Pheidias, mixed the plaster on the walls 
with saffron and milk; hence to this very day if the finger is 
wetted in the mouth and rubbed on the wall, it smells and tastes 
of saffron. 

IX. 

The Greeks were the first to introduce paved floors, which they i84 
decorated with painting until mosaic took its place. The most 

12. una a Scopa: this is the read- § 177. 14. Elide: xxxv, 54, both 
ing of Cod. Bamb. ; it was kindly Panainos and Kolotes had been em- 
verified for this edition by Mr. Fischer. ployed on the statue of Athena, and 
Chronologically it is quite possible it is evident from the present passage 
that Skopas worked for the second that Panainos must have decorated 
Ephesian temple, see note on xxxvi, 30. the temple with wall-paintings. 

1 3. Cliersipliron : the first architect § 184. 19. lithostrota ; the earliest 
of the first temple, vii, 125. instance of a mosaic floor in Greece 



224 



APPENDIX 



mus fuit in hoc genere Sosus qui Pergami stravit quem 
vocant asaroton oecon, quoniam purgamenta cenae in pavi- 
mentis quaeque everri solent velut relicta fecerat parvis 
e tesselHs tinctisque in varies colores. mirabilis ibi columba 
bibens et aquam umbra capitis infuscans. apricantur aliae 5 
scabentes sese in canthari labro. 



Lie. 
XXXVII. 
8 



X. 

Polycratis gemma quae demonstratur intacta inlibataque 
est. Ismeniae aetate multos post annos apparet scalpi 
etiam smaragdos solitos. confirmat banc eandem opinionem 
edictum Alexandri magni quo vetuit in hac gemma ab alio lo 
se scalpi quam ab Pyrgotele non dubie clarissimo artis eius. 
Post eum Apollonides et Cronius in gloria fuere quique 
divi Augusti imaginem simillime expressit, qua postea 
principes signant, Dioscurides. 



XI. 

Athena- At 6 ftKoVes f^expt f^rjTTw irXaoriKT) xai ■ypa(f)iKri Kol avhpiav- 15 

llpeaBeia '''O'toiTiriKri ^(Tav, oiibe evoiiiCovTO' ^avpiov be tov Sajxiov Koi 



is that of the Pronaos of the temple of 
ZensatOlympia, Olympia, Baudenkm. 
ii, pi. cv (of. ib. i, pi. ix). Mosaic came 
into general use in the time of the Dia- 
dochoi ; cf. Athen. xii, 542 d, ih. v, 
206 d. 

, 2. asaroton oeoon : cf. the mosaic 
intheLateran(Helbig,C/ajj. .(4K/.694) 
strewn with fragments of food, and 
the mosaic (Brit. Mus.) representing 
strewn leaves. — Statins Silv. i, 3, 56. 

4. columba bibens : a similar 
subject in the famons mosaic of the 
Capitol, fonnd in the villa of Hadrian ; 
Helbig, Class. Ant. 4150 ; cf. the 
mosaics in Naples, Mo. 9992 and 
114281. From the words mirabilis 
ibi it appears that the dove drinking 
was part of the larger composition 
representing the imswept floor. 
Doves on the edge of a vase are a 
subject of frequent occurrence on 



coins, cf. Drexler, Zeitschrift f. 
Numismatik, vol. xix. 

XXXVII, 8. 7. Polycratis gem- 
ma : according to Pliny in § 4 of this 
book it was a sardonyx, and was 
preserved at Rome, in the Temple of 
Concord, set in a horn, the offering of 
Augusta (sc. Livia). 

intacta inlibataque : on the other 
hand, Strabo, xiv, p. 638, speaks 
of its being splendidly graved, and 
Herodotos (iii, 41) of its being a seal 
of emerald (i. e. emerald-prase, see 
Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 468 ; Furtwangler, 
Jahrb. iii, 1888, p. 194) mounted in 
a gold ring ff(f>pTj'Yh xp^^riJScTos ; it 
was reputed the work of Theodores, 
cf. Pans, viii, 14, 1, and see note 
above on xxxiv, 83. 

8. Ismeniae : Pint. Per. i ; 
Apuleius, tie Deo Socr. 21 ; Boethius, 
Inst. Mus.l, I (ed. Friedlein, p. 185, 



APPENDIX 225 

celebrated worker in mosaic is \Sosos, who laid the floors of 
a house at Pergamon, known as the aa-aparos oIkos, or Unswept 
House, because he represented in small bits of many-coloured 
mosaic the scraps from the table and everything that is usually 
swept away, as if they had been left lying on the floor. Among 
these mosaics is a marvellous dove drinking and casting the 
shadow of its head on the water. Other doves are pluming their 
feathers in the sun on the lip of a goblet. 



X. Book 

XXXVII. 
The gem shown as that of Polykrates is uncut and untouched. 8 

We find that at a much later date, in the days of Ismenias, even 
emeralds were engraved. An edict of Alexander the Great con- 
firms this : he forbade any one but Pyrgoteles, who was beyond 
doubt the greatest master of the art, to engrave his likeness on 
these gems. After Pyrgoteles, \ApoUonides and \Kronios won 
fame, and Dtoskourides who engraved that perfect likeness of the 
god Augustus which later emperors have used as their seal. 9 



XI. 

Images of the gods were not had in honour at all before the 
arts of modelling, of painting and of statuary were introduced, 

20). Dionysodoros is known only by Furtwangler, Jahrb. iii, 1888, 

from Pliny. pp. 218-224; ib. pi. iii, i; pi. viii, 

9. smaragdos : emerald, how- 22, 23, 24, 25, 26. To these signed 

ever, does not appear to have come instances should be added, according 

into use till Hellenistic times, and to R. von Schneider {Album der 

then only unimportant gems were cut Wiener Sammlungen, p. 16, text to 

in this stone. plate 41), the great Vienna cameo 

II. ab Pyrgotele : vii, 125 (App. representing the family of Augustus. 

I) ; cf. Apuleius, Florida, i, p. 7 (ed. — Three sons of Dioskourides,— 

Krueger, 1865) ; he is unknown out- Hierophilos, Hyllos, and Entyches, 

side literature. — are known from their signatures on 

13. Augusti imaginem: a full gems to have been gem-engravers; 

list (needing revision however) of see Furtwangler, op. cit. p. 304 ff. 

portraits of Augustus on gems is 15. Al 8' 6iK6ves . . . ; the rhetoric 

given by Bernoulli, RSm. Icono- of Athenagoras seems evolved out of 

ii. p. 46. None can be the same curious notion appearing in 



traced back to Dioskourides. Plin. xxxiv, 9, 16, that art progressed 

14. Diosourides : of the numerous from lesser objects to statues of the 



extant gems bearing the signature of 

D. six only are recognized as genuine 16. SavpCov . . . SajiCou : we again 



2a6 



APPENDIX 



Schwartz, 
p. 18). 



irepi X/)iff- Yipi,r(avos rov SiKVcavlov koJ KXe&^ouy tov KopivdCov koI Koprjs 
/gj ' ' KopLvOias yevop-ivcav kol (TKiaypacjiCas fjiev evpeOela-qs vtto ^avpiov 
tTTTFOV (V fiXia irepiypd^avTos, ypa<j)iKfjs be into Kpircovos ev nivaKi 
X€X.evK(iiixiv(c (TKtas avbpos koI yvvaiKos eva\ei\j/avTOS, cltio be rrjs 
Kop'qs KOpOTtXaOiKrjs [evpeOrj] (epaiTLK&s yap tlvos exovara -nepi- 5 
eypa^l/ei/ avTov KOi}XMp.evov ev roiyj^ Tr\v ctki&v, eW 6 irarijp 7]a-6e\s 
UTrapaWaKTa ov(7ri rij o/ioiorrjrt (^Kepafiov be eipydfero) avayXv^as 
TTJv Trepiypacpfiv tttjXu TrpocraveitXripaxreV 6 tvttos en koI vvv ev 
KopLv6(f o-(oferat), totHtols be e'niyevop.evoi AaCbaXos ©eoScopoy 
2/xt\iy avbpiavTOTTOLriTiKriv koI irXacrTLKrjV Ttpocre^evpov. 6 p.ev br] ro 
Xpovos oXlyos TOiTOVTOs rats eiKoVt Koi rfj irepi to, eXbatXa irpay- 
ixareia, as e\eLV eliieiv tov l/cacrTOU Te-)(virr]v deov. rb fxev yap 
ev 'E<l}e(T(f rfjs 'ApTejMbos kol to Trjs 'AOrivas (ptaXXov be 'AdrjXas' 
aOrikt) yap &)s ot pLva-TiKcaTepov ooto) yap) rd oTro Trjs eXaCas Td 
TraXaLov /cat ttjv Kadrjixevrjv "Evboios elpyaaaTO iJ,ad7]Tr]s AaibaXov, xs 
o be Ilv^tos epyov ®eob(ipov /cat TrjXeKX^ovs Koi 6 A'qXios /cat 
fi "Apre^is TeKTaiov /cat 'AyyeXioivos Teyjjr\, fj be ev Stf/^u "Hpa 
Kat ev " Apyei 'SijxiXibos xe'tpes koI ^eibiov to. Xoma etScoXa fi 
A(ppobiTr] (?7) ev Kvibw erepa Yipa^iTiXovs Tex^V; o ev'FiTnbavpco 
'A<r/cX7)Trtos epyov ^eibiov. avveXovTa (f>a.vai, ovbev avT&v bia- 20 
'rre(pevyev to ju.r/ vt! avdpanrov yeyovivai. el roivvv Qeoi, tl ovk 
^crav e£ apxvs ! ^i bi elaiv veioTepoi t&v TreTioiriKOTuiv ; tl be 
ebei avToXs Trpos to yevea-dai avOpairixiv nai Texyr\s ; yrj Tavra koi 
XCOoi Kai vX-q /cat -nepiepyos Texyr], 



catch here the echo of some art- 
writer who had contrasted the claims 
of island and mainland schools ; cf. 
Introd. pp. xxiii, xxvi. 

1 . KXciivGous : Plin. xxxv, 1 5. 

Kop-qs KopwSCas : Plin. xxxv, 151. 

6. auToi) Kot|i.cop.evov ; while in 
Pliny the lover is represented as going 
away. 

8. CTi Kai v€v ev KopivOcp ; donee 
Mummius Corinthum everterit, Plin. 
xxxv, 151 ; hence it appears that 



Athenagoras is quoting — though liot 
necessarily at first hand — from an 
author older than B.C. 146. 

14. TO diro Tf]S cXaCas ; Pans, i, 26, 
6. Athenagoras is the only writer 
who attributes the statue to Endoios. 

15. "EvBoios: above note on xvi, 
2i4 = App. IV. 

pa6r]TT|s AaiSiXou : Pans, i, 26, 4. 

16. 6ScIIij9ios: Diodoros, i, 98. 

6 A-qXms : Paus. ii, 32, 5 ; cf. 
Plut. de Mus. 14 ( = Bemardakis, vi, 



APPENDIX 227 

but are later than the days of ■\Saurias of Samos, -^Kraton of 
Sikyon, Kleanthes of Corinth, and a maiden, also of Corinth. 
Linear drawing was discovered by Saurias, who traced the outline 
of the shadow cast by a horse in the sun, and painting by Kraton, 
who painted on a whitened tablet the shadows of a man and 
woman. The maiden invented the art of modelling iigures in 
relief. She was in love with a youth, and while he lay asleep she 
sketched the outline of his shadow on the wall. Delighted with 
the perfection of the likeness, her father, who was a potter, cut 
out the shape and filled in the outline with clay ; the iigure is 
still preserved at Corinth. After these came Daidalos, Theodoras, 
and Smilis, who introduced the arts of statuary and modelling. 
In fact so short a time has passed since statues and the making 
of images were introduced, that we can name the maker of each 
several god. Endows, the pupil of Daidalos, made the statue of 
Artemis at Ephesos, the old olive-wood image of Athena (or 
rather of Athela [the unsuckled], for so those better acquainted 
with her mysteries call her), and the seated image ; the Pythian 
Apollo is the work of Theodoros and Telekks ; the Apollo and 
Artemis at Delos are by Tektaios and Angelion ; the statues of 
Hera in Samos and in Argos are by the hand of Smilis, and 
the other statues are by Pheidias ; Praxiteles made the second 
Aphrodite at Knidos, and Pheidias the Asklepios at Epidauros. 
In a word, there is not one of them but is the work of man's 
hands. If, then, these are gods, why were they not from the 
beginning, and why are they younger than those who made them ? 
What need had they of men and human art to bring them into 
being? They are but earth and stones and wood and cunning art. 

p. .^oo) ; for the type see P. Gardner above notes on App. VI. and on 

and Imhoof-Blumer, JVum. Cotnm, xxxiv, 83. 

CC xi-xiv. 18. Iv 'Apysi: this Argive Hera 

17. ^ 'ApTejits: known only from by Smilis is known only from Athena- 

Athenagoras. goras ; but see Brunn, K. (7. i, p. 27. 

\ h\ Iv 2. "Hpa: Pans, vil, 4, 19. ' A(t)po8. ev KvCSm : Plin. xxxvi, 

4; for the type cf. P. Gardner, Samos 20. 

and Samian Coins, pp. 19, 75ff, pi. v, 20. 'A<rKXi]in.6s : see Introd. p. liv, 

1-9. Smilis was himself a Samian, note i. 



Q3 



ADDENDA 



I. INTRODUCTION 

Page xliii, note 2. F. Munzer provides me with a final proof of the in- 
debtedness of Antigonos to Duris for the story of the Nemesis ; he points out 
(in a private letter) the striking similarity betwreen the story told in Pliny, 
of the vengeance taken by Agorakritos, and the following fragment from 
Duris in Plutarch (Lysander i8 = Fr. 65, Miiller) : 'AvTi/ji&xov 5J rov KoXo- 
(pwvLov Kai Nttcrjp6.Tov tivos ^UpaX^wTov -noiijfiaffi AvadvSpeia Stayoovtaafievayv en* 
aiiTov (sc. Lysander) tov NiKTjparov k<rTe(pdv(iiff€v, 6 S^ 'Avriftaxos 
axSeaSels rjcpdviae rb Troirma. TIK&twv Si vios iiv rin ical Sav- 
/id^oiv rbv 'AvTtfxaxov e-nl ttj iroiijTiKy, 0ap^(tis (p^povra ttjv ^ttov 
aveKa/iPave koX ■napfiuiBtiTo, rots dyvoovai. . . . ' There were two other poets, 
Antimachus Colophonian, and Niceratus born at Heraclea, which did both 
wryte verses to honour him (Lysander), striving whether of them should do 
best. Lysander judged the crown and mctory unto Niceratus: wherewith 
Antimachus was so angry that he rased out all that he had written of him. 
But Plato, who at that time was young, and loved Antimachus because he 
was an excellent poet, did comforte him, and tolde him that ignoraunce ..." 
(North, ed. Wyndham, vol. iii, p. 247). 

P. li. Still another story of a self-taught artist, preserved this time not 
in Pliny but in Pausanias, has been pointed out to me by F. Miinzer, whose 
communication on the subject I translate verbally : ' The account of Pausanias 
(v, 20, 2) concerning Kolotes may be classed with the stories from Duris 
noted Hermes^ xxx, p. 532 f. : etvai Se <pa(Xiv l£ '^parckeia? rbv KoKdtTrjv. oi 6e 
TToKvirpa-yfjioi/'^aavTes anovS^ rd ks tovs rrXdara^ Hdpiov dwo<paivov(nu ovra a{n6v, 
fioBTjTTjv nafftTeXous, IlafftTtXTjv S^ auTo5i5a;^^^i/at (Buttmann's reading for the 
aiiTiiv SiSaxB'j''ai of the MSS., which it is impossible to retain except by 
assuming a lacuna). Thus the same is recounted here of Pasiteles as of the 
several men noted loc. cit. Like the Seilanion, Protogenes, Erigonos, and 
Lysippos of Dnris, Pasiteles is represented as having had no teacher ; like 
Seilanion, Erigonos and Pythagoras of Rhegion, he had one pupil. Pasiteles 
is as completely unknown as these three pupils, and as the master of the 
philosopher Demokritos invented by Duris (fr. 56). I accordingly believe 
that the view combated by Pausanias must be traced back to Duris. It is 
uncertain whether Antigonos had already combated it, or whether he com- 
bined it with the current tradition, inasmuch as he transferred Kolotes from 
the Parian to the Athenian school. To alter the birthplace of Kolotes from 
Herakleia to Paros, whereby he was made into the countryman of his fellow- 
pupil Agorakritos, was a slight matter in the eyes of Duris, for he had turned 
Kleoboulos of Lindos into a Karian, and proclaimed the foreign origin of 
other of the seven sages (Miiller, I^. H. G. ii, p. 482, fr. 53-55) ; probably also 
he had transferred the scene of an anecdote from Kroton to Agrigentum 
(Plin. xxxiv, 64, cf. Hermes, xxx, p. 537, u. i).' In the light of the preceding 



332 ADDENDA 

note of Munzer's, it has become plain to me that Duris must be held responsible 
for the tradition that represented Alkamenes as a native of Lemnos (A^/iwoj," 
Souidas, s. v. 'AXra/teVijs ; vrjaiiirr]!, Tzetzes, CAil. viii, 340), whereas Antigonos 
turned him into an Athenian (Plin. xxxvi, t6). It is natural to find Duris— 
a Samian — repeatedly championing the claims of the Greeks of Asia Minor 
and the islands to artistic pre-eminence. Nor must we forget that, careless 
of accuracy though he was, he doubtless had at his command detailed 
information which was no longer within reach of the later art-historians, who 
were content to group artists about the chief art-centres. Thus Endoios, 
who was probably really an Ionian (note on Appendix XI), is represented 
in Pausanias simply as ^ABrjvatos. One great error of modem archaeologists 
is to attempt to harmonize the variant traditions instead of tracing them 
to their different sources, which will generally be discovered in periods vride 
apart. 

P. li, note 6 : TAe masters of Pheidias. I am pleased to find what 
I wrote six months back concerning the masters of Pheidias confirmed by the 
comments of Michaelis {Deutsche Lilteraturzeitung, 1896, no. 25, p. 788 ; 
rev. of E. Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture) on the untrustworthiness of 
the Hagelaidas tradition : the same scholion on Aristoph. Frogs, 504, which 
names Hagelaidas as the master of Pheidias, also contains a mistake con- 
cerning the Herakles Alexikakos of Hagelaidas; this same untrustworthy 
scholion is the source for the information of Tzetzes and Souidas (above, p. li, 
note 3). Michaelis accordingly disputes the strange contention of E. Gardner 
{Handbook, p. 194 ; cf pp. 248, 265) that ' the relation of Pheidias to Ageladas 
is the best established by literary evidence,' ' ■vielmehr ist Phidias' Schiilerver- 
hdltniss zu dem Attiker Hegias einmal, aher gut, das zu Hageladas viermal, 
aber schlecht bezeugt.' To the unsatisfactory character of E. Gardner's proposed 
emendation of Dio Chrys. Or. Iv. i {Class. Rev.\m, 1894, p. 70) I have drawn 
attention elsewhere {ib. p. 171, note i). 

P. Ixi. The story of the angry artist and the sponge is told by Dio 
Chrysostom (Or. Ixiii, 4 = Schriftqu. 1 889) of Apelles and his picture of a war 
horse. I find that Mr. A. S. Murray {Handbook, p. 3S4) has already pointed 
out, in connexion with Apelles, that the story seemed the anecdotic illustration 
of the line of Agathon. 

P. Ixii. From a remark in note i on p. 537 of his article in the Hermes, it 
would seem that Miinzer also inclines to attribute the story of Zenxis and the 
five maidens to Duris. But Miinzer makes Duris responsible for the transference 
of the scene of the story from Kroton to Agrigentum (cf. above. Add. to p. li). 
Possibly, therefore, we may some day be able to drive the story home to 
a source whence Duris himself quoted — or misquoted. 

P. Ixxxv. Fabius Vestalis : it is worth noting that, since in each of the 
three notices his name appears last on the Plinian lists, he was probably only 
a supplementary author (comm. by Dr. Miinzer). 

BOOK XXXIII 

p. 6, 2. crustarius : there are superb examples of kjipKimaTa. among the 
cups of both the treasures of Hildescheim (Berlin) and of Bosco Reade 
(Louvre) ; cf. Winter, Arch. Anz. 1896, p. 93. For the most part the 
emblema appears in the shape of a bust in full relief, soldered to a silver 
plate. 



ADDENDA 233 



BOOK XXXIV 

P. 6, 18. froscriptum ab Antonio: cf. Gardthausen, Augustus, i, p. 136. 

P. 8, 19. tricliniorum pedihus fulcrisque : that ihe fulcrum was ' the frame- 
work on which the pillows of a couch or the cushions of a chair were placed ' 
has been maintained and fully proved by W. C. F. Anderson, Ciass. ReTi. iii, 
1889, p. 322 ff. 

P. 14, 7. ubi omnium . . . iconicas vacant ; the latest discussion of this 
passage is by Dittenberger and Purgold, Olympische Inschriften, col. 236, 
295 f, where it is pointed out that in the inscr. recording the Olympic victory of 
Xenombrotos of Kos (ib. no. 170; Pans, vi, 14, 12) the roTo^ SttoTov dpSs of the 
fifth line proves that the statue was iconic ; yet the epigram and the silence of 
Fausanias both show that X. was no TpiaoXvumovinris. 

P. 16, 13. elephant! : on triumphal chariots drawn by elephants see, how- 
ever, Gardthausen, Augustus, ii, p. 257. 

P. 23, 13. Statues of Demetrios of Phaleron : the lines from Varro run — 
^ic Demetrius aeneas tot aptust 
Quot luces habet annus absolutus 
(for the first line, as emended by Scaliger, Bormann, Arch. Ep. Mittk. xvii, 
1894, p. 233 f, proposes hie Demetrius est [tot aera nacyus). Wachsmuth 
(loc. cit.) is probably right in tracing back the legend of the number of statues 
put up to Demetrios to an epigram — ' as many statues as there are days in the 
year ' — a playful turn which was afterwards accepted as serious fact, giving rise 
not only to the statements in Varro and Pliny, but to the improved version in 
Diogenes that all these statues were erected to Demetrios in a period less than 
a year; elKoyaiv ^'i^luBtj xaA/cwi' e^rjicovTa irpos rats rpiaicoaiats, Siv at 
TT\eiovs k(j> iTnrojv ^ijav Kal dpixaTccv teal (Xwoipibaiv, <xvvTC\ia^'eiaai kv ouS^ 
Tpiauoaiais ^fiipais. — Cornelius Nepos, Miliiades, vi, and Plutarch, Praec. 
reip. gerend. 11 E (Bemardakis, v, p. 116), mention 300 as the number of the 
statues, a round sum, more or less representing the truth. The 1,500 statues 
mentioned by Dio Chrysostom (xxxvii, 41) are mere foolish rhetoric. The 
distich from Varro was presumably inscribed, in his Imagines (cf. Plin. xxxv, 1 1 ; 
A. Gellius, Noct. Ait. iii, 10, i ; 11, 7), beneath a portrait of Demetrios; see 
Bormann, loc. cit. 

P. 28, 18. Rhodi eliamnum : the passage from Jerome is referred by Momm- 
sen {Ueber den Chronographen, S^c, p. 692) to a Roman history ' of the period 
of Caesar and Augustus,' by Reifferscheid (p. 360, n. 224) to Suetonius; cf- 
Gardthausen, Augustus, i, p. 67. 

P. 32, 25. Arvemis : the temple is presumably the one described by Gregory 
of Tours (i, 30), of which the foundations were discovered in 1874, see Mowat, 
Rev. Arch. 1875, p. 31 ff., where the five inscriptions Mercuric Arverno are 
discussed. As to the type of Zenodoros' Mercury, Mowat, Bull. Monum. 
1875, p. 657 if., conjectures that we possess an echo of it in the seated Mercury 
on an altar from Horn in Holland (inscr. Brambach, C. I. R. 2029, p. xxvii); 
cf. S. Reinach, Bronzes Figuris, p. 80, no. 68. 

P. 34, 5. in officina: perhaps it is scarcely correct to refer this to the work- 
shop or studio of Zenodoros. From the size of the colossus it is probable that 
a special workshop was erected for the artist. 

P. 34, 21. sphingem : Miinzer points out to me that Quinct. vi, 3, 98, accords 
with Pliny in giving bronze as the material of the sphinx. Now 'in this 



234 ADDENDA 

chapter of Qiiinctilian several hons mots of the personages of the Ciceronian age 
and of Cicero himself have been shown by Wissowa {Hermes, xvi, p. 499 ff.) 
to be borrowed from the book of Domitius Marsns, de urbanitate, which 
Quinctilian frequently quotes in this chapter.' Therefore we may assume the 
same D. Marsus, who appears in the Index to Bk. xxxiv, to have been Pliny's 
authority for the story of Hortensius and the sphinx. (This observation of 
Mimzer's will shortly be published in his Beitrdge ssur Qtiellenkritik der 
Naturgeschichte des Plinius.) 

P. 36, II. Hagelades: E. Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculpture, p. 192, 
proposes to read the 'A7eXof6a of /. G. B. 30 (bathron of Praxiteles) as 
& 'A-yfKaiSa, and, accordingly, takes the name of the Argive master to have 
been Agelaidas. The form Hagelaidas (Greek Hagelaidas), which we print 
in the translation, is also retained by Dittenberger and Purgold, Inschr. von 
Olympia 631, where see literature. 

P. 38, I. Argium : owing to its position a proper name, and not, as often 
surmised, the ethnic of Asopodoros, in which case it would have been placed 
after the name it qualified, cf Gorgias Lcuon (§ 49), Demean Clitorium; Ditten- 
berger and Purgold in Inschriften von Olympia, col. 647, where see literature. 

P. 38, I. Asopodorum : for the inscription on the bathron of Praxiteles, see 
now Inschr. von Olympia, 630, 631, where Dittenberger and Purgold rightly 
reject Rbhl's proposed identification of the Plinian Asopodorus and Athenodorus 
with the artists of the bathron. 

P. 38, a. Clitorium : Paus. x, 9, *j, ovtoi (sc. 'ABtjv. Kal 'Aa/iias) 5e 'ApKaSes 
eifflv eK KXeiropoi. 

P. 38, 5. Leochares: I refer the passage concerning the statue of Isokrates by 
Leochares in Vit. X Orat. 2'] to Heliodoros on the authority of Keil, Hermes, 
XXX, 1895, p. 202. 

P 40, 1. Date of Seilanion : Furtwangler, Statuenkopien im Alterthum, 
p. 562, shows, however, that the connexion attempted by Delamarre between 
C. I. G. S. 414, and C. I. G. S. 4253, 4254, is unfounded : D.'s conjecture that 
the latter refers to the revival of the games in 329-8 B.C. is unproven; 4253 
refers not to the games but generally to the Hieron of Amphiaraos and the 
Penteteris, 'while 4254is a decree in honour of the officials in charge of the games. 
There is nothing in either inscription implying a revival. Thus the only evidence 
we are left with for the date of 414 is derived from the epigraphy ; according to 
Dittenberger the upper limit is 366 B. C. Now if we accept the extant por- 
traits of Plato as copies after an original by Seilanion (Helbig, Class. Ant. 
265, p. 183 f.), and adopt Furtw'angler's identification of the Theseus at Ince- 
Blundell Hall {Statuenkopien, pi. ii, iii, ib. p. 559 ff.) as a copy of the Theseus 
of Seilanion (Plut. Thes. iv), there would be artistic grounds for placing the 
artist as far back in the fourth century as the epigraphy of C. I. G. S. 414 
allows. — No great weight can be attached to the date assigned to Seilanion in 
Pliny's chronology, the mention of Seilanion having been loosely tacked on by 
a later hand to the old Xenokratic chronology, Introd. p. xlix, note 2. 

P. 40, 2. Zeuxiaden : the identity of the portraitist of Hypereides with the 
pupil of Seilanion is, however, doubtful, cf. Introd. p. liii. 

P. 42, 4. formae cognomen ^Vx. ' the surname of beauty'; for/o?-»za= beauty, 
cf. below § -i%,cliduchon eximia forma ; xxxv, S6,ob admiral, formae; O. Jahn, 
Arck. Zeit. 1847, p. 63 (cf. Brunn, JiT. G. p. 182), believe the Greek epithet 
of the goddess to have been Mopcpii, which occurs as an epithet of Aphrodite at 
Sparta (Paus. iii, 15, 8). Other conjectures are /toAAi/top^os and KcMuoTrj. 



ADDENDA 235 

P. 42, 5. cliduchum : it is Pliny's rule to mention the names of gods, while 
he almost invariably omits to name mortals ; their statues are referred to by 
their motive, e.g. diadumenus, discobolus, apoxyomenus, malaferens nudus, &'c. 
Hence it is that the cliduchus cannot be regarded as the Athena Promachos 
(so Urlichs in Chreslom.), nor the astragalhontes of Polykleitos as the Dioscuri 
(so Furtwangler in Masterpieces, p. 292, note i), nor the mala ferens nudus as 
a statue of Herakles. 

P. 42, 10. diadumenum : another fairly complete copy of this statue, 
recently found in Delos {B. C. H. 1895, pi. viii), is— to judge from the publica- 
tion—of poor workmanship, inferior to the Madrid copy; cf. Furtwangler, 
Statuenkopien im Alterthum, p. 548. 

P. 44, I. telo incessentem : I ought to have stated more fully that Furt- 
wangler (/o^-. aV.) shows the impossibility — on grammatical and other grounds — 
of the reading talo, which is supported by Benndorf. The latter supposes the 
statue referred to, to have stood on an astragal basis — a forerunner to the Kairos 
of Lysippos {Schriftqu. 1463-1467), further, to have been described by some 
Greek writer as -yv/jLyds daTpayaAai eiriKfiiievos where Pliny then translated the 
ewi/ceiij.(vos in its alternative sense of ' advancing ' or ' pursuing.' But in that 
case talo incessens could only mean advancing towards or pursuing a knuckle- 
bone, which is nonsense. Talo can only be the instrument, the weapon with 
which the man is attacking, so that everything combines to commend Benn- 
dorf s own earlier conjecture telo. 

P. 44, 3. in Titi imperatoris atrio ; the reading of Cod. Bamb. seems to be : 
in titi imperis atrio duo (see our facsimile) ; incliti in patrio duo Bamb. e corr. 

P. 44, 6. Portrait of Artemon : in Class. Rev. 1894, p. 219, I pointed out 
that the erection of the portrait should probably be connected with the Samian 
expedition of 439 B.C., at which date Furtwangler {Masterpieces, p. 119) con- 
jectures the Perikles by Kresilas to have been put up. Meanwhile grave doubts 
have arisen in my mind as to the authenticity of the Polykleitan Artemon. 
The confusion already noted by Plutarch with the Artemon of Anakreon is 
suspicious. The notice in Pliny is clearly derived from an anecdotic source 
other than that from which his main narrative is borrowed. Possibly, as 
Mvinzer hints, Hermes, xxx, p. 537, we have here further traces of Duris. 

P. 46, 1 . pristas : the MSS. are unanimous ; hence, since H. L. Urlichs 
{loc. cit.) has satisfactorily shown that a group of sawyers — put up doubtless 
by some successful master-builder — is absolutely in harmony with fifth-century 
traditions, I had not thought it necessary to refer to Loeschcke's proposed 
emendation of pristas to pyctas — an emendation, however, which threatens to 
come into favour again. 

P. 46, 14. puerum . . . tabellam : for the motive Reisch (/. c) compares the 
vase in Munich (Cat. 51), Benndorf, Griechische u. Sicilische Vasenbilder, i, 
pi. ix. 

P. 48, 16. The Apoxyomenos of Lysippos : the copy in the Braccio Nuovo of 
the Vatican (Helbig, 31) seemed to me too well known to need mention. For 
the writer from whom Pliny got the story of Tiberius's passion for the statue, 
see Introd. p. xcii, n. 4. 

P. 50, 6 : for portraits of Alexander, see also Helbig, Sopra un Busto 
Colossale d'Alessandro Magno in Mon. Antichi (R. Acad. Lincei), vol. vi, 1895. 

P. 60, I. Fortrait of Perikles: Bliimner and Hitzig (Pausanias, p. 307) 
remark that the word dcSpiai, used by Pausanias (i, 25, i), does not apply to 
a terminal bust. Cf. further Bernoulli in Jahrb. xi, 1896, p. 107 f. 



236 ADDENDA 

P. 60, 3. Minervam niirabilem . . . et aram: while still proposing to see 
a copy of this Athena in the ' Pallas de Velletri ' whose original he refers to 
Kresilas (see Introd. p. Ixxv, n. 2), Furtwangler recognizes a copy of the 
Zeus in a fine statue at Ince-Blundell Hall, Statuenkopien im Alterthum, 
plates i and iii, i, ib. p. 551 ff., the original of which he attributes on stylistic 
grounds neither to Kresilas nor to the unknown Kephisodoros, but to the 
elder Kephisodotos. The reasons adduced, however, are scarcely strong 
enough to warrant the alteration in the Plinian text of the MS. reading 
Cefhisodorus to Cephisodotus. 

P. 60, 10. celetizontas : for the motive cf. further a statue in the Palazzo 
Orlandi at Florence, Arndt-Bruckmann, Einzelverk. 342. 

P. 66, 7. Hermaphrodite of Polykles : the Berlin statue (193) is now pub- 
lished by Furtwangler, Statuenkopien, pi. xii, who sees in it a copy of the work 
of Polykles {ib. p. 582 ff.). 

P. 68, 3. nee hominem ex aere fecit, sed iracundiam : while admitting — 
what is indeed incontrovertible — that this phraseology is common to Silver 
Latinity, I now believe that an epigram is after all concealed behind it (Introd. 
p. Ixx), all the Plinian criticism and analysis of Greek works of art being Greek 
in their origin ; cf. note on xxxv, 61. 

P. 68, 8. Theodorus : cf. also vii, 198 ; xxxv, 152. Identity with the artist 
of C. I. A. 373, 90 (from Akropolis, middle of sixth century) is probable but 
not certain. 

P. 70, 4. infans . . . anserem strangulat: in his translation of Herondas 
(1893), p. xiv, Crusius alludes to the group in Herondas as being wholly 
marble. The attempt to establish identity with the Plinian group seems futile, 
seeing how common the subject was in antiquity ; cf. E. Gardner in J. H. S. vi, 
1885, pp. 7 ff. 

P. 72, i. Apellas: cf. also /. G. B. 100 { = Insckriften von Olympia, 634), 
from the basis supporting the horses of Kyniska in the Pronaos of the Temple 
of Zeus, Pans, v, 12, 5 (/. G. B. ^^=Inschr. von 01. 160). 

P. 72, 8. Hermes mining the infant Dionysos by Kephisodotos : the Identity 
of this group with the famous group at Olympia seems to me probable. The 
latter is attributed to Praxiteles on the authority of Pausanias (v, 17, i) only. 
I believe that in this case, as often in that of works attributed to Pheidias (xxxv, 
54, Athena by Kolotes; xxxvi, 17, Nemesis and Mother of the Gods by Agora- 
kritos), all of which are put down to Pheidias by Pans. (Introd. p. xl, cf. p. liii, 
note i), Pliny represents the more detailed — and perchance the more trust- 
worthy — tradition, while Pausanias gives only the popular attributions. If the 
Hermes of Olympia was really by Praxiteles, but could pass in the eyes of 
certain critics as the work of his father or elder brother, it follows that the 
statue belonged, as Brunn has maintained, to the artist's earlier period and not 
to his later as recently argued by B'urtwangler {Masterpieces, p. 307 f). It may 
be questioned whether we are not too completely under the spell of Pausanias, 
whose untrustworthiness in the matter of attributions is notorious, and who, 
writing some 600 years after the artists of the great period, was as liable to 
blunder concerning their works as the compiler of a modern guide-book 
cotceming the artists of the Renascence and their works. However, I am at 
present neither prepared nor equipped to challenge the Praxitelean authorship 
of the Hermes on morphological or aesthetic grounds. A long and complete 
reinvestigation of all the extant material would first be necessary, but I think 
it worth while to point out distinctly that there were probably two ancient 



ADDENDA 237 

traditions concerning the authorship of the statue, and that the comparative 
trustworthiness of each should be investigated. I may add that the resemblance 
of the Kephisodotian Eirene holding the child Ploutos to the Hermes nursing 
the child Dionysos is so strong as only to be satisfactorily accounted for by 
referring them to the same artist : both figures are posed in the same manner, 
while the children are, as has often been noted, practically identical (cf. Fnrt- 
wiingler, op. cit. p. 296). 

P. 72, 12. Cenchramis : cf. for Kenchramos, Purgold on Inschriften von 
01. 638. 

P. 74, 2. tubicine: cf. Urlichs, Pergamenische Inschriften, p. 24. The 
commentary is not quite clear at this point ; the explanation of Winckelmann 
{Geschichte, ed. 1776, p. 660 if. = tr. Lodge, vol. ii, p. 204fr.) applies to the 
' dying Gaul ' of the Capitol, and not to the Plinian tubicen. 

P. 74, i. main interfedae : that this was a Gaulish woman seems to have 
been Jirst suggested by Urlichs, /oc. cit. ; on the whole subject of these works 
by Epigonos see G. Habich, Die Amazonengrufpe des Attalischen Weih- 
geschenks CEine Studie zur Pergamenischen Kunstgeschichte), Berlin, 1896, 
p. 14 ff. 

P. 76, 8. Scopas uterqtie: G. Habich, Die Amazonengruppe, p. 66, note z, 
is of opinion that scopas refers to the works of art made by each of two artists 
(uterque), and explains these works to have been dancing satyrs. Habich 
supports his theory by appeal to the Munich vase. I must abide, however, by 
the opinion which I arrived at about a year ago after careful study of the vase 
in question, and which I have expressed in the Commentary. 

P. 78, I. Callimachus : for his date consult Winckelmann, Geschichte (ed. 
1776), p. 460 (=tr. Lodge, vol. ii, p. 123), Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 437. 



BOOK XXXV. 

P. 92, 13. M. Agrippa: for Agrippa's interest in art, see now Gardthausen, 
Augustus, i. p. 749 ff. 

P. 102, § 57, § 59. For the pictures in the Poikile Stoa, see now Hitzig and 
Bliimner, Pausanias, p. 201 f. 

P. 106, 2 . Zeuxis of Herakleia : I have not sufficiently emphasized the 
difficulties at the commencement of Pliny's account of Zeuxis. It seems to me 
probable that the two conflicting dates of his birth given by Pliny represent 
the conflicting opinions of Greek art-historians (Antigonos and Duns? cf. 
Introd. p. xxxiii, on the beginnings of encaustic ; Introd. p. xxvi, on the origin 
of sculpture). The epigram against Zeuxis attributed to Apollodoros should 
have been alluded to among the epigrams discussed, Introd. p. Ivii. 

P. 108, 7. Herakles strangling the snakes in presence of Alkmena and 
Amphitryon. The vase-painting in the Brit. Mus. (F. 479) is now published, 
Cat. of Vases in Brit. Mus. vol. iv, pi. xiii. The clumsiness of the figures, 
the coarseness of the picture as a whole, and the absence of Amphitryo must 
make us wary of accepting it as more than a distant echo of the picture by 
Zeuxis, 



238 ADDENDA 

P. 134. The Pompeian Mosaic : now at last well photographed by Alinari, 
Naples 12050. 

P. 136. The ' Thesmothetai' of Protogenes: the view of Curtius seems to me 
probable. For dissentient opinions and the full literature of the subject, see 
Hitzig-Bliimner, Pausanias, p. 145. 

P. 140. The Resting Satyr : the subject occurs likewise in painting ; a well 
preserved instance in the Casa Nuonia at Pompei, phot. Brogi, Naples 11 216. 
But, at present, no safe connexion can be established between these paintings 
and the work of Protogenes. 

P. 142, 1 7. shortened methods of techniqtu : recent study in the Museum of 
Naples has convinced me that the clue to these words is afforded by a singular 
group of ' Campanian ' pictures — the most striking of which is Helbig 1 1 1 1 
(=phot. Alinari, Naples 12035), known since the days of Bbttiger as ' Evening 
prayer in front of the Temple of Isis.' The picture is not a work of the first 
rank, but it proves that the ancients possessed to as great a degree as any 
moderns all the secrets of impressionism : the broad flight of steps is indi- 
cated by a few bold dashes of white ; the heads of the crowd on either side 
are roughly modelled within two bands of dark shadow ; white is applied 
vrith extraordinary intelligence and variety, now for an effect of light, now for 
the white garments that contrast with the dark skin of the Egyptian priests. 
Closely connected with this picture is the similar subject, Helbig 1112, and 
the two pictures of the 'Trojan horse' ((i) phot. Sommer, Pompei 9218, 
(2) Helbig 1326). Egyptian origin is attested from their subjects for the Isis 
pictures, while for those of the Trojan horse it has been proved both from the 
treatment and motives by L. von Urlichs {das Holzerne Pferd). There 
seems little doubt that these pictures are an example of that compendiaria, that 
shortened method hated by Petronius, as in modem times by Ruskin, which was 
successfully cultivated and perhaps first brought into fashion by Antiphilos, and 
imitated in Greece by Nikomachos. 

P. 154, 2. exilior: Robert, Hall. Winckelmannsprogramm, xix, 1895, p. 25, 
maintains that the adjective in its usual sense of slender, slim or thin, cannot 
be properly applied to the figures of an artist who expressed the dignitatis of 
heroes, or who boasted that 'his Theseus had been fed on meat.' Robert, 
accordingly, proposed to see in exilior the (mis)translation of some such word 
as ^paxvT€pos = short, thick-set or stumpy. Robert's arguments have been 
vigorously controverted by Furtwangler {Statuenkopien im Alterthum, p. 568 f.), 
who defends the received interpretation of the passage. It seems to me that 
the contradictions in the criticisms passed upon Parrhasios, which vex Robert, 
and which Furtwangler attempts to reconcile, are the effect of the present juxta- 
position inPliny of two or more appreciations of Euphranor, derived from totally 
different sources : the sentence mdetiir expressisse dignitatis heroum . . . articulis- 
que grandior is plainly Xenokratic in its origin (Inlrod. p. xxvii) ; here there can 
be no real contradiction between the dignitaies which Euphranor expressed and 
the fact that he was in universitate corporum. exilior, for the first refers to the 
artist's ethical conception of his heroes, the latter to their physical present- 
ment. As regards the saying attributed to Euphranor concerning his Theseus, 
I have pointed out both in the note on the passage and in the Introduction 
(p. Ixiii f ) that its source is anecdotic, and can be traced back — perhaps through 
Antigonos — to Duris of Samos. 

P. 155. Andromeda : for the finest and best preserved of the Pompeian 
pictures see phot. Alinari, Naples 1 2034. 



ADDENDA 



239 



P. 156. Achilles detected by Ulysses: phot. Alinari, Naples 12001, id. 
12000; a different scheme seems preserved in the recently discovered picture 
in the Casa Nuova at Pompei, phot. Brogi 11226. 

P. 159. Medeia of Timomachos : the picture Helbig 1262 (= phot. Alinari, 
Naples 12024) seems to me on close inspection to be really a copy after 
a good original, presumably, then, after the Medeia by Timomachos. The 
single figure of Medeia, on the other hand, appears to me extremely inferior 
in conception and execution ; pose and accessories are different, and I can see 
not the slightest reason for referring it to the same original as the former picture. 

P. 159. Orestes and Iphigeneia: phot. Alinari, Naples 12020. 

P. 162.. Herakles and Deianeira : for the subject, treated with considerable 
mastery, and evidently after a good original, see the Pompeian picture, phot. 
Alinari, Naples 12026 (cf. Helbig, Wandgemdlde, 1146). 

P. 166, 14. quinquatrus celebraniem : Simos' picture apparently lent itself 
to a Roman interpretation, which by Pliny's time had superseded the true 
Greek explanation of the subject. 



BOOK XXXVI. 

P. 190, 9. Statue of Mother of Gods by Agorakritos : Furtwangler, Statuen- 
kofien, p. ^I'j ff., claims to have discovered a copy of this work in a statue of 
the Villa Pamfili in Rome. 

P. 202, 12. Timotheos: I have lately examined the 'Leda and the Swan' 
in the Capitol ; the connexion established between it and the Epidaurian 
sculptures by both Amelung and Winter seems to me to stand the test of minute 
criticism ; it is, however, disputed by Arndt (Arndt-Bruckmann, Phot. Einzel- 
verk. ii, p. 30). 

P. 205, 9. Hermerotes : the point made by Cicero {loc. cit.) was probably 
suggested by the word Hermathena, rather than by the actual monument. Cf. 
also Att. i, I, 5 ; ib. 10, 3 {ffermeracles']. A terminal iigure at Newby Hall 
(Michaelis, Anc. Marbles in Great Britain, p. 531) affords a doubtful instance 
of an Hermeros. Michaelis brings it into connexion with the work of Tauriskos. 

P. 208, 1. 4. Venerem lavante?n se . . . Polycharmus : concerning this 
difficult passage I can only arrive at negative results, (i) The reading sese 
Daedalus must, I think, be rejected, the best codices offering no evidence for it 
whatsoever ; the corrupt sedaedalsas of Cod. Bamb. conceals either further 
descriptive words or the name of the locality where the statue was. (2) The 
current attribution of the Venus lavans se to one Daidalos of Bithynia, known 
only on the authority of Eustathios {Schriftqu. 2045), which seemed to receive sup- 
port from the recurrence of a crouching or bathing Aphrodite on Bithynian coins 
(see Bernoulli, Aphrodite, p. 317), must also be renounced; the type on the 
coins occurs elsewhere, and belongs to a series whose origin can be traced back 
to high antiquity (cf. Friederichs-Wolters, p. 571). (3) The notion that two 
statues are mentioned in the passage, and that the first was crouching, in oppo- 
sition to the Venus stans of Polycharmos, is entirely without support ; stantem 
may be used here, not necessarily of an upright versus a stooping figure, but in 
the sense of ' placed,' ' situated.' Brunn, K. G. ii, p. 528, Miiller, Handbuch, 
377, note 5, take the whole sentence to be descriptive of one statue by Poly- 
charmos. 



240 ADDENDA 

P. 210. Caryatids of the Pantheon: see also Helbig, Class. Ant. I, and 
Gardthausen, Augustus, ii, p. 439 f. 

P. 212. Lioness by Arkesilaos : Mr. Cecil Smith kindly reminds me, in this 
connexion, of a ' fine mosaic in the Brit. Mus., from Pompei (an early one), 
representing a lion and three Cupids : one has bound the lion with a cord, one 
seems to hold a drinking-vessel, and the third holds an object which seems to 
be a large dart. It is a good illustration of the Arkesilaos subject, and is 
evidently a copy from a Hellenistic relief.' 

N.B. — The student will find all references concerning Roman topography 
admirably put together by Hiilsen in the Nomenclator Topographicus to 
Kiepert and Hiilsen's Formae Urbis Romae Antiquae, Berlin, 1896. 



INDEXES 



INDEX I 



NAMES OF ARTISTS 



Action, painter, xxxv, 50, 78. 
Action, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Aglaophon, painter, xxxv, 60. 
Agorakritos, sculptor, xxxvi, 17. 
Aiginetas, painter, xxxv, 145. 
Akragas, chaser, xxxiii, 155. 
Aleuas, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Alexis, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Alkamenes, statuary and sculptor, 

xxxiv, 49, 72; xxxvi, 16, 17. 
Alkimachos, painter, xxxv, 139. 
Alkon, statuary, xxxiv, 141. 
Amphikrates, statuary, xxxiv, 72- 
Amphistratos, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. 
Anaxander, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Androbios, painter, xxxv, 1 39. 
Androboulos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Androkydes, painter, xxxv, 64. 
Angelion, sculptor, Athenag. IlpeaP. 

17 (App. II). 
Antaios, statuary, xxxiv, 52. 
Antidotes, painter, xxxv, 130. 
Antignotos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Antigonos, statuary, xxxiv, 84. 
Antimachos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Antipater, chaser, xxxiii, 156. 
Antiphilos, painter, xxxv, 114, 138. 
Antorides, painter, xxxv, iii. 
Apellas, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Apelles, painter, xxxv, 50, 75, ^6, 

79-97, 107, III, 118, 123, 140, 

145; vii, 125 (App. i). 
Aphrodisios, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Apollodoros, painter, xxxv, 60, 61. 
ApoUodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 81, 86. 
Apollonides, graver, xxxvii, 8tApp.io). 
ApoUonios, sculptor, xxxvi, 24, 34. 
Archermos, sculptor, xxxvi, n-13. 
Arellius, painter, xxxv, 119. 
Argeios, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Aridikes, painter, xxxv, 16. 
Aristarete, painter, xxxv, 147. 
Aristeides, painter (and statuary (?), 

xxxiv, 50, 72), xxxv, 76, 108, III, 

122. 



Aristeides, painter, vii, 126 (App. 1); 

xxxv, 24, 98-100, no, 122. 
Aristoboulos, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Aristodemos, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Aristokleides, painter, xxxv, 138. 
Aristokydes, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Aristolaos, painter, xxxv, 137. 
Ariston, chaser and statuary, xxxiii. 

156; xxxiv, 85. 
Ariston, painter, xxxv, no, iii. 
Aristonidas, painter and statuary, 

xxxiv, 140 ; xxxv, 146. 
Aristophon, painter, xxxv, 138. 
Arkesilaos, modeller and sculptor, 

xxxv, 155, 156 ; xxxvi, 33, 41. 
Arkesilas, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Artemon, painter, xxxv, 139. 
Artemon, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Asklepiodoros, painter, xxxv, 80, 

107. 
Asklepiodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 86. 
Asopodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Athanodoros, sculptor and statuary, 

xxxiv, 86 ; xxxvi, 37. 
Athanodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Athenion, painter, xxxv, 134. 
Athenis, sculptor, xxxvi, 11 -14. 
Attius Priscus, painter, xxxv, 1 20. 
Autoboulos, painter, xxxv, 148. 
Avianius Evander, xxxvi, 32. 

Baton, statuary, xxxiv, 73, 91. 
Batrachos, sculptor, xxxvi, 42. 
Boedas, statuary, xxxiv, 66, 73. 
Boethos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii, 

155; xxxiv, 84. 
Boularchos, painter, vii, 126 (App. i); 

xxxv, 55. 
Eoupalos, sculptor, xxxvi, 11-13. 
Boutades, modeller, xxxv, 151, 152, 

163- 
Bryaxis, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv, 

42, 73; xxxvi, 22, 30,31. 
Bryetes, painter, xxxv, 123. 

Chaireas, statuary, xxxiv, 75- 



R 2 



244 



INDEX I 



Chalkosthenes, statuary and modeller, 

xxxiv, 87 ; XXXV, 155. 
Chares, statuary, xxxiv, 41, 44. 
Channadas, painter, xxxv, 56. 
Charmantides, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Chersiphron, architect, xxxvi, 95 

(App. 7). 
Coponius, sculptor, xxxvi, 41. 
Cornelius Finns, painter, xxxv, 120. 

Daidalos, sculptor, vii, 125 (App. 3); 

Athenag. IIpeff/3. 17 (App. 11) 
Daidalos, statuary, xxxiv, 76. 
Daimon, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Daiphron, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Daippos, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Damokritos, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Damophilos, painter and modeller, 

xxxv, 154. 
Deinias, painter, xxxv, 56. 
Deinomenes, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 76. 
Deinon, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Deliades, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Demeas, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Demetrios, statuary, xxxiv, 76. 
Demophilos, painter, xxxv, 61. 
Derkyllidas, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. 
Dikaiogenes, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Diogenes, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Dionysios, painter, xxxv, 113, 148. 
Dionysios, sculptor, xxxvi, 35. 
Dionysodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Dionysodoros, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Diopos, modeller, xxxv, 152. 
Dioskourides, graver, xxxvii, 8 (App. 

10). 
Dipoinos, sculptor, xxxvi, 9, 10, 14. 
Dorotheos, painter, xxxv, 91. 

Eirene, painter, xxxv, 147. 
Ekphanlos, painter, xxxv, 16. 
Elasippos, painter, xxxv, 122. 
Endoios, sculptor, xvi, 214 (App. 4) ; 

Athenag. Ilpeaff. 17 (App. 11). 
Epigonos, statuary, xxxiv, 88. 
Erigonos, painter, xxxv, 145. 
Erillos, painter, xxxv, 114.. 
Euboulides, statuary, xxxiv, 88. 
Euboulos, statuary, xxxiv, 88. 
Eucheir, painter, vii, 205 (App. 3). 
Eucheir, modeller, xxxv, 152. 
Eucheir, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Eudoros, painter and statuary, xxxv, 

141. 
Euenor, painter, xxxv, 60. 
Eugrammos, modeller, xxxv, 152. 
Eumaros, painter, xxxv, 56. 
Eunikos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii, 

156 i xxxiv, 85. 
Euphorion, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Enphranor, painter and statuary, 

xxxiv, 50, 77; xxxv, iii, 128-130, 

146. 



Euphron, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 
Eupompos, painter, xxxiv, 61 ; xxxv, 

64. 75- 
Euthykrates, statuary, xxxiv, 5 1, 66, 83. 
Euthymides, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Eutychides, painter, statuary and 

sculptor, xxxiv, 51, 78 ; xxxv, 141 ; 

xxxvi, 34. 
Euxeinidas, painter, xxxv, 75- 

Fabius Pictor, painter, xxxv, 19. 
Famulus, painter, xxxv, 120. 

Glaukides, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Glaukion, painter, xxxv, 134. 
Gorgasos, modeller and painter, xxxv, 

154- 
Gorgias, statuary, xxxiv, 49. 

Habron, painter, xxxv, 141, 146. 
Hagelaidas, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 55, 57- 
Hagesander, sculptor, xxxvi, 37. 
Hegesias, statuary, xxxiv, 78. 
*Hedys*, chaser, xxxiii, 156. 
Hegias, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 78. 
Hekataios, chaser and statuary, xxxiii, 

156, xxxiv, 85. 
Heliodoros, statuary and sculptor, 

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 35. 
Heniochos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. 
Herakleides, painter, xxxv, 13,5, 146. 
Hermolaos, sculptor, xxxvi, 38 
Hikanos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Hippys, painter, xxxv, 141. 
Hygiainon, painter, xxxv, 56. 
Hypatodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 

laia, painter, xxxv, 147, 148. 
Ion, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 
lophou, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Isodotos, statuary, xxxiv, 78. 
Isogonos, statuary, xxxiv, 84. 

Kalamis, chaser, statuary and sculptor, 
xxxiii, 155 ; xxxiv, 47, 71 ; xxxvi, 36. 

Kalates, painter, xxxv, 114. 

Kallides, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 

Kallikles, painter, xxxv, 114. 

Kallikles, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 

Kallikrates, sculptor, xxxvi, 43. 

Kallimachos, statuary and painter, 
xxxiv, 92. 

Kallistratos, statuary, xxxiv, 52. 

Kallixenos, statuary, xxxiv, 52. 

Kallon, statuary, xxxiv, 49. 

Kalypso, painter, xxxv, 147. 

Kanachos, statuary and sculptor, 
xxxiv, 50, 75 ; xxxvi, 41. 

Kantharos, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 

Kenchramos, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 

Kephisodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 74. 

Kephisodoros, painter, xxxv, 60. 

Kephisodotos, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 87. 



NAMES OF ARTISTS 



245 



Kephisodotos, statuary and sculptor, 

xxxiv, 51, 87; xxxvi, 24. 
Kepis, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Kimon, painter, xxxv, 56. 
Kleanthes, painter, xxxv, 16, Athenag. 

npirrP. 17 (App. 11). 
Kleomenes, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. 
Kleon, painter, xxxv, 140. 
Kleon, statuary, xxxiv, 87. 
Koines, painter, xxxv, 140. 
Kolotes, statuary, xxxiv, 87 ; xxxv, 55. 
Koroibos, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Krateros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Kratinos, painter, xxxv, 140, 147. 
Kraton, painter, Athenag. Tlpiaff. 17 

(App. II). 
Kresilas, statuary, xxxiv, 53, 74. 
Kritios, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 85. 
Kronios, graver, xxxvii, 8 (App. 10). 
Ktesias, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Ktesidemos, painter, xxxv, 1 14, 140. 
Ktesikles, painter, xxxv, 140. 
Ktesilaos, statuary, xxxiv, 76. 
Ktesilochos, painter, xxxv, 140. 
Kydias, painter, xxxv, 130. 
Kydon, statuary, xxxiv, 53. 

Laippos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 66. 
Leochares, statuary and sculptor, 

xxxiv, 50, 79; xxxvi, 30, 31. 
Leon, painter, xxxv, 141. 
Leon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Leontiskos, painter, xxxv, 141. 
Lesbokles, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Lykios, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 79. 
Lysias, sculptor, xxxvi, 36. 
Lysippos, statuary, xxxiv, 37, 40, 41, 

51, 61-67, 8°; xxxv, 153; vii, 125 

(App. 1). 
Lysistratos, statuary and modeller, 

xxxiv, 51 ; xxxv, 153. 
Lyson, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 

Melanthios, painter, xxxv, 50, 76, 80. 
Melas, sculptor, xxxvi, 11. 
Menaichmos, statuary, xxxiv, 80. 
Menestratos, sculptor, xxxvi, 32. 
Menodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Menogenes, statuary, xxxiv, 88. 
Mentor, chaser and statuary, xxxiii, 

154; vii, 127 (App. i). 
Metrodoros, painter, xxxv, 135. 
Mikkiades, sculptor, xxxvi, 11. 
Mikon, statuary and painter, xxxiv, 

88 ; xxxv, 59. 
Milon, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Mnasilaos, painter, xxxv, 122. 
Mnasitheos, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Mnasitimos, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Myagros, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Myrmekides, sculptor, xxxvi, 43. 
Myron, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv, 

10,49,50,57-59,68,79; xxxvi, 32. 



Mys, chaser, xxxiii, 155. 

Naukeros, statuary, xxxiv, 80. 
Naukydes, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 80. 
Nealkes, painter, xxxv, 104, 142, 145, 

146. 
Nearchos, painter, xxxv, 141, 147. 
Neokles, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Neseus, painter, xxxv, 6i. 
Nesiotes, statuary, xxxiv, 49. 
Nessos, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Nikanor, painter, xxxv, 122. 
Nikeratos, statuary, xxxiv, 80, 88. 
Nikeros, painter, xxxv, 11 1. 
Nikias, painter, xxxv, 133. 
Nikias, painter, xxxv, 27, 130-134. 
Nikomachos, painter, xxxv, 50, 108- 

109. 145. 146. 
Nikophanes, painter, xxxv, 11 1, 137. 
Nikosthenes, painter, xxxv, 146. 

Oinias, painter, xxxv, 143. 
Olympias, painter, xxxv, 148. 

Pacuvius, painter, xxxv, 19. 
Pamphilos, painter, xxxv, 75-77, 123. 
Panainos, painter, xxxv, 54, 57, 58, 

177; xxxvi, 177 (App. 8). 
Papylos, sculptor, xxxvi, 34. 
Parrhasios, painter, xxxv, 60, 64, 65, 

67-72, 129. 
Pasias, painter, xxxv, 145. 
Pasiteles, chaser, modeller, sculptor, 
and statuary, xxxiii, 156 ; xxxv, 
156 ; xxxvi, 35, 39, 40. 
Patrokles, statuary, xxxiv, 50, 91. 
Pausias, painter, xxi, 4 (App. 5) ; 

xxxv, 123-127, 128, 137. 
Pedius (Quintus), painter, xxxv, 21. 
Peiraikos, painter, xxxv, 112. 
Perellos, statuary, xxxiv, 49. 
Periklymenos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Perillos, statuary, xxxiv, 89. 
Perseus, painter, xxxv, iii. 
Phalerion, painter, xxxv, 143. 
Phanis, statuary, xxxiv, 80. 
Pheidias, painter, sculptor and statuary, 
xxxiv, 49, 63, 54, 56, 72, 87 ; xxxv, 
54. 66. 67; 'fxxvi, 15-19; App. 
I, 8, II. 
Philiskos, sculptor, xxxvi, 34, 35. 
Philiskos, painter, xxxv, 143. 
Philochares, painter, xxxv, 28. 
Philokles, painter, xxxv, 16. 
Philon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Philoxenos, painter, xxxv, no. 
Phradmon, statuary, xxxiv, 49, 53. 
Phrynon, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Piston, statuary, xxxiv, 89. 
Plautius, Marcus Lykon, painter, 

xxxv, 115. 
Polemon, painter, xxxv, 146. 
PoUis, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Polycharmos, sculptor, xxxvi, 35. 



2^6 



INDEX I 



Polydeukes, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Polydoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 37. 
Polygnotos, statuary and painter, vii, 

205 (App. 3) ; xxxiv, 85 ; xxxv, 58, 

59, 122, 123. 
Polyeidos, statuary, xxxiv, gi. 
Polykleitos, statuary, xxxiv, 64. 
Polykleitos, statuary, xxxiv, 10, 49, 

6°. 63, 55, 56, 58, 68, 73. 
Polykles, statuary, xxxiv, 50. 
Polykles, sculptor and statuary, xxxiv, 

53, 80 (?) ; xxxvi, 35. _ 
Polykrates, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Poseidonios, cliaser and statuary, 

xxxiii, 156; xxxiv, 91. 
Possis, modeller, xxxv, 155. 
Praxiteles, painter, sculptor, and sta- 
tuary, vii, 127 (App. I); xxxiv, 50, 

69-71 ; xxxv, 122, 133; xxxvi, 20- 

23, 24, 28, 34; Athenag. Tlpea^. 17 

(App. 11). 
Prodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Protogenes, statuary and painter, vii, 

126 (App. i); xxxiv, 91; xxxv, 80, 

81-83,88, 101-106, 118. 
Pyrgoteles, graver, vii, 125 (App. i) ; 

xxxvii, 8 (App. 10). 
Pyromachos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 80, 

84 ; xxxv, 146. 
Pyrrhos, statuary, xxxiv, 80. 
Pythagoras, statuary and painter,xxxiv, 

49, 59, 6°, 68. 
Pytheas, chaser, xxxiii, 156. 
Pythias, statuary, xxxiv, 52. 
Pythis, sculptor, xxxvi, 31. 
Pythodikos, statuary, xxxiv, 85. 
Pythodoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Pythodoros, sculptor, xxxvi, 38. 
Pythokles, statuary, xxxiv, 52. 
Pythokritos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 

Rhoikos, modeller and architect, xxxv, 
152 ; xxxvi, 90 (App. 6). 

Sauras, sculptor, xxxvi, 42. 

Saurias, painter, Athenag. IlpeaP. 17 

(App. II). 
Seilanion, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 81, 82. 
Serapion, painter, xxxv, 113. 
Simon, statuary, xxxiv, 90. 
Simonides, painter, xxxv, 143. 
Simos, painter, xxxv, 143. 
Skopas, statuary and sculptor, xxxiv, 

49,90; xxxvi, 22, 35, 26, 38, 30, 

31, 95 (App- 7). 
Skyllis, sculptor, xxxvi, 9, 10. 
Skynanos, chaser andstatuary,xxxiv,85. 
Smilis, architect, xxxvi, 90 (App. 6) ; 

Athenag. Ilpeafi. 17 (App. 11). 
Sokrates, painter, xxxv, 137; xxxvi, 32. 
Sokrates, sculptor, xxxvi, 32. 
Sophokles, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 



Sopolis, painter, xxxv, 148. 

Sosos, mosaic- worker, xxxvi, 184 

(App. 9). 
Sostratos, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 60. 
Stadios, painter, xxxv, 146. 
Stephanos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. 
Sthenuis, statuary, xxxiv, 51, 90. 
Stratonikos, chaser and statuary, xxxiii, 

156; xxxiv, 84, 85, 90. 
Strongylion, statuary, xxxiv, 82. 
Studius, painter, xxxv, 116. 
Styppax, statuary, xxxiv, 81. 
Symenos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 

Tauriskos, chaser and painter, xxxiii, 

156; xxxv, 144; xxxvi, 33, 34. 
Tauriskos, sculptor, xxxvi, 33. 
Teisias, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Teisikrates, statuary, xxxiv, 67, 83, 

89; xxxv, 146. 
Tektaios, sculptor, Athenag. Ilpecrp. 

17 (App. II). 
Telekles, sculptor, Athenag. UpiaP. 

17 (App. II). 
Telephanes, statuary, xxxiv, 68. 
Telephanes, painter, xxxv, 16. 
Teuker, chaser, xxxiii, 157. 
Theodoros, statuary and architect, 

xxxiv, 83 ; xxxv, 146, 152 ; App. 2, 

6, II. 
Theomnestos, painter, xxxv, 107. 
Theomnestos, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Theon, painter, xxxv, 144. 
Theoros, painter, xxxv, 144. 
Therimachos, statuary and painter, 

xxxiv, 50 ; xxxv, 78. 
Thrakides, chaser, xxxiii, 156. 
Thrason, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Timagoras, painter, xxxv, 58. 
Timanthes, painter, xxxv, 64, 72-74. 
Timarchides, statuary and sculptor, 

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 35. 
Timarchos, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 
Timarete, painter, xxxv, 59, 147. 
Timokles, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 
Timomaciios,painter,vii, 1 36 (App. i ) ; 

xxxv, 136, 145. 
Timon, statuary, xxxiv, 91. 
Timotheos, sculptor and statuary, 

xxxiv, 91 ; xxxvi, 30-32. 
Titedius Labeo, painter, xxxv, 20. 
Turpilius, painter, xxxv, 20. 

Vulca, modeller, xxxv, 157. 

Xenokrates, statuary, xxxiv, 83. 
Xenon, painter, xxxv, 146. 

Zenodoros, statuary, xxxiv, 45-47. 
Zeuxiades, statuary, xxxiv, 51. 
Zeuxis, painter, xxxv, 61-66, iii. 
Zopyros, chaser, xxxiii, 156. 



INDEX II 



MUSEOGRAPHIC 



Agragentum, painting of Alkmena 
by Zeuxis at, xxxv, 62. 
Temple of Hera, painting by Zeuxis 
in, xxxv, 64. 
Alexandria, Ptolemy's fool sketched 
by Apelles, xxxv, 89. 
Gorgosthenes painted by Apelles, 
xxxv, 93. 
Ambrakia, terracottas by Zeuxis left, 
statues of the Muses removed to 
Rome, xxxv, 66. 
works of Dipoinos in, xxxvi, 14. 
Antium, portraits of gladiators, xxxv, 

52- 
Ardea, contains pictures older than 
Rome, xxxv, 1 7. 
Temple of Hera, paintings by 
Plautius Marcus Lykon, xxxv, 115. 
Argos, works of Dipoinos in, xxxvi, 
14. 
Hera, statue of, by Smilis, and other 
statues by Pheidias, Athenag. 
Tlpea$. 17 (App. II). 
Athens, Harmodios and Aristogeiton, 
statues of, xxxiv, 1 7 ; statues of, 
by Praxiteles, xxxiv, 70. 
Demetrios of Phaleron, 360 statues 

to, xxxiv, 27. 
not less than 73,000 statues remain- 
ing at, xxxiv, 36. 
many statues by Alkamenes in 

temples, xxxvi, 16. 
Athena, surnamed 'the Fair,' bronze 
statue of, by Pheidias, xxxiv, 54 ; 
statue of, and seated statue of, 
by Endoios, Athenag. Tlpia^. 17 
(App. II). 
Satyr, statue of, by Lysippos, xxxiv, 

64. 
Leaina, statue of, xxxiv, 72. 
shield painted by Pheidias, xxxv, 54. 
replica of aTe<pav7jn\6xos of Pausias 

bought by LucuUus, xxxv, 125. 
warrior painted by Antidotos, xxxv, 
130. 



Athens {continued). 

yeavoftai/Teia painted by Nikias, 
xxxv, 132. 

<rvyyeviic6v painted by Athenion, 
xxxv, 134. 

Gardens {hv «^iro:s), statue of Aphro- 
dite by Alkamenes, xxxvi, 16. 

Kerameikos, clay models by Chal- 
kosthenes, xxxv, 155 ; statues by 
Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20. 

Metroon, statue of ' Mother of the 
Gods,' by Agorakritos, xxxvi, 17. 

Parthenon, statue of Athena by 
Pheidias, xxxiv, 54 ; description 
of details, xxxvi, 18, 19. 

Pompeion, picture of comic actors 
by Kratinos, xxxv, 140. 

Propylon, Paralos and Hammonias, 
pictures of, by Protogenes, xxxv, 
loi ; Charites, statues of, by 
Sokrates, xxxvi, 32. 

Stoa Eleutherios, cavalry engage- 
ment. Twelve gods, Theseus, 
pictures by Euphranor, xxxv, 129. 

Stoa Poikile, paintings by Polygno- 
tos and Mikon, xxxv, 59. 

Caere, ancient paintings at, xxxv, 18. 
Chios, celebrated for works by Bou- 

palos and Athenis, xxxvi, 12; 

mask of Artemis by the same, 

xxxvi, 13. 
Corinth, earliest portrait in clay 

preserved at, Athenag. TlpeaP. 1 7 

(App. II). 
Temple of the Nymphs, first por- 
trait in clay by Boutades, xxxv, 

151. 
Cyprus, Zeno, statue of, left by Cato, 

xxxiv, 92. 

Delos, images in, by Bonpalos and 
Athenis, xxxvi, 12. 
works of Archermos in, xxxvi, 13. 
Apollo and Artemis, statues of, by 



248 



INDEX II 



Delos {coniimied). 

Tektaios and Angelion, Athenag. 

UptaB. 17 (App. 11). 
Delphoi, not less tjian 73,000 statues 

remaining at, xxxiv, 36. 
Alexander and hunting-gronp by 

Lysippos, xxxiv, 64. 
Apollo Pythios, statue of, by Theo- 

doros and Telekles, Athenag. 

Tlpea^l. 17 (App. n). 
Herakles, statue of, by Euthykrates, 

xxxiv, 66. 
Pankratiast, statue of, by Pytha- 
goras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 59. 
Lesche, paintings by Polygnotos 

and Mikon, xxxv, 59. 
Temple of Apollo, painted by Aristo- 

kleides, xxxv, 138. 
Didyma, Apollo Philesios, statue of, 

by Kanachos, xxxiv, 75. 

Egypt, Janus, statue of, transported 

to Rome, xxxvi, 28. 
lilensis, captain of cavalry, painted 
by Athenion, xxxv, 134. 
maiden painted by Eirene, xxxv, 147. 
Elis, Athena, shield of, painted by 

Panainos, xxxv, 54. 
Ephesos, painting of Queen Strato- 
nike, by Ktesikles, xxxv, 140. 
Apollo, statue of, by Myron, re- 
stored by Augustus, xxxiv, 58. 
Artemis, picture of, by Timarete, 

xxxv, 147. 
Artemis, priest of, painted by 

Nikias, xxxv, 132. 
Odysseus, picture of, by Euphranor, 

xxxv, 129. 
Temple of Artemis, Alexander, pic- 
ture of, by Apelles, xxxv, 92. 
Amazon, statues of, by Polykleitos, 
Pheidias, Kresilas, Kydon, Phrad- 
mon, xxxiv, 53. 
Artemis, ebony image of, by En- 
doios, xvi, 213 (App. 4) ; Athenag. 
Up€tr0. 17 (App. II). 
Athena and Dionysos, statues of, 
xvi, 213 (App. 4). 
Herakles, statue of, by Menestratos, 
xxxvi, 32. 
Hekate, statue of, in shrine behind 

temple, xxxvi, 32. 
Thirty-six sculptured columns, one 

by Skopas, xxxvi, 95 (App. 7 ). 
cups by Mentor, vii, 127 (App. i) ; 
perished in fire, xxxiii, 1 54. 
Epidatiros, Asklepios, statue of, by 
Pheidias, Athenag. Ilpca/S. 17 
(App. II). 
Etruria, Tuscan statues made there, 
xxxiv, 34. 



Gaul, State of the Arverni, 

Mercury, statue of, by Zenodoros, 
xxxiv, 45 ; cups by Kalamis, 
copied by Zenodoros, xxxiv, 47. 

lasos, Artemis, mask of, by Bonpalos 
and Athenis, xxxvi, 13. 

Karia, Mausoleion, sculptures of, by 
Skopas, Bryaxis, Timotheos, Leo- 
chares, xxxvi, 30 ; chariot on, by 
Pythis, xxxvi, 31. 

Kleonai, works of Dipoinos in, 
xxxvi, 14. 

Knidos, Aphrodite, statue of, by 

Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20, 21, 22 ; vii, 

127 (App. i); Athenag. Tlpta^. 

17 (App. II). 

Athene, statue of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 

22. 
Dionysos, statues of, by Bryaxis and 
Skopas, xxxvi, 22. 

Kos, Aplirodite, draped statue of, by 
Praxiteles, xxxvi, 20; unfinished 
picture of, by Apelles, xxxv, 87, 
92. 

Kyzikos, Aias and Aphrodite, pic- 
tures of, bought by Agrippa, 
xxxv, 26. 

Lanivium, Atalanta and Helen, 

pictures of, xxxv, 17. 
Iiebadeia, Trophonios, statue of, 

by Euthykrates, xxxiv, 66. 
Iiesbos, works of Archermos in, 

xxxvi, 13. 
Iiindos, Herakles, picture of, by 

Parrhasios, xxxv, 71. 
Temple of Athena, works by Eoethos, 

xxxiii, 155. 
Iiysimacheia, Hermes, statue of, by 

Polykleitos formerly at, xxxiv, 56. 

Ifaples, old woman, picture of, by 
laia, xxxv, 147. 

Olympia, first portrait statues at, 
xxxiv, 16. 

not less than 73,000 statues remain- 
ing at, xxxiv, 36. 

Astylos, boy with tablet, nude 
figure bearing apples, statues of, 
by Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 

59- 
Zeus, statue of, by Pheidias, xxxiv, 
49 ; xxxvi, 18 ; vii, 127 (App. i). 

Paiion, colony of — 

Eros, statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 

22. 
Herakles, statue of, by Hegesias, 

xxxiv, 78. 



MUSEOGRAPHIC 



249 



Peiraeus, Temple of Zeus the Saviour, 

Athena, statue of, by Kephiso- 

doros, xxxiv, 74. 
altar by Kephisodoros, xxxiv, 

74- 
Pella, dying mother with child, 

picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv, 

98. 
Pergamon, Priest in prayer, and 

Aias, pictures of, by Apollodoros, 

xxxv, 60, 
marble av/jLirKey^ by Kephiso- 

dotos, xxxvi, 34. 
dodpwTos oTkos, mosaics in, xxxvi, 

184 (App. 9). 
Praeneste, miniature chariot, horses, 

and driver, by Theodoros, xxxiv, 

83. 



Khamnous, statue of Nemesis, by 

Agorakritos, xxxvi, 1 7. 
Rhodes, 73,000 statues remaining in, 

xxxivj 36. 
colossal statue of the Sun, by 

Chares of Lindos, xxxiv, 41. 
100 colossal statues in, xxxiv, 43. 
five colossal statues by Bryaxis, 

xxxiv, 42. 
chariot, horses, and statue of the 

Sun, by Lysippos, xxxiv, 63. 
Zethos, Amphion, Dirke and bull, 

marble group of, by ApoUonios 

and Tauriskos, removed to Rome, 

xxxvi, 34. 
Athamas, copper and iron statue of, 

by Aristonidas, xxxiv, 140. 
Herakles, iron statue of, by Alkon, 

xxxiv, 141. 
lalysos, picture of, by Protogenes, 

xxxv, 104; spared byDemetrios, 

vii, 136 (App. i). 
Satyr resting, picture of, by Proto- 
genes, xxxv, 106. 
Meleager, Herakles and Perseus, 

picture of, by Protogenes, xxxv, 

69. 
Menander and Antaios, portraits of, 

by Apelles- xxxv, 93. 
Temple of Dionysos, cups chased 

by Akragas and Mys, xxxiii, 155. 
Eome, C. Aelius, statue of, xxxiv, 

32. 
Alexander's bodyguard, statues of, 

by Lysippos, xxxiv, 64. 
Amazon, figure of, owned by Nero, 

xxxiv, 48. 
Apollo and Poseidon, statues of, by 

Praxiteles, xxxvi, 23. 
Ceres, bronze image of, the first 

ever made, xxxiv, 1 5. 



Borne {continued). 

Cloelia, equestrian statue of, xxxiv, 
28, 29. 

Corinthian bronze, statue of, owned 
by C. Sestius, xxxiv, 48. 

C. Duillius, column of, xxxiv, 20. 

equestrian statues, xxxiv, 19, 28. 

Fabricius, statue of, xxxiv, 32. 

fruit modelled by Possis, xxxv, 
155- 

Hannibal, three statues of, xxxiv, 32. 

Hercules, statues of, by Polykleitos, 
xxxiv, 56 ; in clay by Vulca, 
xxxv, 157. 

M. Horatius Codes, statue of, 
xxxiv, 32, 39. 

Janus, statue of, dedicated by 
Numa, xxxiv, 33. 

Lupercales, statues of, xxxiv, 18. 

C. Maenius, column of, xxxiv, 20. 

Mancinus, statue of, xxxiv, 18. 

Marius Gratidianus, numerous 
statues of, xxxiv, 2 7. 

multitude of works of art in, xxxvi, 
37. 

Nero, colossal statue of, by Zeno- 
doros, afterwards dedicated to the 
Sun, xxxiv, 45. 

pictures from Sikyon, xxxv, 137. 

scenery at games of Claudius Pul- 
cher, xxxv, 23. 

sphynx in bronze owned by Hor- 
tensius, xxxiv, 48. 

statues, 3,000 on temporary stage, 
xxxiv, 36. 

Taracia Gaia or Fufetia, statue of, 
xxxiv, 35. 

Asmius Pollio, gallery of, statues 
in, Aphrodite by Kephisodotos, 
xxxvi, 24, Dionysos by Euty- 
chides, xxxvi, 34, Mainades, 
Thyiades, Karyatides, Seilenoi, by 
Praxiteles, xxxvi, 33, Kentaurs 
and Nymphs by Arkesilas, Thes- 
piades by Kleomenes, Okeanos 
and Zeus by Heniochos, Appiades 
by Stephanos, Hermerotes by 
Tauriskos, Zeus Xenios by 
Papylos, Zethos, Amphion, 
Diike and bull by ApoUonios 
and Tauriskos, xxxvi, 33, 34 ; 
basket-bearer by Skopas and 
goal-posts, xxxvi, 34. 
Augustus, temples built by, works by 
Boupalos and Athenis, xxxvi, 13. 
Baths of Agrippa, small paintings 
in walls of, xxxv, 26 ; Apoxy- 
omenos, bronze statue by Ly- 
sippos, xxxiv, 62. 
Capitol, Apollo, colossal statue of, 
from ApoUonia, xxxiv, 39. 



25° 



INDEX II 



Borne {continued). 

Athena, bronze statue of, by En- 

phranor, below the, xxxiv, 77. 
battlepiece exhibited by L. Scipio, 

XXXV, 22. 
Spiirins Carvilius, statue of, at feet 

of colossal Jupiter, xxxiv, 43. 
colossal heads by Chares and 

. . . dikos, xxxiv, 44. 
Good Luck and Good Fortune, 

statues of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 

23- 
Herakles, colossal statue of, from 

Tarentum, xxxiv, 40. 
Jupiter, colossal statue of, xxxiv, 43. 
Kings, statues of, xxxiv, 22, 29. 
Temples on, of Faith, oi Juno, of 
Jupiter Capitolinus, of Jupiter 

the Thunderer, of Minerva, see 

Temples. 
Cattle Market, bronze bull from 

Aigina, xxxiv, 10. 
Hercules, bronze statue of, dedi- 
cated by Evander, xxxiv, 33. 
Temple of Hercules, see Temples. 
Comitium, Hermodoros of Ephesos, 

statue of, xxxiv, 21. 
Pythagoras and Alkibiades, statues 

of, xxxiv, 26. 
Curia Hostilia, in front of, Attus 

Navius, statue of, xxxiv, 21, 22, 

29. 
at side of, battle-piece exhibited by 

Messala, xxxv, 22. 
Curia Julia, pictures in, Nemea by 

Nikias, xxxv, 27, 131 ; Glaukion 

and Aristippos, portraits of, by 

Philochares, xxxv, 28. 
Field of Mars, Jupiter, colossal 

statue of, xxxiv, 40. 
Forum, many pictures in ; Gaul and 

old shepherd, pictures of, xxxv, 

25- 
picture of assault of Carthage ex- 
hibited, xxxv, 23. 
P. Junius, Ti. Coruncanius, statues 

of, xxxiv, 24. 
magistrates, statues of, removed by 

censors, xxxiv, 30. 
Old Shops, picture on, by Serapion, 

xxxv, 113. 
Regia, in front of, two statues from 

tent of Alexander, xxxiv, 48. 
Rostra, Cn. Octavius, statue of, 

upon the, xxxiv, 24. 
envrfys killed on embassy, statues of, 

upon the, xxxiv, 23, 24. 
Camillus, statue of, upon the, xxxiv, 

23- 
Herakles in tunic, statue of, beside 
the, xxxiv, 93. 



Borne {continued). 

Sibyl, three statues of, beside the, 
xxxiv, 22, 29. 

Forum of Augustus, pictures there 
by Apelles, of War and Triumph, 
and of Kastor, Polydeukes, and 
Victory, xxxv, 27, 93. 

Forum of Caesar, Dictator Caesar, 
statue of, xxxiv, iR. 

Gallery of Metellus, statue of Cor- 
nelia formerly there, xxxiv, 31. 

Gallery of the Nations, in front of, 
Hercules, statue of, xxxvi, 39. 

Galleries of Octavia, Cornelia, statue 

of, xxxiv, 31. 
Apotheosis of Herakles, picture of, 

by Artemon, xxxv, 139. 
Story of Laomedon, Herakles, and 
Poseidon, picture of, by Artemon, 
xxxv, 139. 
Aphrodite, statue of, by Pheidias, 

xxxvi, 15. 
Scholae and Council Chamber in, 
Hesione and group of Alex- 
ander, Philip, and Athene, painted 
by Antiphilos, xxxv, 114; Eros, 
statue of, by Praxiteles, xxxvi, 
22 ; Satyrs and wind-goddesses, 
marble groups of, xxxvi, 29 ; 
many statues by unknown sculp- 
tors, xxxvi, 29. Alkibiades as 
Eros, statue by Skopas or Praxi- 
teles, xxxvi, 28. 

Gallery of Octavius, bronze capitals 
of columns, xxxiv, 1 3. 

Gallery of Temple of Peace, Aphro- 
dite, statue of, by unknown artist, 
xxxvi, 27. 

Gallery of Philip, pictures in, 
Dionysos, the young Alexander, 
and Hippolytos by Antiphilos, 
xxxv,ii4; Helen by Zeuxis, xxxv, 
66 ; cycle representing Trojan 
war, by Theoros. xxxv, 144. 

Gallery of Pompeius, pictures in, 
Kadmos and Europa by Anti- 
philos, xxxv, 114; Alexander by 
Nikias, xxxv, 132; sacrifice of 
oxen by Pausias, xxxv, 126; 
warrior by Polygnotos, xxxv, 59. 

Gardens of Mains, Nero, colossal 
portrait of, xxxv, 51. 

Gardens of Servilius, statues in, 
Flora, Triptolemos, Demeter, by 
Praxiteles, xxxvi, 23 ; Hestia, 
seated statue by Skopas, placed 
between two goal-posts, xxxvi, 
25 ; Apollo by Kalamis, boxers 
by Derkyllidas, portrait of Kalli- 
sthenes by Amphistratos, xxxvi, 
36- 



MUSEOGRAPHIC 



251 



Eome {continued). 

Trigemina Gate, outside the, column 
of L. Minucius, xxxiv, 21. 

Golden House of Nero, bronzes col- 
lected by Nero, xxxiv, 84 ; paint- 
ings by Famulus in, xxxv, 120. 

Palatine, House of the Caesars, 
panel with lines by Apelles and 
Protogenes, xxxv, 83 ; filled with 
statues by Krateros and Pytho- 
doros, Polydeukes and Hermo- 
laos, Pythodoros and Artemon, 
and Aphrodisios of Tralles, xxxvi, 
38. 

Palatine, Chapel above Arch, chariot 
and horses. Apollo, Artemis, 
marble group by Lysias, xxxvi, 
36. 

PaBMeawz, bronze capitalsof columns, 
xxxiv, 13 ; decorated with sculp- 
tures by Diogenes, xxxvi, 38- 

Saepta, Olympos and Pan, Cheiron 
and Achilles, groups by unknown 
sculptors, xxxvi, 29. 
Tarquin, House of, Valeria, statue 
of, xxxiv, 29. 

Temples : 

Apollo in Circus of Flaminius, tragic 
actor and boy, picture of, by 
Aristeides, xxxv, 99 ; children of 
Niobe, statues of, by Skopas or 
Praxiteles, xxxvi, 28 ; Apollo by 
Philiskos ; Leto, Artemis, nine 
Muses and Apollo ; Apollo by 
Timarchides with cithara, statues 
of, xxxvi, 34. 
Apollo of the Palatine, Apollo, 
statue of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 25; 
Artemis, statue of, by Timotheos, 
xxxvi, 32 ; Leto, statue of, by 
Kephisodotos, xxxvi, 24 ; bronze 
lamp, xxxiv, 14 ; statues by Bou- 
palos and Athenis, in fastigio, 
xxxvi, 13. 
Augustus, pictures dedicated there 
by Tiberius, xxxv, 28 ; pictures 
of Hyakinthos, by Nikias, from 
Alexandria, and of Danae, xxxv, 
131 ; Library of, Tuscan Apollo, 
colossal statue of, xxxiv, 43. 
Castor and Pollux, in front of, 
Q. Marcius Tremulus, statue of, 
xxxiv, 23. 
Ceres, decorated with painted terra- 
cottas by Damophilos and Gor- 
gasos, xxxv, 154; Dionysos and 
Ariadne, picture of, by Aristeides, 
xxxv, 24, 99. 
Concord, statues of Asklepios and 
Hygieia, by Nikeratos, xxxiv, 80 ; 
Apollo and Hera, by Baton, 



Eome {continued). 

xxxiv, 73 ; Ares and Hermes, by 
Piston, xxxiv, 89 ; Demeter, Zeus, 
Athena, by Sthennis, xxxiv, 90 ; 
Leto witli infant Apollo and 
Artemis, by Euphranor, xxxiv, 
77- Pictures of Dionysos, by 
Nikias, xxxv, 131 ; Kassandra, 
by Theoros, xxxv, 144; Marsyas 
bound, by Zeuxis, xxxv, 66. 

Diana, in Circus of Flaminius, 
Herakles painted by Apelles, 
xxxv, 94. 

Earth, in vicinity of, Spurius Cas- 
sius, statue of, xxxiv, 30. 

Faith, on Capitol, old man and boy, 
picture of, by Aristeides, xxxv, 
100. 

Felicitas, Thespiades, statues of, 
xxxvi, 39 ; Aphrodite, statue of, 
by Praxiteles, xxxiv, 69 ; in front 
of, bronze statues by Praxiteles, 
xxxiv, 69. 

Fortune of the Day, statues in, 
Athena, two draped figures, nude 
Colossus, all by Pheidias, xxxiv, 
54 ; seven nude and one of old 
man, by Pythagoras of Samos, 
xxxiv, 60. 

Hercules, in Cattle Market, paint- 
ings by Pacuvius, xxxv, 19. 

Hercules Musarum, muses, statues 
of, xxxv, 66. 

Hercules Ponipei, Hercules, statue 
of, by Myron, xxxiv, 57. 

Honour and Virtue {twin temples), 
paintings by Cornelius Pinus and 
Attius Priscus, xxxv, 120. 

Janus, statue of Janus by Skopas or 
Praxiteles, brought from Egypt, 
xxxvi, 28. 

Janus, Janus, statue of, dedicated 
by Numa, xxxiv, 33. 

Julius Caesar, Aphrodite Anadyo- 
mene, picture by Apelles, xxxv, 
27, 91 ; Aphrodite, picture of, by 
Dorotheos, xxxv, 91. 

Juno on Capitol, bronze dog, xxxiv, 

38- 

Juno within gallery of Octavia, 
Asklepios and Artemis, statues of, 
by Kephisodotos, xxxvi, 24 ; 
statues of Juno by Dionysios and 
Polykles, and Aphrodite by 
Phili.skos ; statues by Pasiteles, 
xxxvi, 35 ; decorations appro- 
priate to Jupiter, xxxvi, 43. 

Jupiter of the Capitol, statue of 
Jupiter in clay by Vulca, xxxv, 
157; four horse chariots in clay 
on roof of, xxxv, 157; cups by 



253 



INDEX II 



Eome {continued). 

Mentor, vii, 127 (App. i) ; per- 
ished there in fire, xxxiii, 154. 
Pictures of Theseus, by Parrhasios, 
XXXV, 69, and of Victory and 
horses, by Nikomachos, xxxv, 
108. 

Jupiter the Thunderer on Capitol, 
statue of Jupiter by Leochares, 
in Dalian bronze, xxxiv, 10, 79 ; 
in front, statues of Kastor and 
Polydeukes by Hegias, xxxiv, 
78. 

Jupiter, within gallery of Octavia, 
Jupiter, statue of, by Dionysios 
and Polykles, Pan and Olympos 
by Heliodoros, Aphrodite by 
Daidalos, Aphrodite by Poly- 
charmos, xxxvi, 35 ; Jupiter, 
statue of, by Pasiteles, xxxvi, 40 ; 
decorations appropriate to Juno, 
xxxvi, 43. 

Mars the Avenger, in front of, two 
statues from tent of Alexander, 
xxxiv, 48. 

Mars, built by Brutus Callaecus, 
Ares and Aphrodite, statues of, 
by Skopas, xxxvi, 26. 

Minerva on Capitol, Rape of Perse- 
phone, picture of, by Nikomachos, 
xxxv, 108. 

Mttses, L. Accius, statue of, xxxiv, 
19. 

Neptune, tn Circus of Flaminius, 
Poseidon, Thetis, Achilles, Ne- 
reids and sea-beasts, marble 
group by Skopas, xxxvi, 26. 

Peace, works in bronze dedicated by 
Vespasian, xxxiv, 84 ; hero, pic- 
ture of, by Timanthes, xxxv, 74 ; 
lalysos, picture of, by Protogenes, 
xxxv, 102 ; Scylla, picture of, by 
Nikomachos, xxxv, 109. 

Safety, in Quirinali, paintings by 
Fabius Pictor, xxxv, 19. 

Venus the Mother, statue of Venus 
by Arkesilaos, xxxv, 156. Aias 
and Medeia, pictures of, by Timo- 
machos, xxxv, 26, 136 ; vii, 126 
(App. 1). 

Theatre of Pompeius, Fourteen na- 
tions, statues of, by Coponius, 
xxxvi, 41. 



Kome {continued'). 
Tiberius, apartments of, priest of 

Kybele, portrait of, by Parrhasios, 

xxxv, JO. 
Titus, house of Laokoon, group by 

three artists, xxxvi, 37 ; two boys 

playing at knuckle-bones by 

Polykleitos, xxxiv, 55. 

Samothrake, Aphrodite and Pothos, 
statues of, by Skopas, xxxvi, 25. 

Samos, Aias, picture of, by Parrhasios, 
xxxv, 72 ; Habron, picture of, by 
Apelles, xxxv, 93 ; Hera, statue 
of, by Smilis, and other statues by 
Pheidias, Athenag. Upea^. 17 
(App. II). 

Sikyon, Apollo, Artemis, Herakles, 
Athena, statues of, by Dipoinos 
and Sky His, xxxvi, 10; Telestes, 
monument of, painted by Niko- 
machos, xxxv, 109 ; pictures re- 
moved to Rome, xxxv, 127. 

Smyrna, old woman, statue of, by 
Myron, xxxvi, 33. 

Syracuse, lame man, statue of, by 
Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 59. 

Tarentum, Herakles, colossal statue 
of, taken to Rome ; Zeus, colossal 
statue of, by Lysippos, xxxiv, 40. 

Thebes, cithara-player, statue of, by 
Pythagoras of Rhegion, xxxiv, 
69 ; old man, statue of, by Teisi- 
krates, xxxiv, 67. 

Thespiai, Eros, statue of, by Praxi- 
teles, removed to gallery of 
Octavia, xxxvi, 22 ; Alexander 
hunting, Thespiades, equestrian 
combat, bronze groups of, all by 
Euthykrates, xxxiv, 66 ; wall 
paintings at, by Polygnotos and 
Pausias, xxxv, 123. 

Thessaly, works of Telephanes there, 
xxxiv, 68. 

Tusouliun, Argonauts, picture of, by 
Kydias, xxxv, 130 ; Grove of 
Diana, first picture of gladiatorial 
show, xxxv, 52. 

Verona, pictures by Turpilius, xxxv, 

20. 
Volsinii, 2,000 statues at, xxxiv, 34. 



THE END